Energy Use and CO2, N2O, CH4 Release Studies

 

ü Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Research in Agriculture, Sainte-Foy, March 12-14, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

 

ü Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, The Environmental Implications of Increased Trucking due to Branch Line Abandonment in Western Canada, a study by Roberts, Sloane and Associates Inc., 1992.

 

ü Coxworth, E., V.O. Biederbeck, C.A. Campbell, M.H. Entz and R.P. Zentner, A Canadian Bioenergy Success Story: Energy Saving Implications of the Increase in Peas and Lentils in Rotations in Western Canada and Soybeans in Ontario, Final Report to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Melfort Research Station, 1996.

 

ü Coxworth, E., G. Hultgreen and P. Leduc, Net Carbon Balance Effects of Low Disturbance Seeding Systems on Fuel, Fertilizer, Herbicide and Machinery Usage in Western Canadian Agriculture, Report for TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB, 1994.

 

ü Coxworth, E., G. Hultgreen and P. Leduc, Analysis of Crop Production Systems for Reducing Carbon Emissions, Stashing Carbon in Soils and Providing Raw Materials for Bioenergy Production, 1995.

 

ü Coxworth, E., M.H. Entz, S. Henry, K.C. Bamford, A. Schoofs, P.D. Ominski, P. Leduc and G. Burton, Study on the Effects of Cropping and Tillage Systems on the Carbon Dioxide Released by Manufactured Inputs to Western Canadian Agriculture, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, 1995.

 

Curtin, D., F. Selles, C.A. Campbell H. Wang, and V.O. Biederbeck, Canadian Prairie Agriculture as a Source and Sink of Greenhouse Gasses, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Swift Current.

 

Davidson E., J.E. Rogers and W.B. Whitman, Microbial Production and Causes of Greenhouse gasses, (1991) P. 219-235.

 

ü Entz, M. H., S. Henry, K.C. Bamford, A. Schoofs and P. D. Ominski, Carbon Released by Manufactured Inputs in Prairie Agriculture: Impact of Forage Crops and Tillage Systems, 1995.

 

ü Gulden, R.H. and M.H. Entz, A Comparison of Energy Use and Carbon Release on Two Manitoba Farms with Contrasting Tillage Systems, 1996.

 

ü Havlin, J.L., D.E. Kissel, L.D. Maddux, M.M. Claasen and J.H. Long, Crop Rotation and Tillage Effects on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen, Am. J. Soil Sci. Soc., 54 (1990) P.448-452.

ü Henry, S., The Energetics of Cropping Systems: A Study of Two Crop Rotations Utilizing Conventional and Zero-till Production Methods, U of M Grad Thesis, 1994.

 

Heichel, G.H., Energy Analysis of Forage Crop Production, J of Animal Sci., 54 (1980) P. 869-876.

 

ü Horsman, K. D., Unpublished Undergrad Thesis, U of S, 1996.

 

ü Kulshreshtha, S.N. and M. A. Bonneau, Agriculture’s Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Canada, report for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, CSALE 1997.

 

ü Kulshreshtha, S.N., M. Boehm and M. A. Bonneau, Contributions of Agriculture to Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Exploring some Policy Options, report for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, CSALE 1997.

 

ü Lockeretz, W., Agriculture and Energy, Academic Press, New York, 1977.

 

Stobbe, E. H., Zero Tillage Technique saves Fuel cuts Erosion, 1979.

 

N2O Emissions and NUE

 

ü Aulakh, M.S., D.A. Rennie and E.A. Paul, Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from Cropped and Summerfallowed Soils, Can. J. Soil Sci., 62 (1982) P. 187-195.

 

ü Aulakh, M.S., D.A. Rennie and E.A. Paul, The Influence of Plant Residues on Denitrification Rates in Conventional and Zero Tilled Soils, Am. J. Soil Sci. Soc., 48 (1984) P. 790-794.

 

ü Aulakh, M.S., J.W. Doran, D.T. Walters and J.F. Power, Legume Residue and Soil Water Effects on Denitrification in Soils of Different Textures, Soil Biol. Biochem, 23 (1991) P. 1161-1167.

 

Badaruddin, M. and D.W. Meyer, Grain Legume Effects on Soil Nitrogen, Grain Yield and Nitrogen Nutrition of Wheat, Crop Sci., 34 (1994) P1304-1309.

 

Beckie, H.J. and S.A. Brandt, Nitrogen Contribution of Field Pea in Annual Cropping Systems. 1. Nitrogen Residual Effect, Can. J. Plant Sci., 77 (1997) P. 311-322.

