SEED: Energy Amounts in Seed Inputs and Grain Outputs

Johnston1

Boerma2

Southwell3

Pimentel4

Coefficient

Grain

Type

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

to Use

Canola

Seed

13.8

13.8

Grain

23.2

23.2

23.2

23.2

Wheat

Seed

7.2

7.2

Grain

13.8

13.8

13.8

Field Pea

Seed

3.2

3.2

Grain

14

14

14

14

Lentils

Seed

Grain

17

17

17

Barley

Seed

Grain

12.5

12.5

Flax

Seed

Grain

14

14

9.2

Rye

Seed

Grain

9.2

9.2

14

Oats

Seed

Grain

10.4

10.4

Oat-Hay

0.73

0.73

1. Johnston and Cowell (1997) from Stout (1990), Pimental (1980), Southwell & Rothwell (1977)

2. Boerma et al. (1980)

3. Southwell and Rothwell (1977)

4. Pimental (1980)

 

Field Machinery: Energy and GHG Coefficients

Entz5

Johnston1

Townsend2

Stout3

Southwell4

Fuel

Energy

Implement

Total

Jensen6

Blankenhornet7

Field Operations

MJ / ha

MJ / ha

L/ha

MJ / ha

L/ha

MJ / ha

L/ha

l/ha

MJ/ha

MJ/ha

MJ/ha

MJ/kg/year

MJ/kg

Airseeder

232

466

10.3

Anhydrous Application

588

13

Baler

3.07

135.05

18.88

Banding Granular or Liquid

232

Combine Pickup

660

14.6

7.03

309.25

196.17

505.42

Straight Cut

750

16.6

Stripper

Home Base

Cultivator(Primary Tillage)

220

877

19.4

646

14.3

5

219.95

94.93

314.88

Cultivator (Spring light Tillage)

163

493

10.9

438

9.7

480

10.6

Cultivator (Secondary Tillage)

4.11

180.8

78.11

258.91

Disc

Disc Seeder

249

5.5

300

6.6

Harrow

79

68

1.5

1.48

65.11

59.11

124.22

Harrow-Packer

94

2.14

94.14

127.24

221.38

Hoe-drill

163

325

7.2

5.53

243.26

138.78

382.04

Mower Conditioner

4

175.96

84.96

260.92

Press Drill

208

4.6

Sprayer

44

70

1.7

0.93

40.91

40.47

81.38

Spreader

1.93

84.9

28.43

113.33

Swathing

300

7.3

2.47

108.66

62.65

171.18

Tandem Disking

661

12.2

820

18.1

6.42

282.42

126.46

408.88

other

Truck (3T.) & Auger

4.9

194.09

60.65

254.74

121.3

Zero-till drill

190

258

5.7

Tractors

Tractor 150 HP

57.79

158.9

Powered Machines

9.6

Non-powered machines

6.8

Trucks

11

1. Johnston and Cowell (1997) from Stout (1990), Pimental (1980), Southwell & Rothwell (1977)

2. Townsend (1979)

3. Stout (1990)

4. Southwell and Rothwell (1977)

5. Entz et al (1995)

6. Jensen (1977)

7. Blankenhornet et al. (1982)

** R.C. Fluck (1985) recommend the use of a repair and maintenance energy to manufacturing and retailing energy of .55.

 

