Review of Energy and GHG Coefficients


Energy and greenhouse gas coefficients documented in the literature are compiled in the following tables.


Seed: Energy Amounts in Seed Inputs and Grain Outputs

Field Machinery: Energy and GHG Emissions

Fertilizer: Energy and GHG Emissions

Fuel: Energy and GHG Emissions

Herbicides: Energy and GHG Emissions



Farm Buildings:


Nitrous Oxide Emissions:


Generally, the coefficients reflect the technology that was in use in the 1970ís and early 80ís. The changes in manufacturing processes and transportation that have taken place after the oil shock of the 1980ís will not be reflected in many of the coefficients. Also, the goods produced and the distribution network have changed, for example the switch from bagged to bulk fertilizer and a greater use of anhydrous ammonia will in of itself change the energy use and GHG emissions.


There is a lack of information on GHG and energy coefficients for herbicides, pesticides and fungicides. This may be a problem if a cropping system uses a greater percentage of chemicals whose coefficients are not documented.


Energy sequestered in machinery and repair is another area in need of further investigation. The newer technology's repair and maintenance history is limited by lack of data on use in field conditions.