Energy Consumption

 

of the

 

The Canadian Agriculture and Food Sector

 

 

 

Final Report

 

 

 

 

For

 

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada

Contract no. OGD-ISM CODE 9058-968-0000-9600

Dr. B. Grace and Dr. R. P. Zentner

Scientific Authorities

 

 

 

Submitted

 

By

 

 

The Canadian Agricultural Energy End-Use Data Analysis Center (CAEEDAC)

 

College of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan,

 

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A8

 

 

 

 

August 19, 1998

 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents *

 

List of Tables *

 

List of Figures *

 

1. Introduction *

2.2 Food and Beverage Processing Energy Use *

2.3 Residential Energy Use *

2.4 Commercial Energy Use *

2.5 Fossil Fuels Energy and Hydro Energy *

 

3. Economic Indicators *

 

3.1 Selected Economic Indicators *

Percent *

 

5. Agricultural Energy Consumption *

5.1 Expenditures on Farm Energy *

5.2 Direct Energy Used in Farm Production *

Type *

5.4 Indirect Energy *

Canada *

5.4.2 Energy used in pesticide production *

5.4.3 Energy sequestered in farm machinery and buildings *

 

6. Food and Beverage Processing Energy Use *

6.1. Expenditures on Energy in Food and Beverage Processing *

 

7.1 Quantities of energy consumed in food and beverage processing *

 

9. Commercial Energy Use *

 

10. Summary *

 

12. Appendix 1 *

 

 

List of Tables

Table 1: Canadian GDP (in billions of 1992 dollars) *

Table 2: Canadian Consumer Price Index for Selected Items (1992 = 100). *

Table 3: Population by Region *

Table 4: Percentage distribution of primary and secondary energy demand, by energy type, 1995 *

Table 5: Percentage of indigenous electricity generated, by method of production *

Table 6: Per capita daily energy demand in Canada, (MJ) *

Table 7: Total expenditures on farm operations, in Canada (Constant 1992 dollars) *

Table 8: Expenditures on direct and indirect energy as a percent of total farm expenditures, 1995 *

Table 9: Number of farms and average size of farms, Canada and the Provinces.* *

Table 10: Direct agricultural energy used in Regions of Canada *

Table 11: Direct energy consumed on the farm, by energy type and region, 1995* *

Table 12: Percentage direct energy used for farm business activities by Energy Source for Canada *

Table 13: Total direct farm energy used for farm business activities, Canada *

Table 14: Percentage distribution of direct farm energy demand by energy type for Canada *

Table 15: Quantities of fertilizer sold in Canada (thousands of tonnes) *

Table 16: Calculated quantities of energy used in the production and transportation of fertilizer sold in Canada *

Table 17: Average energy used in fertilizer production (GJ/thousands tonnes) *

Table 18: Reduced Average energy used in fertilizer production (GJ / thousand tonnes) *

Table 19: Estimates of energy used in fertilizer production in Canada *

Table 20: Estimated quantities of energy used in pesticide production, packaging, transportation and application, Canada *

Table 21: Energy used in manufacturing farm machinery *

Table 22: Energy sequestered in farm machinery in Canada *

Table 23: Energy sequestered in farm buildings in Canada *

Table 24: Number of food processing establishments, by province, 1995 *

Table 25: Estimated quantities of energy consumed by the food and beverage processing industry in Canada *

Table 26: Percentage distribution of energy use, by energy type for selected food processing industries in the United States, 1973 *

Table 27: Home preparation energy consumption in Canada *

Table 28: Estimated quantities of energy consumed in restaurants and hotels food preparation Canada *

Table 29: Total energy used at the farm level in Canada *

Table 30: Total expenses on direct and indirect farm energy in Canada *

Table 31: Quantity and dollar value of energy used in food and beverage processing in Canada *

Table 32: Quantity of energy used in home, restaurant, and hotel food preparation in Canada *

Table 33: Percentage of the total Canadian energy used by the Canadian food system, excluding the energy in farm machinery and buildings *

Table 34: Percentage of the total energy used by the Canadian food system, including farm machinery and buildings, 1990-1996 *

Table 35: Farming and food processing energy consumption, excluding energy in farm machinery and buildings, the corresponding GDP (in billions of dollars), and the energy to GDP ratio *

Table 36: Total exports and imports of agriculture and food products in Canada *

 

List of Figures

Figure 1: Percentage Distribution of Total Final Energy Demand, by Energy Type, Canada, 1995. *

Figure 2: Total Energy Use Demand, by Province, 1990-1996 *

Figure 3: Percentage Distribution of Total Energy Demand by Region, 1995 *

Figure 4: Total Farm Operating Expenses, Percentage Distribution by Province, 1995. *

Figure 5: Percentage Distribution of the Quantities of Fertilizer Sold by province in Canada, 1995. *

Figure 6: Percentage Distribution of Expenses on Energy, by Industry, Canada, 1995 *

Figure 7: Percentage Distribution of Expenses on Energy for the Processing Food Industry in Canada, 1995 *

Figure 8: Percentage Distribution of Spending on Energy, Beverage Industry, Canada, 1995 *

Figure 9: Percentage Distribution of Residential Energy Demand by Region in Canada, 1995 *

Figure 10: Percentage Distribution of Commercial Energy Demand, by Energy Type, Canada, 1995 *

Figure 11: Percentage Distribution of Commercial Energy Demand by Region in Canada, 1995 *

1. Introduction

The Canadian agriculture and food sector (CAFS) forms an important part of the Canadian economy. Since 1990, this sector has contributed approximately five percent to the total Canadian gross domestic product (Statistics Canada). The inter-dependence of the agriculture and food sector with other sectors of the economy makes these contributions a significant part of the economy. For example, industrialized agricultural production uses machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, and petroleum products as inputs that are all products from other sectors of the economy. Outputs from agricultural production include grain, dairy products and livestock. These outputs are inputs in the food-processing sector that are transported from producers to processors or from producers to grocery stores.

The equipment and inputs used in the production, transportation, retail, and home preparation of food require a form of energy input. Various example include: transportation equipment requires gasoline or diesel fuel, fertilizer production uses natural gas, food processing uses electricity, natural gas, and heavy oil, in home and restaurant food preparation uses natural gas and electricity as sources of energy.

In the 1980’s, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from human activity became a worldwide concern and are a possible cause of climatic changes. Policy makers are now trying to find methods to reduce GHG emissions. The three main greenhouse gases are: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (Bonneau et al., 1998). Carbon dioxide emissions accounted for about 81 % of total GHG emissions in Canada in 1995 (Natural Resources Canada, 1997).

Energy may be produced from non-renewable sources such as fossil fuels (e.g. oil, natural gas, coal and peat) and nuclear energy or from renewable energy sources such as sunlight, wind, hydroelectricity, photosynthesis, tidal and geothermal (Fluck et al., 1980).

The consumption of non-renewable energy, excluding nuclear energy, at the primary and secondary levels is responsible for the majority of CO2 emissions. In 1995, energy consumption at the secondary level (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation and agriculture) accounted for 63.1 % of the total CO2 emissions (Natural Resources Canada, 1997).

This report focuses on the amount of non-renewable energy consumed in the agriculture and food sector. The aim is to provide policy makers with data on the quantities and values of total energy consumed in farming, processing, transporting, and preparing farm products. This report collected provincial data from 1990 to 1996 with the exception of confidential data.

 

 

Comparisons of total expenditures on various farm inputs, during different years, were performed with constant 1992 base year dollars. Natural units used to measure the quantities of energy consumed were converted to Terajoules (1TJ = 1012 Joules) or Petajoules (1PJ = 1015 Joules) using Statistics Canada unit conversion factors. Appendix 1 provides a list of selected conversion factors.