Fertilizer: Energy Coefficients

Bhat6

Johnston1

Southwell2

Entz3

Coxworth4

Boerma5

Direct

Transport

Total

Thurhollow7

Dovring8

Mudahar9

Leach10

Fertilizer

Analysis

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

GJ/t

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

GJ/t nutrient

MJ /kg

Urea- N

46-0-0

86.5

101

83.53

83.53

68.41

7.05

75.46

113.925

76.26

Urea-Ammonium Nitrate

28-0-0

76.99

65.27

Ammonia -N

34-0-0

60.1

90.6

74.93

74.93

61.33

7.05

68.38

100.905

66.59

MAP- P2O5

11-51-0

65.5

12.56

31.388

2.2

- demihydrite

8.3

Ammonium Sulfate-S

21-0-0-24

65.97

58.05

Potassium Chloride- K2O

0-0-60

11.4

11.35

4.8

6.35

11.15

10.463

4.3

Anhydrous Ammonia

82-0-0

90.6

60.1

60.11

50.6

7.05

57.65

76.958

55.3

P2O5

12.69

4.01

8.33

12.34

15.6

11-51-0 N

116.6

65.51

P

20.3

11.03

Other N Fertilizers

76.99

90.6

89.1

Other P Fertilizers

11.35

20.3

P2O5 GJ/mt

Sodium Nitrate

32%

0.963

Aqua Ammonium

25%

0.53

Phosphate Rock 28% - 38% P2O5

4

Zinc Sulfate

2.5

Elemental Sulfur

*no energy charge for recovered sulfur

Mixes (Mudahar et al.)

bulk blend

Fluid

GJ/tonne

0.074

0.55

1. Johnston and Cowell (1997) from Stout (1990), Pimental (1980), Southwell & Rothwell (1977)

2. Southwell and Rothwell (1977)

3. Entz et al (1995)

4. Coxworth et al. (1995)

5. Boerma et al. (1980)

6. Bhat et al. (1994)

7. Thurhollow and Perlack (1991) estimate 47.5% electricity, 26.75% diesel, 25.9% NatGas for phosphorous

8. Dovring and McDowell (1980)

9. Mudahar and Hignett (1982) Anhydrous Ammonia 60% feedstock, 37% Heat, 3% Fuel Power.

10. Leach (1976)

Jaques (1992) 1.56 t CO2/t ammonia and .73 t CO2/ t urea.

 

Fuel: Energy and GHG Coefficients

Marland1

Entz4

Coxworth5

Stout8

HHV

Boerma2

Southwell3

Carbon

HHV*C

Jaques6

Zentner7

HHV

NEB9

Values to Use

Fuel Type

MJ /L

MJ /L

MJ /L

g/MJ

MJ /L

kg C/GJ

MJ /L

MJ /L

% C

MJ /L

MJ /L

g/MJ

Coefficient

Gasoline

34.78

41.2

18.41

39.61

18.41

51.5

34.6

88%

34.66

39.61

18.41

1.1

Diesel

38.96

45.2

19.26

43.99

19.26

53.6

39.0

38.68

43.99

19.26

1.1

Aviation Gas

33.52

Kerosene

37.68

Lubricants

43.8

51.9

51.9

Ethanol

23.066

52%

26.27

Implement Energy

19.13

13.13

Light Oil

38.68

Heavy Oil

41.73

Oil

19.92

19.92

Electricity

1 kwh = 10.5 MJ of coal/nuclear energy = 3.6 MJ for Hydro Bhat et al. (1994)

Natural Gas/ m3

38.02

13.78

45.17

13.78

37.3

37.78

45.17

13.78

1.1

Propane

30.33

16.55

25.5

30.33

16.55

Lignite Coal

14.62

25.56

14.62

25.56

30

70-80

14.62

25.56

1.0

LP

Feedstocks

kg C/GJ

26.6

26.6

Wood

PetroChem

3.87

23

23

3.87

Energy Intensity Coefficients

Naphthas

3.87

3.87

Refined Petroleum

1.2227

NatGas

9.09

9.09

Natural Gas

1.1166

Electricity

4.0683

* assumes electricity is generated from coal

Crop Residue

10-15

Electricity Generation

Province

Coal

Nat Gas

Hydro

Alberta

90.6

5.1

4.2

Saskatchewan

74.1

0.7

25.2

Manitoba

0.6

0.1

99.3

** Oil sands Manufacture of Diesel and gas is not accounted for ( 4% increase)

1. Marland & Thurhollow (1991)

2. Boerma et al. (1980)

3. Southwell and Rothwell (1977)

4. Entz et al (1995)

5. Coxworth et al. (1995) High Heat Value (HHV) times indirect energy coefficient (C)

6. Jaques (1992) & Marland (1983)

7. Zentner (1989)

8. Stout (1990)

9. NEB - National Energy Board / Stats Canada 1991 a, b.

 

Herbicide: Energy and GHG Coefficients

* the % of Oil, natural gas and coal in pesticide production is 42% oil, 38% nat gas and 20% coal.