 

Beckie, H.J., S.A. Brandt, J. Schoenau, C. Campbell, J. Henry, and H. Jansen, Nitrogen Contribution of Field Pea in Annual Cropping Systems. 2. Total Nitrogen Benefit, Can. J. Plant Sci., 77 (1997) P. 322-331.

 

Bouwman, A.F., Exchange of Greenhouse Gases between Terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, In Soils and Greenhouse Effect edited by A.F. Bouwman, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1990, P. 61-127.

 

Bouwman, A.F., Direct emission of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils, RIVM report # 7730044004 RIVM Bithoven, Netherlands, 1994a.

 

Bouwman, A.F., Estimated Global source distribution of nitrous oxide, in NIAES Series 2-CH4 and N2O Global Emissions and Controls from Rice Fields and other Agricultural and Industrial Sources, edited by K. Minami, A. Mosier and R.Sass, Yokendo Pub., Tokyo, 1994b, P 147- 159.

 

ü Campbell, C.A., R.P. Zentner, F. Selles, B.G. McConkey and F.B. Dyck, Nitrogen Management for Spring Wheat Grown Annually on Zero-Tillage: Yields and Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Agron. J., 85 (1993) P. 107-114.

 

ü Corre, M.D., D.J. Pennock and C. van Kessel, Regional-scale Quantification of Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Soils and Crops 1996, P. 213-222.

 

ü Eichner, M.J., Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Fertilized Soils: Summary of Available Data, J. of Environmental Quality, 19 (1990) P. 272-280.

 

Galbally, I. E., Biosphere atmosphere exchange of trace gases over Australia, in Australia’s Renewable Resources: Sustainability and Global Change, edited by R. Gifford and M. Barson, (1992) P. 117-149.

 

ü Gauer, L.E., C.A. Grant, D.T. Gehl and L.D. Bailey, Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Grain Protein Content, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Six Spring Wheat Cultivars, in relation to estimated moisture supply, Can. J. Plant Sci., 72 (1992) P. 235-241.

 

ü Goodroad and D.R. Keeney, Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soils During Thawing, Can. J. Soil Sci., 64 (1984) P. 187-194.

 

ü Grant C.A., Use of Urease Inhibitors, in Proceedings of the 1998 Direct Seeding Conference, SSCA, (1998) P.42-49.

 

ü Hutchinson, G.L., Biosphere Atmosphere Exchange of Gaseous N Oxides, in Soils and Global Change, R. Lal, J Kimble, E. Levine and B.A. Stewart, Lewis Publishers, London, P. 219-236, 1995.

 

ü Lemke R., E. Solberg, C. Izaurralde and M. Nyborg, Seasonal Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils in The Parkland Region of The Canadian Prairie, PARI Website (1995).

 

ü Miller, P., R. Zentner, B. McConkey, C. Campbell, D. Derksen, C. McDonald and J. Waddington, Using Pulse Crops to Boost Wheat Protein in the Brown Soil Zone, in Wheat Protein, Production and Marketing edited by D. Fowler, W. Geddes, A. Johnston and K.R. Preston, University Extension Press, U of S, 1998.

 

ü Mosier, A.R., J.M. Duxbury, J.R. Freney, O. Heinemeyer and K. Minami, Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields: Assessment, measurement and mitigation, Plant and Soil, 181 (1996) P. 95-108.

 

ü McConkey B., S. Brandt, C. Campbell, D. Curtin, J. Schoenau and F. Selles, Reduced Tillage = Reduced Protein?, in Wheat Protein, Production and Marketing edited by D. Fowler, W. Geddes, A. Johnston and K.R. Preston, University Extension Press, U of S, 1998.

 

McTaggart, I. H. Clayton and K. Smith, Nitrous Oxide Flux from fertilized grassland: Strategies for reducing emissions. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, Maastriicht, Kluwer Press, Netherlands, Dec. 1993, P. 421- 426

 

ü Schoenau, J., S. Dormer and M.C.J. Grevers, Swine Manure as a Nitrogen Fertilizer for Improving Grain Yield and Protein Concentration of Spring Wheat, in Wheat Protein, Production and Marketing edited by D. Fowler, W. Geddes, A. Johnston and K.R. Preston, University Extension Press, U of S, 1998.

 

ü O’Hara, G.W. and R.M. Daniel, Rhizobial denitrification: a review, Soil Biol. Biochem, 1985, 17, P. 1-9.