 

 

2. Scope of the Report

 

The majority of studies on energy consumed by the agriculture and food sector have been conducted in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Stout (1984) reported that according to a study prepared for the US Federal Energy Administration, 16.5 % of the total US energy consumption was consumed by the agriculture and food processing sectors (Food System). This percentage varied between 12 and 20 % depending on the boundaries given to the Food System and the extent to which indirect energy usage (machinery, buildings, roads, etc.) was charged to the Food System. The scope of this report is on energy used in farm production, food and beverage processing, and residential and commercial food and beverage processing, and residential and commercial food preparation.

 

2.1 Farm Energy Consumption

Both direct and indirect energy (refined petroleum products, natural gas, coal, steam and electricity) are consumed during various farming operations.

For example, direct energy is consumed by:

Indirect energy consists of the energy used in the manufacture, packaging and transport of fertilizers, pesticides, and farm machinery. Some studies have also included the energy used in farm buildings (Stirling and Kun, 1995, Coxworth, 1997); machine repairs, manpower and animal power (Bowers, 1992). This report used estimates of energy consumed in farm machinery and buildings reported by Coxworth (1997). Energy consumed in fertilizer production was estimated using the results from Mudahar et al, (1982). Coxworth (1997) and Green (1987) also reported estimates of energy used in fertilizer and pesticide production based on methods and effects described by Bhat et al., (1994).

 

2.2 Food and Beverage Processing Energy Use

At the food and beverage processing level, energy is consumed in:

 

2.3 Residential Energy Use

The total energy used for home food preparation includes energy consumed by appliances (stoves, refrigerators, freezers, microwaves, ovens, heating and lights) and energy used for transportation of food items from the grocery store to the home.

 

2.4 Commercial Energy Use

At the commercial level (restaurant or hotel dining, grocery stores), energy use includes cooking, cooling, heating, lighting, freezing, refrigerating and transportation. For this report the total quantity of energy used commercially is the desired amount of energy estimated in the commercial sector.

Data on energy used in the transportation of farm and processed food products were not available. According to Statistics Canada, the amount of fuel and electricity used by the agriculture and commercial sectors are included in the total energy demanded by these sectors (Statistics Canada, 57-003 XPB).

 

2.5 Fossil Fuels Energy and Hydro Energy

Estimates of fossil fuels energy and hydro energy were separated when possible. In the processing industry, Statistics Canada does not separate the amount of energy consumed into these energy forms and reports only the dollar value of the costs of electricity and fuels. In this report, costs of electricity and fuels were used to estimate the quantity of energy used in the food and beverage industry, by assuming the cost of one unit of energy is equal for all manufacturing industries.

Electricity can be generated from hydro energy or from fossil fuels (e.g., coal, uranium (nuclear) and natural gas). Consequently, the energy reported by some processing industries as electricity may have come from fossil fuels. In this report, portions of electricity produced using hydro, nuclear or thermal energy have been estimated by province from NRCan.

 

3. Economic Indicators

Fluctuations of energy use in the agriculture and food sector may be better understood by studying various economic indicators. Several economic indicators were collected from 1990 to 1996 from Statistics Canada’s CANSIM database. These include gross domestic product (GDP), consumer price indices (CPI), population, total energy demand by province and by sector (agriculture, manufacturing, residential and commercial), and some Census of Agriculture data. In the next section, data on economic indicators and energy consumption at the farm, food processing, residential, and commercial levels are presented. These data sources are compared between energy used in farming and in food processing. A geographic distribution of food processing energy expenditures was reported, and the agriculture and food sector energy consumption was compared to that of the total Canadian energy consumption.

3.1 Selected Economic Indicators

Energy use in an economy is related directly to the general level of economic activity. The higher the level of economic activity, as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP), the more energy required to sustain these activities. The GDP contributions, of various industries appears in

Table 1.

 

 

 

Table 1: Canadian GDP (in billions of 1992 dollars)

Industry

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Business Sector

485.1

473.8

474.5

488.1

512.6

525.4

538.0

Non Business Sector

123.3

126.1

129.8

131.1

130.4

129.6

127.3

Good Producing Industries

205.6

196.5

194.0

200.8

212.0

216.7

220.5

Service Producing industries

402.6

403.1

410.2

418.4

431.1

438.4

444.7

  • Agriculture & Services

11.4

11.4

10.3

11.1

11.7

11.8

12.3

  • Livestock Farms

3.0

3.1

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.5

3.6

  • Field Crop Farms

7.5

7.5

6.1

7.1

7.6

7.6

7.9

  • Related Ag. Services

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

Manufacturing industries

102.6

95.0

96.1

101.9

108.4

113.7

114.9

Food industries

12.0

12.3

12.5

12.5

13.0

13.2

13.7

Beverage industries

3.1

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.2

3.2

Agricultural chemical industry

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.6

0.5

Tobacco products industries

1.1

1.1

1.0

0.9

1.1

1.0

1.0

Energy

33.4

34.6

35.3

37.4

39.7

40.5

41.6

Total economy

609.2

600.0

604.3

619.2

643.1

655.1

665.3

 

Source: Statistics Canada

 

These data reveal that from 1990 to 1996, the agriculture and related services sector contributed

2 % to Canadian GDP, the food and beverage industries contributed 2.5 %, and the tobacco products industries contributed 1 %. Table 1 indicates that the level of economic activity in most industries were lower in 1991 and 1992 than in 1990, and increased steadily from 1993 to 1996. From 1990 to 1996, the level of activity in the energy and food industries did not decline. This may be attributed to a rise in energy consumption due to an increase in population or higher consumer prices as indicated in the consumer price index (CPI). Higher demand of a good usually leads to a rise in its CPI. Data on consumer price indexes and the total Canadian population, from 1990 to 1996, are shown in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. It is evident from Table 2 that in general, price levels have increased since 1990, and Table 3 indicates that Ontario is the most populated province, followed by Quebec, British Columbia, and Alberta, respectively. Therefore, if energy consumption had been based on population, these provinces should be the largest consumers.

 

Table 2: Canadian Consumer Price Index for Selected Items (1992 = 100).

 

Item 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Food

95.8

100.4

100

101.7

102.1

104.5

105.9

Goods

94.5

99.2

100

101.6

100.5

102.4

104.0

Services

92.0

97.8

100

102.1

103.8

106.4

108.1

Food & Energy

95.6

100.2

100

101.6

102.1

104.2

106.0

Electricity

82.1

93.9

100

104.2

104.9

104.4

105.6

Piped Gas

87.8

96.3

100

103.8

112.5

105.6

104.4

Fuel Oil & Others

96.0

103.8

100

101.7

100.4

99.0

105.8

Gasoline

105.3

103.7

100

98.5

97.3

101.9

106.4

Transportation

96.3

98.0

100

101.3

107.8

113.4

117.8

All Energy

95.1

99.7

100

101.3

101.8

103.2

106.2

All Items

93.3

98.5

100

101.8

102

104.2

105.9

 

Source: Statistics Canada

 

 

Table 3: Population by Region

Region  

1990

1991 1992

Persons

(‘000)

 

 

1993

1994 1995 1996
Nfld.

578

580

582

584

581

576

570

P. E. I.

131

131

131

133

134

135

136

N. S.

912

917

922

929

933

937

941

N. B.

742

748

751

754

756

758

760

Que.

7010

7077

7156

7229

7290

7342

7391

Ont.

10313

10462

10639

10790

10942

11100

11252

Man.

1107

1109

1114

1119

1125

1131

1136

Sask.

1011

1005

1004

1006

1009

1012

1017

Alta.

2549

2595

2634

2672

2706

2741

2781

B. C.

3291

3372

3455

3549

3649

3744

3834

Yuk.