Johnston1

Boerma2

Stout3

Entz4

Coxworth5

Zentner6

Robinson7

Pimental8

Green9

Product

Common Name

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ/Kg

g C/kg

MJ/kg a.i.

kg C/kg a.i.

MJ/Kg

MJ/kg

kcal/kg ai

MJ/kg

Achieve

tralkoxydim

62

Ally

metsulfuron methyl

Amber

trisulfuron

Assert

imazamethabenz

126

317

Assure

quizalofop ethyl

Atrazine

atrazine

188

189

190

Attain

flouroxypyr + 2,4-DE

Avadex

Triallate

1368

231

231

2.75

Avenge

difenzoquat

Banvel

Dicamba

402

336

4.05

294

295

Basagran

bentazon

493

5992

493

5.99

434

Bladex

cyanazine

366

-295

201

Buctril M

bromoxynil + MCPA E

185

461

526

4157

335

4.16

295

Champion Plus

fenoxaprop-ethyl +MCPA E+2,4-D E+thifensulfuron

Curtal M

Clopyralid/MCPA

Edge

ethalfluralin

380

308

3.73

Eptam 8E

EPTC

160

Estaprop

dichloroprop

189

2-4-D

82

Express Pack

trienuron+2,4-D E

Fortress

Triallate/trifluralin

506

Fusion

fenoxaprop-ethyl/fluazifop-butyl

77

Hoegrass 284

diclofop methyl

328

374

4.53

HoegrassII

diclofop methyl+bromoxynil

374+526

4525+6365

413

5

Laser

fenoxaprop+Bromoxynil+MCPA

300

3.63

Laser DF

fenoxaprop-p-ethyl+MCPA E+thifensulfuron

Lontrel

clopyralid

47

Lorox DF

linuron

290

MCPA

MCPA

89

129

145

0.97

130

130

Muster

ethametsyl Furon methyl

5

Johnston1

Boerma2

Stout3

Entz4

Coxworth5

Zentner6

Robinson7

Pimental8

Green9

Product

Common Name

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ /kg

MJ/Kg

g C/kg

MJ/kg a.i.

kg C/kg a.i.

MJ/Kg

MJ/kg

kcal/kg ai

MJ/kg

Odyssey

imazamox imazethapyr

Pardner

bromoxynil

461

Poast

sethoxydim

44

328

328

350

4525

308

3.73

Prevail

tralkoxydim+clopyralid/MCPA

Puma

fenoxyprop-ethyl

27

300

3.63

Pursuit

imazethapyr

15

Refine Extra

thiensulfuron+tribenuron

5

Reglone

diquat

475

5.97

398

400

Roundup

Glyphosate

450

461

511

7508

511

7.51

387

454

452

454

Rustler

Glyphosate+dicamba

368

4.46

Select

clethodim

15

Sencor

metribuzin

42

200

2.42

Stampede

Propanil

219

220

Target

dicamba+mecoprop+MCPA A

99

Thumper

bromoxynil + 2,4-D E

Treflan 5G

Trifluralin

225

375

375

7173

167

1.98

151

147

150

Triumph Plus

fenoxyprop-ethyl+MCPA E+thifensulfuron

30

Venture

fluazifop-butyl

2,4-D Amine

2,4-D

148

82

82

98

1.12

85

2,4-D Ester

2,4-D

202

241

2.31

87

101

2,4,5-T

2,4,5-T

237

135

1. Johnston and Cowell (1997) from Stout (1990), Pimental (1980), Southwell & Rothwell (1977)

2. Boerma et al. (1980)

3. Stout (1990)

4. Entz et al. (1995)

5. Coxworth et al. (1995)

6. Zentner et al. (1989)

7. Robinson and Mollan (1982)

8. Pimental (1980)

9. Green (1987) in Energy in Plant Nutrition and Plant Control, Z. Helsel

 

Energy and Carbon Studies

Guilden and Entz

C-Till

Z-Till

C-Till

Z-Till

MJ/ha/year

MJ/ha/year

C/ha/year

C/ha/year

Machinery

551.47

370.09

10.55

7.08

Fuel

1197.09

762.86

22.56

14.57

N

3886.79

3530.91

54.9

51.53

P

382.9

365.09

7.7

7.34

Herbicides

312.36

427.55

4.52

5.87

Total

6330.61

5456.5

100.23

86.39

 

