Table 1:Energy Used to Make Ethanol From Corn and Cellulose (Btus per Gallon of Ethanol)

Corn Ethanol (Industry Average)

Corn Ethanol (Industry Best)

Corn Ethanol (State-of-the-Art)

Cellulosic Crop-Based Ethanol

Fertilizer

12,981

7,542

3,869

3,549

Pesticide

1,060

643

406

437

Fuel

2,651

1,565

1,321

8,120

Irrigation

7,046

6,624

6,046

--

Other (Feedstock)

3,395

3,248

3,122

2,558

Total (feedstock)

27,134

19,622

14,765

14,663

Process Steam

36,732

28,201

26,185

49,075

Electricity

14,444

7,300

5,148

8,925

Bulk Transport

1,330

1,100

800

1,330

Other (process)

1,450

1,282

1,050

2,100

Total (processing)

53,956

37,883

33,183

61,430

TOTAL ENERGY INPUT

81,090

57,504

47,948

76,093

Energy in Ethanol

84,100

84,100

84,100

84,100

Co-product Credits

27,579

36,261

36,261

115,400

TOTAL ENERGY OUTPUT

111,679

120,361

120,361

199,500

Net Energy Gain

30,589

62,857

72,413

123,407

Percent Gain

38%

109%

151%

162%

 

 

Table 2: Agricultural Energy Use for Corn Production in the United States

 

Average(National)

 

 

Best Existing(State)

 

 

State of te Art (Farmer)

 

 

lbs/acre (corn)

BTU/acre (corn)

BTU/gal (ethanol)

lbs/acre (corn)

BTU/acre (corn)

BTU/gal (ethanol)

lbs/acre (corn)

BTU/acre (corn)

BTU/gal (ethanol)

Nitrogen

123

3,395,415

11,096

73

2,015,165

6,459

38

1,048,990

3,299

Phosphorus

47

289,990

948

37

228,290

732

15

92,550

291

Potash

55

286,825

937

21

109,515

351

17

88,655

279

Pesticide

3

324,512

1,060

1.92

200,668

643

1.2

129,246

406

Fuel

5.85 (gal.)

811,337

2,651

3.52 (gal.)

488,189

1,565

3.03 (gal.)

420,231

1,321

Irrigation

-

2,156,200

7,046

-

2,026,828

6,624

-

1,850,020

6,046

Other

-

1,038,790

3,395

-

1,013,527

3,248

-

992,947

3,122

Total Energy

-

8,303,069

27,134

-

6,082,182

19,622

-

4,622,638

14,764

 

 

Table 3: Ethanol Processing Energy Use for Wet and Dry Mills

 

Average(National)

 

Best Existing(State)

 

State of te Art (Farmer)

 

Wet Mill (BTU/gal)

Dry Mill (BTU/gal)

Wet Mill (BTU/gal)

Dry Mill (BTU/gal)

Wet Mill (BTU/gal)

Dry Mill (BTU/gal)

Process Steam

35,400

39,000

29,200

26,500

26,000

26,500

Electricity

17,103 (2.07 kWh)

9,915 (1.2 kWh)

8,676 (1.05 kWh)

4,957 (0.6 kWh)

5,872 (0.9 kWh)

3,915 (0.6 kWh)

Bulk Transport

1,330

1,330

1,100

1,100

800

800

Other (process)

1,450

1,450

1,282

1,282

1,050

1,050

Processing Total

55,283

51,695

40,258

33,839

33,722

32,265

 

 

Table 4: Market Value Method for Allocating Energy for Corn Wet Milling (1 bushel=52 pounds)

Products

Amount Produced (pounds)

Market Value (dollars per pound)

Total Value(dollars)

Energy Allocation (BTUs per gallon ethanol)

Corn Oil

1.6

$0.35

$0.58

9,010

21% Gluten Feed

13.5

$0.05

$0.68

10,563

60% Gluten Meal

2.6

$0.12

$0.31

4,816

Carbon dioxide

17

$0.04

$0.68

10,563

Total Co-Products

34.7

-

$2.25

34,953

Ethanol

16.5

$0.18

$2.97

46,137

Total Products

51.2

-

$5.22

81,090

 

 

Table 5: Co-Product Energy Credit Methodologies for Corn Wet Milling

Method

Corn Oil

60% Gluten Meal

21% Protein Feed

Carbon Dioxide

Total Co-Products

Actual Energy Value

9,960

3,404

16,388

-

29,752

Market Energy Value

9,347

4,996

10,959

10,959

36,261

Replacement Value

13,105

2,827

7,187

4,460

27,579