28

29

30

30

30

30

31

N. W. T.

59

61

62

63

65

66

67

Canada

27733

28088

28481

28858

29219

29573

29917

 

Source: Statistics Canada

4. Energy Demand: Canada and Provinces

The types of energy used in this report are:

Wood, solar, and wind energy are not include due to low use.

The percentage distribution of primary and secondary energy demand in 1995 by energy type: is displayed in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Percentage Distribution of Total Final Energy Demand, by Energy Type, Canada, 1995.

Source: Statistics Canada

 

These data indicate that, refined petroleum products (RPP) were the main source of energy, followed by natural gas and electricity.

The percentage distribution of primary and secondary energy demanded in 1995, by energy type, by province is shown in Table 4 below. It is evident from Table 4 that in 1995, RPP was the primary source of energy in the Atlantic provinces (Newfoundland, Price Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick), the Yukon and NWT. Natural gas consumption percentage was highest in Saskatchewan, followed by Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario. Electricity consumption percentage was highest in Quebec, followed by Newfoundland, New Brunswick, British Columbia, and Manitoba.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4: Percentage distribution of primary and secondary energy demand, by energy type, 1995

Region

Natural Gas

Electricity

Rpp

Others

Nfld.

0

32

65

3

P. E. I.

0

14

85

1

N. S.

0

21

77

2

N. B.

0

31

64

5

Que.

16

42

40

2

Ont.

39

20

33

8

Man.

39

22

37

2

Sask.

53

14

32

1

Alta.

48

15

32

5

B. C.

33

24

40

3

Yuk. & NWT

11

13

72

4

Canada

33

24

38

5

 

 

Source: Statistics Canada

 

The method of production of electricity varies from province to province. The percentage of gross electricity generated in 1995, by production type (hydro, thermal, and nuclear), by province are given in Table 5. They indicate that New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario are the only provinces where nuclear technology is used to produce electricity. According to Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) there were 21 nuclear reactors in Canada in 1996, down from 22 the previous year. Thermal electricity generation is highest in P.E.I, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan and Alberta, whereas in Newfoundland, Quebec, Manitoba and British Columbia, hydro electricity generation is the main form of electricity production. Inter-provincial electricity trade allows provinces to consume electricity from other provinces.

 

 

Table 5: Percentage of indigenous electricity generated, by method of production

Region

Hydro

Thermal

Percent

(%)

Nuclear

Nfld.

95

5

0

P. E. I.

0

100

0

N. S.

9

91

0

N. B.

20

67

13

Que.

97

0

3

Ont.

25

16

59

Man.

99

1

0

Sask.

24

76

0

Alta.

4

96

0

B. C.

85

15

0

Yuk. & N. W. T.

56

44

0

Canada

60.6

21.7

17.7

 

Source: NRCan

Figure 2: Total Energy Use Demand, by Province, 1990-1996

Source: Statistics Canada

 

 

 

 

During the 1990-1996 period, energy consumption was the greatest in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, and British Columbia, respectively and energy consumption in these provinces increased steadily. The energy consumption in the rest of Canada remained low and steady over the same period. The daily per capita energy demand in Canada (Table 6) indicates that, from 1990 to 1996 every Canadian consumed, on average, over 600 MJ of energy per day. In 1995, the total energy demand in Canada was 6882 PJ. Figure 3 below shows how this amount was distributed among regions.

 

Table 6: Per capita daily energy demand in Canada, (MJ)

Energy Demand

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Total Energy Demand

632x 109

622x 109

6328x109

6523x109

6697x109

6882x109

7129x109

Per Capita Yearly Demand

228x103

221x103

222x103

226x103

229x103

233x103

238x103

Per Capita Daily Demand

624 607 607 619

628

638

651

 

Source: Statistics Canada

 

 

 

Figure 3: Percentage Distribution of Total Energy Demand by Region, 1995

Source: Statistics Canada

5. Agricultural Energy Consumption

The energy consumed in agriculture consists of all direct and indirect energy used on the farm. Direct energy includes electricity, heating fuel and machinery fuel used in crop production, grain drying, animal and animal product production, poultry, transportation of farm products and personal energy use (e.g., heating farmhouse, driving to town). The Farm Energy Use Survey, conducted by Statistics Canada, estimated that these forms of energy were for farm business purpose: 74.1% of total gasoline, 88.4% of total diesel, 48.4% of total liquid petroleum gas (LPG), 57.3% of total natural gas and 66.1% of total electricity. The reminder was used for non-farm activities such as leisure, home heating and lighting. Indirect energy consists of the energy consumed in the production, packaging and transport to the farm gate of fertilizers, pesticides, farm machinery, and buildings.

 

 

5.1 Expenditures on Farm Energy

 

Table 7: Total expenditures on farm operations, in Canada (Constant 1992 dollars)

Farm Operating Expenditures Expenditures

($ billion)

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

 
               

Operating Expenses after Rebates

20.05

20.37

20.93

21.86

23.40

24.61

25.98

Total Rebates

0.41

0.41

0.30

0.31

0.30

0.28

0.25

Operating Expenses

20.46

20.78

21.23

22.17

23.69

24.89

26.23

* *FIPI (1992=100)

101.8

100.3

100

104.9

108.4

112.5

117.7

Operating Expenses

20.11

20.71

21.23

21.14

21.85

22.12

22.28

 

 

* Total operating expenses =Total operating expenses after rebates + Total

rebates.

* FIPI = Farm Input Price Index.

Source: Statistics Canada.

Total farm operating expenses in constant 1992 dollars increased steadily from 1990 to 1996 (Table 7.) Total operating expenses in nominal dollars were $24.89 billion in 1995. Expenses on direct energy amounted to 8.5 % of total operating expenses, whereas expenses on indirect energy amounted to 26.1 % (fertilizers 7.8%, pesticides 4.3%, machinery depreciation charges 11.4%, and building depreciation charges 2.6%). Expenses for machinery fuel represented 68 % of the total expenses of direct energy use (Statistics Canada, 21-603). Figure 4, indicates that Ontario spent the most on farm operations, followed by Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec.

 

 

 

 

Figure 4: Total Farm Operating Expenses, Percentage Distribution by Province, 1995.

Source: Statistics Canada.

 

 

 

 

Table 8: Expenditures on direct and indirect energy as a percent of total farm expenditures, 1995

 

 

Total

Expenses

Percent (%)

Direct Energy

Indirect Energy

Region

($million)

Elec.

 

H. Fuel

M. Fuel

Total

 

 

Fert.

 

Pest.

 

 

M. Dep.

B. Dep.

Total

 

Nfld.

60

1.9

1.4

2.4

5.7

2.7

0.6

5.6

1.6

10.5

P. E. I.

258

1.7

0.5

5.1

7.3

11.5

6.2

8.7

2.4

28.8

N. S.

319

2.3

1.2

3.6

7.1

3.3

1.7

8.2

3.8

17.0

N.B.

278

2.0

0.7

4.7

7.4

6.6

3.7

8.7

2.3

21.3

Que.

3830

2.6

0.8

2.7

6.1

4.8

1.3

7.1

2.8

16.0

Ont.

6090

2.5

1.3

3.9

7.7

5.8

3.1

9.3

4.0

22.2

Man.

2410

2.0

0.4

6.8

9.2

12.5

7.4

12.7

1.2

33.8

Sask.

4720

1.5

0.4

9.9

11.8

11.0

7.7

16.1

1.3

36.1

Alta.