Fungicides: Energy and GHG Coefficients

Pimental1

Green2

Seed Treatments

Common Name

MJ/kg

MJ/kg

Apron FL

Metalaxyl

Baytan

tiadimenol

Benlate

Benomyl

397

Benolin-R

Benomyl+Thiram+Lindane

Bravo 500

chlorothalonil

Captain Flowable

Captan

115

115

Cloak

carbathiin+thiram+Lindane

Crown

carbathiin+thiabendazole

DB-Green L

Maneb+Lindane

DLC

Diazinon+Captain+Lindane

Dithane DG

mancozeb

Formaldehyde SN

Formaldehyde

Formalin

Formaldehyde

IPCO N-M Dual Purpose Drill box

maneb + lindane

IPCO N-M Drill box

maneb

99

99

Kumulus

sulphur

111

Premiere Plus

thiabendazole+thiram+Lindane

Ronilan DF

vinclozolin

Roval Flo

iprodione

Roval ST

Lindane+iprodione

58+

Thiram 75 WP

thiram

Tilt 250 E

propiconazole

Vitaflo 280

carbathiin+thiram

Vitavex RS Flowable

carbathiin+thiram+lindane

Vitavex Single Solution

carbathiin

ferbam

64

81

1. Pimental (1980)

2. Green (1987)

 

Pesticides : Energy and GHG Coefficients

Boerma1

Zentner2

Robinson3

Pimental4

Green5

Insecticide

Common Name

MJ/kg

MJ/kg

MJ/kg

MJ/kg

MJ/kg

Ambush

permetrin

Decis

deltamethrin

217

Diazinon

diazinon

Furadan

carbofuran

454

452

454

Lorsban

chlopyrifus

Malathion

malathion

385

229

Sevin

carbaryl

153

152

153

methoxychlor

70

parathion

138

methyl parathion

(error in Green or Pimental)

58

1. Boerma et al. (1980)

2. Zentner (1989)

3. Robinson, D. W. and R.C. Mollan, (1982)

4. Pimental (1980)

5. Green (1987)

GJ/t a i

Emulsifiable Oils

20

Wettable Powders

30

Granules

20

Packaging

2

Transport

1

 

Farm Buildings: GHG and Energy Coefficients

Coxworth1

Jensen2

Jaques3

Carbon

Carbon

Energy

Energy

Energy

kg C/t

kg C/m3

MJ/kg

kg C/ GJ

MJ/m3/year

t CO2/t

Cement

279

0.5

Concrete

81.089

Steel

596

31

Grain Storage

13.8

Machinery Storage

153

Buildings

16.94

1. Coxworth et al. (1995)

2. Jensen (1977)

3. Jaques (1992)

 

Transportation: Energy and GHG Coefficients

Williams1

S&S Canada2

Hirst3

R. S. & A4

Jaques5

Pimental6

Stout7

Intercity

Branch Line

Fuel

CO2

NO

CO

HC

PM

Carbon

MJ/t-km

MJ/t-km

MJ/t-km

L/1000t*km

kg/1000t*km

kg/1000t*km

kg/1000t*km

kg/1000t*km

kg/1000t*km

t / kL

t / TJ

kcal/ kg/km

MJ/t-km

Rail (diesel)

0.47

0.37

0.54

21.162

1.156

0.222

0.058

2.79

70.69

0.12

1.2

Truck (diesel)

2.00

1.77

1.78

54.144

148.8

0.856

0.474

0.102

0.0781

0.83

3.0

Boat (Heavy Oil)

0.37

74.00

0.08

1.2

Air

6.63

Trucks

L/Payload t*km

70,000 lbs GVW

0.02115

130,000 lbs GVW

0.01380

1. Williams

2. Supply and Services Canada

3. Hirst, E., (1973) Energy Use for Food in US ORNL-NSF-EP-57 Oak Ridge Nat. Lab, Ten.

4. Roberts, Sloane and Associates Inc. (1992) Branchline Abandonment Study

5. Jaques (1992)

6. Pimental (1980)

7. Stout (1984)

The Environmental Implications of Increased Trucking due to Branch line Abandonment in Western Canada