 

Van Amstel, A.R., and R.J. Swart, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission: an introduction, Fertil- Resource Kluwer Academic Publishers, 37 (1994) P.213-225.

 

Wright, A.T., Quality Effects of Pulses on Subsequent Cereal Crops in the Northern Prairies, Can. J. Plant Sci., 74 (1990) P. 1013-1021.

 

Energy and GHG Coefficients:

 

Bhat, M.G., B.C. English, A.F. Turhollow, and H.O. Nyangito, Energy in Synthetic Agriculture Inputs: Revisited, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/sub/90-99732/2, Oak Ridge Tennessee, 1994.

 

ü Baird. C.D. and R.C. Fluck, Agriculture Energetics, AVI Publishing Company Inc, Westport, Connecticut, 1980.

 

DeLuchi, M., Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity, Argonne National Laboratory Report ANL/ESD/TM-22, Volume 1, Volume 2, available from NTIS.

ü Doering, O.C, Accounting for Energy in Farm Machinery and Buildings, Handbook of Energy Utilization in Agriculture, Pimental, D., Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press, 1980.

 

ü Fluck, R.C., Energy Sequestered in Repairs and Maintenance of Agriculture Machinery, Trans ASAE, 28, (1985) P.738-744.

 

Fluck, R.C., Energy in Farm Products, Volume 5, Elsevier Publishers Inc.

 

ü Green, M.B., Energy in Pesticide Manufacture, Distribution and Use, chapter 7 in Energy in Plant Nutrition and Pest Control, Z.R. Helsel, Elsevier, New York, 1987.

 

ü Helsel, Z.P., Energy in World Agriculture, Volume 2: Energy in Plant Nutrition and Pest Control, Elsevier Science Publishing Company Inc., New York, 1987.

 

Hopper, G.R., The Energetics of Canadian Prairie Wheat Production 1948-1981, Proceedings Energex 1984, Energy Developments, P. 677-683.

 

ü Jaques, A.P., Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: estimates for 1990, report EPS5/AP/4, Environmental Protection Publications, Conservation and Protection, Environment Canada, Ottawa, 1992.

 

Jensen, N.E., Grain and Forage Production Systems related to Energy Input, Canadex, Production Economics 820, Agriculture Canada, 1977.

 

ü Pimental, D., Handbook of Energy Utilization in Agriculture, Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press, 1980.

 

ü Pimental, D., and G.H. Heichel, Energy Efficiency and Sustainability of Farming Systems, in Soil Management for Sustainability, Chapter 10, R. Lal and F.J. Pierce, Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, Iowa.

 

Stirling, B., Use of Non-Renewable Energy on Saskatchewan Farms, Background Study 2, Saskatchewan Science Council, 1979.

 

Southwell, P.M. and R.M. Rothwell, Analysis of output/input Energy Ratios of Food Production in Ontario, Report to Engineering research service, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ont. 1977.

 

ü Stout, B. A., Handbook of Energy for World Agriculture, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, 1990.

 

Townsend, J. S. Energy Efficiency of Farm Equipment and Zero Tillage Systems, Manitoba- North Dakota Tillage Workshop, January 1979.

Thurhollow, A.F., and R.D. Perlack, Emissions of CO2 from Energy Crop Production, Biomass and Bioenergy, 1 (1991) P. 129-135.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., D.W. Campbell, C.A. Campbell and D.W. Reid, Energy Considerations of Crop Rotations in Southwestern Saskatchewan, Can. Agric. Eng., 26 (1984) P 25-29.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., M.A. Stumborg and C.A. Campbell, Effect of Crop Rotations and Fertilization on Energy Balance in Typical Production Systems on the Canadian Prairies, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 25 (1989) 217-232.

 

Animal and Manure CO2, N2O, CH4

 

Coyne, M.S., R.A. Gilfillen and R.L. Blevins, Nitrous Oxide Flux from poultry-manured erosion plots and grass filters after simulated rain, J. of Environmental Quality, 23 (1994) P831-834.

 

Husted, S., Seasonal Variation in Methane Emission from stored slurry and solid Manures, J. of Environmental Quality, 23 (1994) P. 585-592.

 

Patni, N., H. Jackson, D. Masse, M. Wolynetz and R. Kinsman, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Stored Dairy-Cattle Manure Slurry, Louisiana State University, 1995 (0395) P. 70-75.

 

Steed, J. and A.G. Hashimoto, Methane Emissions from typical manure management systems, Bioresource Technology, 50 (1994) P.123-130.