5440

1.4

0.6

6.5

8.5

8.5

4.2

13.4

2.2

28.3

B. C.

1490

2.1

0.8

3.8

6.7

4.0

1.4

6.7

4.4

16.5

Canada

24892

2.0

0.8

5.7

8.5

7.8

4.3

11.4

2.6

26.1

 

 

* Elec. = Electricity, H. Fuel = Heating Fuel, M. Fuel = Machinery Fuel,

Fert.= Fertilizers, Pest.= Pesticides, M. Dep= Machinery Depreciation,

B. Dep. = Buildings Depreciation.

Source: Statistics Canada

 

Table 8 indicates that expenses on direct energy, as a percent of total expenses, were highest in Saskatchewan (11.8%), Manitoba (9.2%), Alberta (8.5%) and Ontario (7.7%). Expenses on indirect energy as a percent of total farm expenses were also highest in Saskatchewan (36.1%), Manitoba (33.8%), P.E.I (28.8), Alberta (28.3%) and Ontario (22.2%).

 

 

 

Table 9: Number of farms and average size of farms, Canada and the Provinces.*

 

1991

1996

Province

# of Farms

Average Farm Size (acres)

# of Farms

Average Farm Size (acres)

Nfld.

725

161

731

147

P. E. I.

2361

271

2200

297

N. S.

3980

247

4021

241

N. B.

3252

285

3206

290

Que.

38076

223

35716

237

Ont.

68633

196

67118

206

Man.

25706

743

24341

785

Sask.

60840

1091

56979

1152

Alta.

57245

898

58990

881

B. C.

19225

307

21653

288

Canada

280043

598

274955

611

 

* Excluding Christmas tree only farms.

Source: Statistics Canada

Table 9 indicates that Saskatchewan utilized more land for agricultural purposes than any other province. This may explain why Saskatchewan farm operators used more direct and indirect energy in farm production activites.

 

 

5.2 Direct Energy Used in Farm Production

Table 10 indicates the quantities of energy used on the farm from 1990 to 1996, in Petajoules. In 1995 and 1996, the energy consumed on farm operations was highest in Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Alberta. Table 11 indicates the amount of direct energy consumed on the farm by energy type (NG, NGL, Elec., RPP and Steam) and by province in 1995. It can be seen that Saskatchewan, Ontario and Alberta farmers used the most energy in 1995, and direct energy use was high in 1992 and 1996.

 

 

Table 10: Direct agricultural energy used in Regions of Canada

   

1990

1991 Energy (PJ)

1992

1993 1994 1995  

 

1996

Nfld.

0.5

0.7

2.0

0.9

1.0

1.3

1.2

P.E.I.

1.4

1.4

1.7

1.5

1.4

1.6

1.8

N.S.

2.5

3.5

8.5

3.0

3.2

3.7

3.6

N.B

1.9

2.0

3.6

2.3

2.7

3.1

2.7

Que.

19.8

20.6

31.1

19.8

19.7

17.7

16.8

Ont.

44.0

44.6

54.6

44.2

43.5

50.1

55.2

Man.

20.5

18.6

18.1

19.6

19.5

21.7

22.9

Sask.

50.6

45.9

43.9

45.0

48.4

50.1

55.3

Alta.

53.3

46.5

46.5

49.3

44.3

47.0

52.8

B.C.

10.1

11.3

13.2

12.6

10.8

10.0

11.5

Canada

204.7

195.3

223.6

198.5

194.5

206.5

223.9

 

 

 

Source: Statistics Canada.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 11: Direct energy consumed on the farm, by energy type and region, 1995*

  Ng**

 

Ngl**

 

Energy Use (PJ)

Electricity

Hydro N & T

 

Rpp**

 

S

 

Total

Nfld.

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

1.2

0.0

1.3

P. E. I.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

1.3

0.0

1.6

N. S.

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

3.4

0.0

3.7

N. B.

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

2.7

0.0

3.1

Que.

0.2

1.2

5.9

0.2

10.2

0.0

17.7

Ont.

10.1

1.8

2.4

7.3

28.4

0.1

50.1

Man.

1.0

1.0

4.9

0.0

16.1

0.0

21.7

Sask.

5.7

0.3

1.2

3.7

39.2

0.0

50.1

Alta.

6.1

0.2

0.2

5.7

34.8

0.0

47.0

B. C.

0.6

0.2

1.1

0.2

7.8

0.0

10.0

Canada

22.9

4.4

15.9

17.9

145.3

0.1

206.5

 

Source: Statistics Canada.

* *Ng= natural gas, Ngl= natural gas liquids (include LPG), S = steam, Rpp=

Refined petroleum products.

Electricity is divided into Hydro and Nuclear & Thermal.

To obtain the estimates of Hydro electricity, it is assumed that the percentage

of hydro electricity consumed by province is proportional to the percentage of

hydro electricity produced in each province (e.g., in Quebec, hydro = 97%,

N & T =3%, see Table 5 above)

To obtain the estimates of energy consumed for farm business only, the percentages given in the Farm Energy Use Surveys (1981, 1997) were used. It was assumed that farm business energy use was linear (Coxworth, 1997). The difference between farm business energy use, in 1997 and 1981, was divided by 15 to obtain the annual rate of change. The annual rate of change was added to each subsequent year. The resulting percentages of energy used for farm business are displayed in Table 12.

 

Table 12: Percentage direct energy used for farm business activities by Energy Source for Canada

Energy

Type

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

**Ng

63.1

62.1

61.1

60.2

59.2

58.3

57.3

**Ngl

59.3

57.5

55.6

53.8

52.0

50.2

48.4

Elec.

66.4

66.3

66.3

66.2

66.2

66.1

66.1

*Rpp

85.6

84.9

84.2

83.4

82.7

82.0

81.3

Steam

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

 

* RPP= Average (%Diesel + % Gasoline).

* *Ng= natural gas, Ngl= natural gas liquids (include LPG), S = steam, Rpp=

Refined petroleum products.

***The percentages of farm energy consumed for farm business only, by

province are different from those in Table 13. However, provincial

percentages were not used because most of them have a large coefficient

of variation.

The results in this table depend on the chosen reference year.

 

To obtain the estimates of direct energy used for farm business only, for the 1990 - 1996 period, the percentages given in Table 12 were multiplied by the total quantity of each energy type consumed on the farm (Table 13). The estimates are in Table 14. Energy use was highest in 1992. This was a result of an increase in RPP during 1992.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 13: Total direct farm energy used for farm business activities, Canada

 

 

Energy

Type

 

1990

 

1991

Energy

(PJ)

1992

 

1993

 

1994

 

1995

 

1996

Ng (PJ)

14.6

14.4

15.4

18.8

14.0

13.3

15.4

Ngl (PJ)

4.2

3.0

3.8

3.3

2.6

2.2

2.4

Hydro. (PJ)

13.9

13.8

13.7

13.7

13.9

13.5

14.6

N & T (PJ)

9.1

8.9

8.9

8.9

9.1

8.8

9.5

Rpp (PJ)

119.6

112.5

132.6

105.7

108.4

119.1

126.5

Steam (PJ)

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0

Canada (PJ)

161.4

152.8

174.5

150.6

148.1

157.0

168.4

 

 

* Electricity = 60.6% Hydro, and 39.4% Nuclear and Thermal.

 

Table 14: Percentage distribution of direct farm energy demand by energy type for Canada

Energy

Type

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Ng

11

12

11

16

12

11

12

Ngl

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

Elec.

17

17

15

17

18

16

16

Rpp

68

68

70

64

67

70

69

Others

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

 

* The above percentages were derived from total direct farm energy (including

personal use). Percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding.

Source: Statistics Canada

 

Table 14 indicates that RPP represents about two third of the total direct energy used on the farm. However, these percentages vary among provinces. For example, in the Atlantic Provinces natural gas was not used on the farm from 1990 to 1996.

 

 

5.4 Indirect Energy

5.4.1 Energy used in Fertilizers

According to Mudahar et al, (1987), energy used in the production of fertilizers accounts for about 40 % of total energy used in agricultural production in developed countries. Most of this energy was consumed in the production of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizers.