Roberts, Sloane and Associates Inc., for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

: trucks release 2.8 times more CO2 than Trains per tonne mile

 

Methane Emissions from Animals

Crutzen1

McAllister2

Mathur3

Desjardins4

Jaques5

Beef

kg/hd/year

kg/hd/year

kg/hd/year

kg/hd/year

kg/hd/year

Cattle

55

Cows

65

48

Bull

75

120

Feeder Calves

8

48

Yearling

52

Stocker Calves

21

24

Feedlot Cattle

15

Heifers

36

Dairy

Cows

140

120

Yearlings

62

72

Calves

29

24

Swine

Pigs

1-1.5

Sows

3.3

5

9-27 kg

1.4

1

20-60 kg

2

> 60 kg

3

Poultry

0.0045

Chickens

Hens

0.02

Turkeys

0.01

Sheep

5-8

10

Lambs

6

Goats

5

5

Horses

18

18

Mules/Asses

10

10

1. Crutzen et al. (1988)

2. McAllister (1997)

3. Mathur (undated)

4. Desjardins (undated)

5. Jaques (1992) from Casada and Safley Jr. (1990)

 

Methane Emissions from Animals

Jaques1

Type

kg/hd/year

Dairy Cattle

0.019

other Cattle

0.011

Pigs

0.044

Sheep

0.019

Lambs

0.019

Chickens

0.024

Hens

0.018

Turkeys

0.019

1. Jaques (1992) from Casada and Safley Jr. (1990)

 

BIOMASS: GHG Coefficients

CO2

N2O

CH4

Stout

Crop

kg CO2/kg dm

kg N2O/kg dm

kg CH4/kg dm

% Carbon

Wheat

Durum

Barley

Oats

Canola

Flax

Sunflowers

Lentils

Peas

Corn

Other Cereals

0.0002947

Legume

0.0005894

Wood

50-60

 

Herbicide: Energy Coefficients from M.B. Green (1987) multiplied by coefficients from Coxworth (1994)