The Canadian fertilizer consumption, shipments, and trade data consist of the quantities of all fertilizer sold annually in Canada. This includes fertilizer used for purposes other than farming (e.g. fertilizer used on lawns, and home gardening). Assuming that the quantities of fertilizer used for purposes other than farming are negligible, Coxworth (1997) estimated the energy consumed in the production and transportation of fertilizer. Methods based on the report by Bhat et al, (1994). To estimate the energy consumed in fertilizer production, the total quantity of each fertilizer nutrient was multiplied by the corresponding energy used per tonne of nutrient. For example since the production of ammonia required 57.62 GJ of energy per tonne of nutrient, the total quantity (in tonnes) of ammonia sold was multiplied by 57.62 Gigajoules (GJ). The quantities of fertilizers sold in Canada from 1990 to 1996 are shown below.

Table 15: Quantities of fertilizer sold in Canada (thousands of tonnes)

Canada

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Nitrogen

1196.3

1157.8

1253.3

1305.8

1406.0

1448.4

1576.2

Phosphate

513.5

578.2

592.2

615.9

641.2

628.4

658.4

Potassium

359.8

337.9

310.2

327.8

328.0

309.9

333.2

 

Source: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1996.

Table 16: Calculated quantities of energy used in the production and transportation of fertilizer sold in Canada

Nutrient 1996 1990 1991

Energy

(PJ)

1992 1993 1994 1995

Nitrogen

79.5

76.6

83.0

86.8

93.0

96.5

104.4

Phosphate

7.6

7.2

7.4

7.7

7.9

7.8

8.2

Potassium

4.0

3.8

3.5

3.7

3.5

3.5

3.7

Total

91.2

87.6

93.9

98.1

104.5

107.7

116.3

 

Source: Coxworth (1997).

 

Table 16 above shows that most of the energy consumed in fertilizer production was consumed in the production of nitrogen fertilizers. According to Statistics Canada (1995), energy use in the chemical manufacturing industry (which includes fertilizer and pesticides industries) declined by about 34.5 % over the past decade. Therefore, the quantities in Table 16 probably over-estimate the amount of energy used in fertilizer production.

Mudahar et al, (1982) estimated the average energy requirement for the production, packaging, transportation and application of fertilizers (Table 17). Since the energy used in fertilizer production has decreased over the past decade, the average energy used in producing fertilizers in Table 5.11 were reduced by 34.5%. The results are in Table 18.

Table 17: Average energy used in fertilizer production (GJ/thousands tonnes)

Nutrient Production PTA Total (production + PTA)

Nitrogen

69.54

8.59

78.13

Phosphate

7.70

9.75

17.45

Potassium

6.38

7.32

13.7

 

Source: Mudahar et al, 1982.

PTA = Packaging, Transportation and Application.

Table 18: Reduced Average energy used in fertilizer production (GJ / thousand tonnes)

Nutrient Production PTA Total (production + PTA)

Nitrogen

45.55

8.59

54.14

Phosphate

5.04

9.75

14.79

Potassium

4.18

7.32

11.5

 

 

The quantities of energy consumed in fertilizer production (Table 19) were obtained by multiplying the total averages in Table 17 by the total quantities of fertilizer sold (Table 18). Figure 5 indicates that Saskatchewan and Alberta were the greatest users of fertilizers in Canada in 1995.

 

Table 19: Estimates of energy used in fertilizer production in Canada

Fertilizer 1990 1991 1992

Energy

(PJ)

1993 1994 1995 1996

Nitrogen

64.8

62.9

67.9

70.7

76.1

78.4

85.3

Phosphate

9.7

8.6

8.8

9.1

9.5

9.3

9.7

Potash

4.1

3.9

3.6

3.8

3.8

3.7

3.8

Total

78.6

75.4

80.3

83.6

89.4

91.4

98.8

 

 

 

Figure 5: Percentage Distribution of the Quantities of Fertilizer Sold by province in Canada, 1995.

Source: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1996.

5.4.2 Energy used in pesticide production

The most frequently used pesticides are: herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants. To estimate the total energy used in the production of farm inputs, the quantities of each type of pesticide needs to be known. Coxworth (1997) asserted that data on the quantities of pesticides used in Canada were hard to obtain. He therefore used the estimated quantities of a 1991 Pesticides Registrant Survey in his calculations. Green (1987) estimated that the average energy input in the production, transportation and application of pesticides was 6.6% of the total energy used in the production of fertilizers in the United States in 1980 (the energy input in fertilizer production was 518 PJ, and the energy input in pesticide production was 34 PJ). The methods of production, packaging, transportation and application of pesticides were assumed the same in Canada as in the United States. The estimates of energy used in pesticide production in Canada were obtained by taking 6.6% of the data given in Table 19. The results are in Table 20. These values are similar to those reported by Coxworth (1997). Technological improvements, these estimates would cause a reduction of 34.5%, displaying the amount of energy expended in pesticide production small compared to fertilizer production.

 

 

Table 20: Estimated quantities of energy used in pesticide production, packaging, transportation and application, Canada

  1990 1991 1992 1993

Energy

(PJ)

1994 1995 1996

 

Canada

5.2

5.0

5.3

5.5

5.9

6.0

6.5

 

 

In 1995, there were 149 agricultural chemical establishments in Canada (15 chemical fertilizer, 123 mixed fertilizer and 11 other agricultural chemical). These establishments spent $121.4 million on fuel and electricity. The percentage distribution of energy spending by this industry was as follows: chemical fertilizer establishments 92%, mixed fertilizer establishments 7%, and other agricultural chemical establishments 1% (Statistics Canada 32-203).

5.4.3 Energy sequestered in farm machinery and buildings

The amount of energy consumed in the manufacturing of farm machinery consists of the energy used in extracting, transporting, and refining the raw materials, and the energy used in the manufacturing, maintaining and repairing processes. Bowers (1992) estimated that the energy sequestered in the manufacturing of farm machinery was only about 2.4 % of the total energy consumed in agricultural production in the United States. Fluck et al. (1980) suggested that one method of measuring the energy requirement in farm machinery was to multiply the cost of the machine by the energy consumption to GDP ratio. Doering et al. (1977) estimated the energy consumed in farm machinery based on value-added. This method excluded the energy sequestered in metals. Table 21 displays the results by Doering et al (1997).

 

 

 

Table 21: Energy used in manufacturing farm machinery

 

Equipment Energy used

(MJ / kg)

Tractor

27.63

Combine

21.65

Plow

12.78

Disc

9.96

Applicator

10.20

Planter

16.90

Rotary Hoe

11.38

Tires

85.80

 

Source: Doering et al. (1977)

 

Table 21 indicates tire manufacturing requires the majority of energy. The total quantity of energy used in the manufacture of all farm machinery could be estimated if the total number of each equipment type was known. Coxworth (1997) estimated the energy sequestered in farm machinery via the depreciation and repair charges, based on methods reported by Stirling and Kun (1995). The depreciation and repair charges were converted to constant 1990 dollars, then multiplied by 69.06 PJ (the estimated amount of energy in farm machinery in 1990 for Canada). Similarly, Coxworth estimated the energy sequestered in farm buildings. The results are in Table 22 and Table 23.

 

Table 22: Energy sequestered in farm machinery in Canada

Year 1990 1991 1992

Energy

(PJ)

1993 1994 1995 1996

Canada

69.1

66.6

66.2

66.1

66.8

67.0

67.4

 

Source: Coxworth (1997).

 

 

Table 23: Energy sequestered in farm buildings in Canada

  1990 1991 1992

Energy

(PJ)

1993 1994 1995 1996

 

Canada

35.9

37.2

36.0

34.2

33.2

33.9

35.7

 

Source: Coxworth (1997).

 

Tables 22 and 23 indicate that the energy sequestered in farm machinery and buildings is significant. Measuring the energy used in farm machinery and buildings via the depreciation and repair charges is a strong assumption, since depreciation charges may not be a function of the amount of energy used in the production of farm machinery and buildings.

 

6. Food and Beverage Processing Energy Use

The food and beverage processing industry is a sub-sector of the manufacturing sector. In 1995, the manufacturing sector spent $9387.8 million on energy and consumed 1788.3 PJ or 26.7 % of the total energy consumed in Canada (Statistics Canada 31-203).

 

6.1. Expenditures on Energy in Food and Beverage Processing

In 1995, there were 2965 food processing establishments in Canada. These establishments spent $693.8 millions on energy (7.4% of the total manufacturing expenses on energy). Table 24 indicates the number of food processing establishments in Canada by region. The distribution of expenses, on energy in the industry, is in Figure 6, and the provincial distribution is in Figure 7, which reveals that the food industry in Ontario and Quebec spent the most on energy (42 % and 22%, respectively).

 

 

 

 

Table 24: Number of food processing establishments, by province, 1995

Province # of Food processing establishments

Nfld.

93

P. E. I

47

N. S.

184

N. B.

120

Que.

826

Ont.

938

Man.

130

Sask.

78

Alta.

258

B. C.

291

 

Source: Statistics Canada.

 

Figure 6: Percentage Distribution of Expenses on Energy, by Industry, Canada, 1995

Source: Statistics Canada

FRUIT & VEG (with 194 establishments), in Figure 6, include: canned, preserved and frozen fruit and vegetable industries. MEAT (557) includes: meat products, and poultry; DAIRY (270) includes liquid milk, and other dairy products; Feed industry (466); BAKING (454) includes bread and other bakery products; FISH products (400); OFPI NEC (Other Food Products Industries NEC, (294)); OTHER (330) includes cereal, flour, tea, coffee, potato chip, pretzel, popcorn, malt, oil, biscuit, sugar and other food product industries, each of these establishments have a share in the energy cost which is less than 5% for this group.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 7: Percentage Distribution of Expenses on Energy for the Processing Food Industry in Canada, 1995

Source: Statistics Canada.

In 1995, the beverage industry consisted of 225 establishments (103 soft drink industries, 19 distilleries, 68 breweries and 35 wine industries). These establishments spent $91.1 million on energy (about 1% of total manufacturing expenses). The distribution of the spending on energy by industry was as follows: Brewery products 48.1%, Soft drinks 31.7%, Distillery products 17.8% and Wine industry 2.4%. The distribution of the total spending on energy by province was as in Figure 8 and reveals that the beverage industry in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and B. C. spent the most on processing energy.

 

 

Figure 8: Percentage Distribution of Spending on Energy, Beverage Industry, Canada, 1995

* The number of beverage establishments by region in 1995 was: Atlantic 19, Quebec 49,

Ontario 81, Manitoba and Saskatchewan 18, Alberta 21, and B. C. 37.

Source: Statistics Canada.

 

7.1 Quantities of energy consumed in food and beverage processing

To obtain the quantity of energy used in the food and beverage processing industry, it is assumed that the cost of one unit of energy is the same for all manufacturing industries. Since the food and beverage industry energy expenditures represented 8.4% (7.4% + 1%) of the total manufacturing expenses in 1995, the total quantity of energy used in the manufacturing sector in 1995 (i.e., 1788.3 PJ) was multiplied by 8.4%. The corresponding energy used in food processing amounted to 150.2 PJ (or 2.2% of the total energy consumed in 1995). Similarly, the estimated quantities of energy used in the food and beverage processing industry from 1990 to 1996 were calculated and the results in Table 25. These quantities represent about 2% of the total energy used in Canada. Table 26 indicates that in the food and beverage processing industry, natural gas was the main source of energy used in 1973.

 

 

 

Table 25: Estimated quantities of energy consumed by the food and beverage processing industry in Canada

  1990 1991 1992 1993

Energy

(PJ)

1994 1995 1996

 

Canada

146.4

144.5

146.4

147.1

151.2

150.2

150.0

 

 

Table 26: Percentage distribution of energy use, by energy type for selected food processing industries in the United States, 1973

Industry Ng Elec. Rpp Coal Others

Meat Packing

46

31

14

9

0

Prepared animal feeds

52

38

10

<1

0

Wet corn milling

43

14

7

36

0

Fluid milk

33

47

17

3

0

Beet sugar processing

65

1

5

25

4

Malt beverages

38

37

18

7

0

Bread and related products

34

28

38

0

0

Frozen fruits and vegetables

41

50

5

4

0

Soybean oil mills

47

28

9

16

0

Canned fruits and vegetables

66

16

15

3

0

Canned sugar refining

66

1

33

0

0

Sausage and other meat

46

38

15

1

0

Animal and marine fats and oils

65

17

17

1

0

Average

49.4

26.6

15.6

8.1

0.3

 

Source: Unger (1975)

 

8. Residential Energy Use

In 1995, the total residential energy used amounted to 1254.9 PJ, equivalent of 18% of total energy expended in Canada. The percentage distribution of residential energy use by energy type was as follows: Natural Gas 47.7%, Electricity 34.6%, RRP 10.1%, and Others 7.6%. Residential energy used by end use was distributed as follows: space heating 61.1%, water heating 20.8%, appliances 13.5%, lighting 4.1%, and space cooling 0.5% (Natural Resources Canada, 1997).

From 1990 to 1996, residential energy use increased from 1197.1 PJ to 1362.2 PJ, an increase of 165.1 PJ. The main factors influencing the increase in residential energy demand were the levels of activity (measured by the number of households), the penetration of appliances and the weather (Natural Resources Canada, 1997). Table 13 indicates that from 1990 to 1996, Ontario was the most populated province, followed by Quebec, British Columbia, and Alberta. Consequently, these provinces should have the highest level of residential energy use. Figure 9 displays residential energy demanded where was highest in Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and B.C., respectively, in 1995. The fact that residential energy demand in Alberta was higher than that of B.C. may be attributed to the difference in weather patterns, and relative energy prices.

Figure 9: Percentage Distribution of Residential Energy Demand by Region in Canada, 1995

Source: Statistics Canada.

 

In our analysis it was assumed that the percentage of energy used for home preparation was 13.5% (i.e., the percentage of residential energy consumed by home appliances in 1995). Natural Resources Canada (1997) reported that the quantity of energy used by home appliances increased by six PJ from 1990 to 1995. This increase was considered negligible. Thus, 13.5% of the total residential energy was taken as the quantity of energy used for home preparation (i.e. energy used in home preparation = total residential energy multiplied by 13.5%). The resulting quantities are in Table 27 and represent about 3% of the total Canadian energy used. The 13.5% factor includes the energy consumed by all equipment used in the home for purposes other than lighting, air conditioning, and centralized water heating. Therefore, the results in Table 27 probably over-estimate the quantities of energy used for home cooking.

 

Table 27: Home preparation energy consumption in Canada

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993

Energy

(PJ)

1994 1995 1996

 

Canada

161.6

157.4

159.2

169.7

172.4

169.4

183.9

 

Source: Statistics Canada

9. Commercial Energy Use

The commercial sector defined by Statistics Canada includes: service industries related to mining, transportation, warehousing, communication, wholesale trade, retail trade, finance, insurance, real estate, accommodation, food, beverage, business service, education, health, social services, and other service industries. For this study, the total quantity of energy used by restaurants, hotels, and grocery stores is the desired amount of energy estimated in the commercial sector. However, data on the quantities and values of energy used by grocery stores were not available.

In 1995, the total final energy demanded by the commercial sector was 1030.3 PJ. This was equivalent to 15% of the total energy use in Canada. The percentage distribution of the total energy demand by energy type is in Figure 10, and the percentage distribution of commercial energy used by region is in Figure 11. Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta were the greatest consumers of commercial energy.