Herbicide

Indirect

Direct

Product

Common Name

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Electricity

Steam

Total

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Elect

Steam

Total

Achieve

tralkoxydim

Ally

metsulfuron methyl

Amber

tirsulfuron

Assert

imazamethabenz

Assure

quizalofop ethyl

Atrazine

atrazine

43.2

68.8

14.4

37.2

24.7

188.3

48.2976

81.7344

0

16.2576

37.83

32.604

216.726

Attain

flouroxypyr

0

2,4-D E

Avadex

Triallate

0

Avenge

difenzoquat

0

Banvel

Dicamba

69

73

4

96

53

295

77.142

86.724

0

4.516

97.63

69.96

335.974

Basagran

bentazon

128.6

66.1

42.3

118.5

78.1

433.6

143.774

78.5268

0

47.7567

120.5

103.09

493.664

Bladex

cyanazine

54.6

65.8

15.2

38.6

26.8

201

61.0428

78.1704

0

17.1608

39.25

35.376

231.006

Buctril M

bromoxynil

0

MCPA E

Champion Plus

fenoxaprop-ethyl

0

MCPA E

2,4-D E

thifensulfuron

Curtal M

Clopyralid

0

MCPA E

Edge

ethalfluralin

0

Eptam

EPTC

16.5

39.6

8.9

66.7

28.1

159.8

18.447

47.0448

0

10.0481

67.83

37.092

180.465

Estaprop

dichloroprop

0

2-4-D E

0

Express Pack

tribenuron ethyl

0

2,4-D E

Product

Common Name

0

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Elect

Steam

Total

Fortress

Triallate

0

trifluralin

45.12

10.24

6.32

46.16

12.88

120.72

50.4441

12.16512

7.13528

46.94

17.001

133.690

Fusilade

fluazifop-p-butyl

89.2

71.6

8.6

183.4

165.2

518

99.7256

85.0608

0

9.7094

186.5

218.06

599.077

Fusion

fenoxaprop-p-ethyl

0

fluazifop-p-butyl

89.2

71.6

8.6

183.4

165.2

518

99.7256

85.0608

0

9.7094

186.5

218.06

599.077

Glean

chlorsulfuron

91.3

35.6

7.8

112.2

118.5

365.4

102.073

42.2928

0

8.8062

114.1

156.42

423.699

*Amber,Ally,RefineX,Prism

Hoegrass 284

diclofop methyl

0

HoegrassII

diclofop methyl

0

bromoxynil

Laser

fenoxaprop-p-ethyl

0

Bromoxynil

MCPA E

Laser DF

fenoxaprop-p-ethyl

0

MCPA E

thifensulfuron methyl

Linuron 480

linuron

96.5

68.1

6.6

88.4

30.1

289.7

107.887

80.9028

0

7.4514

89.90

39.732

325.876

Lontrel

clopyralid

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

MCPA

MCPA

53.3

12

12.6

27.5

22.3

127.7

59.5894

14.256

0

14.2254

27.96

29.436

145.474

Muster

ethametsulfuron methyl

0

Odyssey

imazamox

0

imazethapyr

Pardner

bromoxynil

0

Poast

sethoxydim

0

Prevail

tralkoxydim

0

clopyralid

MCPA E

Primextra light

metolachlor

101.2

27.6

15.1

78.2

53.7

275.8

113.141

32.7888

17.0479

79.52

70.884

313.391

atrazine

15.3

24.3666

5.1

13.175

8.7479

66.689

17.1054

28.9476

5.7579

13.39

11.547

76.7571

Product

Common Name

0

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Elect

Steam

Total

Puma

fenoxyprop-p-ethyl

0

Pursuit

imazethapyr

0

Refine Extra

thifensulfuron methyl

0

tribenuron methyl

Reglone

diquat

70

65

1

100

164

400

78.26

77.22

1.129

101.7

216.48

474.789

Roundup

Glyphosate

33

93

1

227

100

454

36.894

110.484

1.129

230.8

132

511.366

Ruster

Glyphosate

12.2359

34.4831

0.37078

84.16853

37.078

168.33

13.6797

40.96597

0.418617

85.59

48.943

189.607

dicamba

8.625

9.125

0.5

12

6.625

36.875

9.64275

10.8405

0.5645

12.20

8.745

41.9967

Select

clethodim

0

Sencor

metribuzin

0

Stampede

propanil

62

40

3

64

51

220

69.316

47.52

3.387

65.08

67.32

252.631

Target

dicamba

8.98437

9.50520

0.52083

12.5

6.9010

38.411

10.0445

11.29218

0.588020

12.71

9.1093

43.7466

mecoprop

MCPA A

Thumper

bromoxynil

0

2,4-D E

Treflan 5G

Trifluralin

56.4

12.8

7.9

57.7

16.1

150.9

63.0552

15.2064

0

8.9191

58.68

21.252

167.113

Triumph Plus

fenoxyprop-p-ethyl

0

MCPA E

thifensulfuron methyl

Venture

fluazifop-p-butyl

89.2

71.6

8.6

183.4

165.2

518

99.7256

85.0608

0

9.7094

186.5

218.06

599.077

2,4-D Amine

2,4-D