 

 

Figure 10: Percentage Distribution of Commercial Energy Demand, by Energy Type, Canada, 1995

*Other includes steam, liquid petroleum gases and natural gas liquids.

Source: Statistics Canada.

 

 

Figure 11: Percentage Distribution of Commercial Energy Demand by Region in Canada, 1995

Source: Statistics Canada

 

Natural Resources Canada (1997) reported that restaurants and hotels consumed 9.9% of total commercial energy used (Table 28). The estimates of food energy consumed in the commercial sector (Table 28) are small when compared to the estimates of energy consumed in residential food preparation (Table 27). However, this does not mean that eating out saves energy. It indicates only that more food is prepared in the home than restaurants and hotels.

Table 28: Estimated quantities of energy consumed in restaurants and hotels food preparation Canada

  1990 1991 1992 1993

Energy

(PJ)

1994 1995 1996

 

Canada

90.1

90.7

92.0

97.3

95.8

101.0

102.0

 

 

10. Summary

The focus of this report was on estimating the quantities and values of non-renewable energy consumed in farming, food processing, home, restaurants, and hotel food preparation.

At the farm level, the estimated total energy consumed is the sum of the values in Table 13, Table 19, Table 20, Table 22 and Table 23. Thus, total energy consumed at the farm level is about 5% of total Canadian energy used (Table 29). Table 30 indicates that about 20% of total annual farm expenses are spent on energy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 29: Total energy used at the farm level in Canada

  1990 1991 1992

Energy

(PJ)

1993 1994 1995 1996

Ng

14.6

14.4

15.4

18.8

14.0

13.3

15.4

Ngl

4.2

3 .0

3.8

3.3

2.6

2.2

2.4

Hydro

13.9

13.8

13.7

13.7

13.9

13.5

14.6

N & T

9.1

8.9

8.9

8.9

9.1

8.8

9.5

Rpp

119.6

112.5

132.6

105.7

108.4

119.1

126.5

Steam

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0

Nitrogen Fertilizer

64.8

62.9

67.9

70.7

76.1

78.4

85.3

Phosphate Fertilizer

9.7

8.6

8.8

9.1

9.5

9.3

9.7

Potash Fertilizer

4.1

3.9

3.6

3.8

3.8

3.7

3.8

Farm Machinery

69.1

66.2

66.2

66.1

66.8

67.0

67.4

Farm Buildings

35.9

37.2

36.0

34.2

33.2

33.9

35.7

Pesticides

5.2

5.0

5.3

5.5

5.9

6.0

6.5

Total Farm Business Energy

350.2

336.6

362.3

340.0

343.4

355.3

376.8

Total Energy Use Canada

6321.2

6221.0

6328.1

6523.0

6696.8

6882.5

7129.1

Ag. Energy as % of total Can. Energy Used

5.5

5.4

5.7

5.2

5.1

5.1

5.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 30: Total expenses on direct and indirect farm energy in Canada

Expenses

($millions)

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Tot. Heating Fuel

187.6

193.4

189.0

190.9

203.7

187.1

202.8

Electricity

434.3

448.7

466.6

481.8

497.8

496.2

528.8

Machinery fuel

1210.7

1230.4

1226.7

1307.1

1363.7

1421.5

1504.0

Fertilizer & Lime

1242.0

1260.1

1340.4

1398.6

1659.0

1941.8

2090.1

Pesticides

720.9

658.1

710.4

769.0

954.5

1063.0

1186.9

Total

             

% of Total Farm Operating Expenses

18.5

18.2

18.5

18.7

19.7

20.5

21.0

 

 

* Total Expenses = Expenses after Rebates + Rebates. Expenses include personal energy used on the farm.

 

As noted in Table 24, the majority of foods processing industries are in Ontario and Quebec. Table 31 indicates the total quantities and values of energy used in the food and beverage industry from 1990 to 1996.

 

Table 31: Quantity and dollar value of energy used in food and beverage processing in Canada

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Quantity (PJ)

146.4

144.5

146.4

147.1

151.2

150.2

150.0

Values ($)

671.5

685.5

705.8

748.7

804.8

784.9

784.6

% of Total Can. Energy Use

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.1

 

 

 

Table 32: Quantity of energy used in home, restaurant, and hotel food preparation in Canada

  1990 1991 1992 1993

Energy

(PJ)

1994 1995 1996

Home

161.6

157.4

159.2

169.7

172.4

169.4

183.9

Rest. and Hotel

90.1

90.7

92.0

97.3

95.8

101.0

102.0

Total

251.7

248.1

251.2

267.0

268.2

270.4

285.9

% of Total Can. Energy Use

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.0

3.9

4.0

 

 

The percentage of total energy used in the Canadian food system (excluding the energy used in farm machinery and buildings) was obtained by adding the percentages in Table 29, 31 and 32 (Table 33). The percentage of energy used including farm machinery and buildings is in Table 34.

 

Table 33: Percentage of the total Canadian energy used by the Canadian food system, excluding the energy in farm machinery and buildings

 

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Canada

10.2

10.0

10.4

10.0

9.8

9.8

9.9

 

 

Table 34: Percentage of the total energy used by the Canadian food system, including farm machinery and buildings, 1990-1996

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Canada

11.9

11.7

12.0

11.5

11.3

11.3

11.3

 

 

Table 34 concluded that the energy consumed in the CFS is approximately

11 % of the total energy demand in Canada. This percentage does not include the energy used in the manufacture of food processing machinery, buildings, transportation vehicles, and roads.

The total energy consumed in the farming and food processing sectors, and the corresponding GDP are given in Table 35.

 

Table 35: Farming and food processing energy consumption, excluding energy in farm machinery and buildings, the corresponding GDP (in billions of dollars), and the energy to GDP ratio

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Total Farming and Food Energy,( PJ).

390.9

377.0

406.5

386.3

393.9

403.9

433.0

Corr.GDP (1992=100) in billions dollars.

28.0

28.2

27.3

28.2

29.7

29.8

30.7

Energy / Corr. GDP

14.0

13.4

14.9

13.7

13.3

13.5

14.1

 

Corr. GDP = Corresponding GDP. It is the sum of the GDP’s in Agricultural, Food, Beverage, Agricultural Chemical and Tobacco Products Industries from Table 3.1.

 

 

Canada exports and imports significant agricultural, food and beverage products. If net food export is defined as the difference between total agriculture and food exports and total agriculture and food imports, then the energy used in producing net food exports can be calculated by multiplying net food exports (Table 36) by the energy to GDP ratio in Table 35. The values of total exports and imports in constant 1992 dollars (deflated using the GDP deflator) and the corresponding quantities of energy exported are given in Table 36. In Table 36, it was assumed that the energy consumed per dollar of exports is equivalent to the energy consumed per dollar of imports.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 36: Total exports and imports of agriculture and food products in Canada

Exports +

Imports

($millions)

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

GDP Deflator

100.8

99.3

100.0

102.5

106.4

108.4

110.1

Real Exports

12053

12133

14158

14270

15253

16983

18841

Real Imports

8036

8444

9127

10037

11102

11449

11899

Net Food Exports

4017

3689

5031

4233

4151

5534

6942

Corresponding Energy Exported

56.2

49.4

75.0

58.0

55.2

74.7

97.9

 

* Real Exports = total exports of live animals, food, feed, beverage and tobacco

divided by the GDP deflator. The data are from CANSIM series D399375 and

D399376.

Real Imports = Total imports of live animals, food, feed, beverage and tobacco

divided by the GDP deflator. The data are from CANSIM series D397917 and D397918.

GDP deflator = (GDP in any given year / GDP in 1992) * 100.

Source: Statistics Canada.

 

The total energy consumed on nutrition by Canadians (TECN) is equal to the energy used in farming (FE), plus the energy used in food processing (FPE), minus the energy used in net food exports (NFE), plus the energy used in residential (RES), restaurant and hotel (RH) food preparation (i.e., TECN = FE + FPE - NFE + RES + RH). The estimated quantities are given in Table 37.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 37: Total energy used by Canadians on nutrition, excluding the energy in farm machinery and buildings

Nutrition energy

(MJ)

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

TECN Per Capita

586.4 109

575.7 109

582.7 109

595.3 109

606.9 109

599.6 109

611.0 109

Annual TECN

21.1 103

20.5 103

20.5 103

20.6 103

20.8 103

20.3 103

20.4 103

Average Daily Per Capita TECN

57.8

56.2

56.0

56.4

57.0

55.6

55.7

 

 

* Per capita annual TECN = TECN / population.

Average Daily Per Capita TECN = Per Capita Annual TECN / 365 days (366

days in 1992 and 1996).

 

 

Table 37 indicates that, on average, every Canadian uses over 56 MJ of energy on nutrition per day (or 13,400 Kcal. per day). This amount of energy consumption is small compared to the total per capita energy demand (Table 6). Brown et al., (1976) estimated that about 22.5 MJ of energy was consumed per kg can of cooked corn. Thus, an individual eating 3 cans of cooked corn per day would consume 57.5 MJ of energy. Green (1978) estimated that the energy consumption per year per person in crop production in the United States was 7600 MJ. That is equivalent to 20.8 MJ of energy per day per person. Singh (1986) reported that the energy required per kg of processed cheese was 13.6 MJ, and 8.7 MJ of energy was needed per kg of processed canned food, 5.2 MJ / kg of canned fruits and vegetables, 29.1 MJ / kg of mashed potato granules and flakes, and 8.2 MJ / kg of frozen citrus juice.

The results shown in Table 38 include the energy sequestered in farm machinery and buildings.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 38: Total energy used by Canadians on nutrition

Nutrition Energy

(MJ)

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

TECN Per Capita

691.4 109

679.5 109

684.9 109

695.6 109

706.9 109

700.5 109

714.1 109

Annual TECN

24.9 103

24.2 103

24.0 103

24.1 103

24.2 103

23.7 103

23.9 103

Average Daily Per Capita TECN

68.2

66.3

65.6

66.0

66.3

64.9

65.3

 

 

* TECN = FE + FPE - NFE + RES + RH + energy used in farm machinery and buildings

Per Capita Annual TECN = TECN / Population.

Average Daily Per Capita TECN = Per Capita Annual TECN / 365 days (366 days in 1992 and 1996).

 

 

 

 

11. Conclusion

 

The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of energy consumed in farming, food processing, residential and commercial food preparation. At the farm level, our estimates indicated that Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta farmers spent a higher percentage of their operating expenses on direct and indirect energy (Table 8). The 1996 Census of Agriculture data show that the average farm size in these three provinces was larger than in other provinces (Table 9). In 1996, the quantity of energy consumed by province was highest in Saskatchewan (55.28 PJ), Ontario (55.19 PJ), and Alberta (52.78 PJ). The average distribution of direct energy consumed on the farm by energy type was as follows: refined petroleum products 68%, electricity 16%, natural gas 12%, natural gas liquids 3%, and other 1%. About 77% of the total direct energy consumed on the farm was used for farm business only. Nitrogen fertilizer production represented greatest energy input, reflecting the high energy cost in the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizer. From 1990 to 1996, direct and indirect energy consumed on the farm represented about 4% of the total energy demand in Canada.

In food processing, Ontario and Quebec had the most establishments with 938 and 826 respectively, in 1995. As a result, these two provinces spent more energy on food processing. The meat and dairy processing industries were the biggest consumers of energy in this sector (Fig. 6). Similarly, Ontario and Quebec had the most establishments in beverage processing. Most of the energy in beverage processing was consumed in the brewery and soft drink industries. The quantity of energy used in food and beverage processing represented about 2% of the total final energy used in Canada (Table 25). Natural gas and electricity were the main sources of energy in the food and beverage processing industry (Table 26).

Green (1987) suggested that the amount of energy consumed in food and beverage processing in the USA in 1980 was about 1.5 times the amount of energy used in agricultural production (3086 PJ). Thus, in this report the total amount of energy consumed in the agriculture and food sector may have been under-estimated. For example, our estimates do not include the energy sequestered in food processing machinery and buildings.

Statistics Canada does not publish data on industries with less than five establishments. Consequently, data were not available on energy consumption in most food processing industries in Newfoundland, PEI, the Yukon and NWT. However, the non-availability of data from these provinces and territories should not significantly affect our estimates.

From 1990 to 1996, energy consumption in residential food preparation was about 3% of the total final energy demanded in Canada. Ontario and Quebec were the highest consumers of residential energy. Table 3 indicated that these two provinces were the most populated provinces. Energy use in the commercial sector was also highest in Ontario and Quebec. The commercial sector energy consumption represented approximately 1% of the total energy used in Canada.

The objective of this study was also to estimate the average per capita energy consumed on nutrition per day in Canada. Our findings suggests that every Canadian uses about 66 MJ of energy per day on nutrition. This estimate does not include the energy used by humans and animals for food provisions. Not included in this estimate in renewable energy, wood energy, the energy sequestered in food processing machinery and buildings, and the energy used in waste management. Fluck et al. (1980) suggested that more than 15 MJ of energy per day is required to provide food for one person.

Because Canada exports and imports farm and processed food products, the amount of energy corresponding to net food exports was estimated. Thus, the total energy consumed by Canadians was calculated by subtracting the quantity of energy used in producing net food exports from the total amount of energy used in farming and food processing (Table 36).

Further research is needed in order to estimate the quantities and values of energy used in transporting farm and processed food products. Statistics Canada should report the quantities of fossil fuels and hydro energy used in the processing sector. Better methods are also needed in estimating the energy sequestered in farm machinery and buildings, and the energy consumed in the manufacture of farm pesticides.

 

 

 

12. Appendix 1

Conversion Factors

Acre = 0.404686 ha

m3 = cubic meter = 1000 litres = 220 gallons

BTU = British Thermal Unit = 1054.615 Joules

Calorie = 4.1868 Joules

KJ = Kilojoule = 103 Joules = 0.948213 BTU ‘s

MJ = Megajoule = 106 Joules

GJ = Gigajoule = 109Joules

TJ = Terajoule = 1012Joules

PJ = Petajoule = 1015Joules

1 Ton Oil Equivalent (MTOE) = 41.9 TJ

1 Ton Coal Equivalent (TCE) = 29.3 TJ

1 TJ = 28 852.7 Litres of Motor Gasoline

To Convert Metric Units To TJ, multiply by

Coal

Anthracite Kilotonnes 27.7

Imported Bituminous Kilotonnes 29.0

Canadian Bituminous Kilotonnes 30.3

Sub - Bituminous Kilotonnes 18.3

Lignite Kilotonnes 15.0

Coke Kilotonnes 28.8

Coke Oven Gas Kilotonnes 18.6

 

To Convert Metric Units To TJ, multiply by

 

Natural Gas

(150c & 101.325 KPA) 106m3 38.55

Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)

Ethane 103m3 18.36

Propane 103m3 25.53

Butane 103m3 28.62

Crude

Crude Oil 103m3 38.76

Light and Medium 103m3 38.51

Heavy 103m3 40.90

Pentanes Plus 103m3 35.17

Refined Petroleum Products

Motor Gasoline 103m3 34.66

Kerosene 103m3 37.68

Diesel 103m3 38.68

Light Fuel Oil 103m3 38.68

Lubes & Greases 103m3 39.16

Heavy Fuel 103m3 41.73

Still Gas 103m3 41.73

Electricity GW.h 3.6

________________________________________________________________

A complete Table of conversion factors can be found in Statistics Canada, Energy Statistics Handbook.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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