39

9

23

16

87

43.602

0

0

10.161

23.39

21.12

98.274

2,4-D Ester

2,4-D

0

2,4,5-T

2,4,5-T

43

23

2

42

25

135

48.074

27.324

0

2.258

42.71

33

153.37

Fungicides

Product

Common Name

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Electricity

Steam

Total

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Elect

Steam

Total

Apron FL

Metalaxyl

0

Baytan

tiadimenol

0

Benlate

Benomyl

86.7

71.2

14.3

121.2

103.6

397

96.9306

84.5856

16.1447

123.2

136.75

457.673

Benolin-R

Benomyl

10.404

8.544

1.716

14.544

12.432

47.64

11.6316

10.15027

1.937364

14.79

16.410

54.9207

Thiram

Lindane

Bravo 500

chlorothalonil

0

Captain Flowable

Captan

38

14

52

11

115

42.484

16.632

0

0

52.88

14.52

126.52

Cloak

carbathiin

0

thiram

Lindane

Crown

carbathiin+thiabendazole

0

thiabendazole

DB-Green L

Maneb

0

Lindane

DLC

Diazinon

0

Captain

22.8

8.4

0

0

31.2

6.6

69

25.4904

9.9792

0

0

31.73

8.712

75.912

Lindane

Dithane DG

mancozeb

0

Formaldehyde SN

Formaldehyde

0

Formalin

Formaldehyde

0

IPCO N-M Dual Purpase Drill box

maneb

20.25

17.25

6

6.75

18.75

5.25

74.25

22.6395

20.493

6

7.62075

19.06

6.93

82.752

lindane

IPCO N-M Drill box

maneb

27

23

8

9

25

7

99

30.186

27.324

8

10.161

25.42

9.24

110.336

Kumulus

sulphur

0

Product

Common Name

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Electricity

Steam

Total

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Elect

Steam

Total

Premiere Plus

thiabendazole+thiram+Lindane

0

Ronilan DF

vinclozolin

0

Roval Flo

iprodione

0

Roval ST

Lindane

0

iprodione

Thiram 75 WP

thiram

0

Tilt 250 E

propiconazole

0

Vitaflo 280

carbathiin

0

thiram

Vitavex RS Flowable

carbathiin+thiram+lindane

0

Vitavex Single Solution

carbathiin

0

?

ferbam

42

3

13

23

81

0

49.896

3

0

13.22

30.36

96.477

Insecticide

Common Name

Naptha

Nat Gas

Coke

Fuel Oil

Elect

Steam

Total

Ambush

permetrin

0

Decis

deltamethrin

0

Diazinon

diazinon

0

Furadan

carbofuran

137

63

1

44

127

82

454

153.166

74.844

1

49.676

129.1

108.24

516.085

Lorsban

chlopyrifus

0

Malathion

malathion

62

41.2

6.1

92.1

27.4

228.8

69.316

48.9456

0

6.8869

93.66

36.168

254.982

Sevin

carbaryl

11

48

26

1

54

13

153

12.298

57.024

26

1.129

54.91

17.16

168.529

?

methoxychlor

10.2

11.6

2.4

28.7

16.9

69.8

11.4036

13.7808

0

2.7096

29.18

22.308

79.3899

?

parathion

35

23.1

5.2

1.6

57.1

16

138

39.13

27.4428

5.2

1.8064

58.07

21.12

152.769

?

methyl parathion

37

24

6

2

73

18

160

41.366

28.512

6

2.258

74.24

23.76

176.137

 

Nitrous Oxide Emission Coefficients

Jaques1

kg N2O/t

Mobile Sources

Gasoline

No Catalyst

0.31

Oxidation

0.60

3-Way Catalyst

0.60

Aged 3-Way Catalyst

2.20

Diesel

0.46

Heavy Oil

0.46

Aviation Fuels

0.31

Stationary Combustion

Natural Gas/Still Gas

0.03

Coal (conventional)

0.05

Coal ( fluidized bed)

2.11

Light and Heavy Oil

0.14

g N2O/kg

Wood

0.16

Kg N2O/t

Fertilizer (NH3)

3.40

* released in the manufacturing process

1. Jaques (1992)

 

Fertilizer: GHG Coefficients

% N

Entz3

Coxworth4

released

Fertilizer

Analysis

gC/kg

Kg C/t

as N2O1

Urea- N

46-0-0

1225

1225

0.11

Urea-Ammonium Nitrate

28-0-0

1118

0.05

Ammonia -N

34-0-0

1102

1102

0.12

MAP- P2O5

11-51-0

0.1

- demihydrite

Ammonium Sulfate-S

21-0-0-24

971

0.12

Potassium Chloride- K2O

0-0-60

212

Anhydrous Ammonia

82-0-0

841

841

1.63

P2O5

255

11-51-0 N

943

P

253

Other N Fertilizers

1118

Other P Fertilizers

212

Sodium Nitrate

0.05

Aqua Ammonium

1.63

Phosphate Rock 28% - 38% P2O5

Zinc Sulfate

Elemental Sulfur

*no energy charge for recovered sulfur

Mixes (Mudahar et al.)

bulk blend

GJ/tonne

0.074

1. Entz et al (1995)

2. Coxworth et al. (1995)