 

Residue and Soil Organic Matter:

 

ü Anderson, D.W., Decomposition of Organic Matter and Carbon Emissions from Soils, in Soils and Global Change, R. Lal, J Kimble, E. Levine and B.A. Stewart, Lewis Publishers, London, P165-175, 1995.

 

ü Arshad, M.A., M. Schnitzer, D.A. Angers and J. A. Ripmeester, Effects of Till vs No- till on the Quality of Soil Organic Matter, Soil Biol. Biochem , 22 (1990) P. 595- 599.

 

Baur, A. and A.L. Black, Soil Carbon Nitrogen and Bulk Density Comparisons in two cropland tillage systems after 25 years and in virgin grassland, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 45 (1981) P. 1166-1170.

 

ü Biederbeck, V.O., C.A. Campbell and R.P. Zentner, Effect of Crop Rotation and Fertilization on some Biological Properties of a loam in Southwestern Saskatchewan, Can. J. Soil Sci., 64 (1984) P. 355-367.

 

ü Biederbeck, V.O., H.H. Jansen, C.A. Campbell and R.P. Zentner, Labile Organic Matter as influenced by Cropping Practices in an Arid Environment, Soil Biol. Biochem, 26(12) P. 1647-1656.

 

Bowren, K.E., D.A. Cooke, and R.K. Downey, Yield of Dry matter and Nitrogen from Top and Roots of Sweet Clover, Alfalfa, and Red Clover at five stages of growth, Can J. Plant Sci., 49 (1969) P. 61-69.

 

ü Campbell, C.A., B.G. McConkey, R.P. Zentner, F.B. Dyck, F. Selles and D. Curtin, Carbon Sequestration in a Brown Chernozem as affected by tillage and rotation, Can. J. Soil Sci., 75 (1996) P. 449-458.

 

ü Campbell, C.A., V.O. Biederbeck, R.P. Zentner and G.P. Lafond, Effects of Crop Rotations and Cultural Practices on Soil Organic Matter, Microbial Biomass and Respiration in a Thin Black Chernozem, Can. J. Soil Sci., 71 (1991) P 363-376.

 

ü Campbell, C.A., K.E. Bowren, M. Schnitzer, R.P. Zentner and L. Townley-Smith, Effects of Crop Rotations and Fertilization on Soil Organic Matter and some Biochemical Properties of a Thick Black Chernozem, Can. J. Soil Sci., 71 (1991) P. 377- 387.

 

ü Campbell, C.A., B.G. McConkey, R.P. Zentner, F. Selles, and D. Curtin, Long-term effects of tillage and crop rotations on soil organic C and total N in a clay soil in southwestern Saskatchewan, Can. J. Soil Sci., 76, P395-401.

 

ü Campbell, C.A., G.P. Lafond, F. Selles, G. Wen and D. Hahn, Straw Removal and Fertilization on Grain Yields and Soil Organic Matter in a Fallow-Wheat-Wheat Rotation,

 

Dodge, D.A. and H. E. Jones, The Effect of Long Term Fertility Treatments on the Nitrogen and Carbon Content of a Prairie Soil, J Am Soc. Agron, 40 (9) P. 778- 785.

 

Fenster, C.R. and Peterson, Effects of no-tillage fallow as compared to conventional tillage in a wheat-fallow system, Nebr. Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Bull. 289.

 

Frank, A.B., D.L. Tanaka, L. Hofmann and R.F. Follett, Soil Carbon and Nitrogen of Northern Great Plains grasslands as influenced by long-term grazing, J. Range Management, 48 (1995) P. 470-474.

 

Ismail, I., R.L. Blevins and W.W. Frye, Long-term no-tillage effects on soil properties and continuous corn yields, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 58 (1994) P. 193-198.

 

ü Janzen, H.H., Effect of Fertilizer on Soil Productivity in Long-term Spring Wheat Rotations, Can J. Soil Sci., (1987) P. 165-174.

ü Johnson, M.G., E.R. Levine and J.S. Kern, Soil organic matter: Distribution, Genesis and Management to reduce Greenhouse gas Emissions, Water Air and Soil Pollution, 82 (1995) P. 593-615.

 

ü Kern, J.S., and M.G. Johnson, Conservation Tillage Impacts on Natural Soil and Atmospheric Carbon Levels, Am. J. Soil Sci. Soc., 57 (1993) P. 200-210.

 

Lamb, J.A., G.A. Peterson and C.R. Fenster, Wheat fallow tillage systems’ effect on a newly cultivated grassland soils’ nitrogen budget, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49 (1985) P. 352-354.

 

Mohr, R.M., M.H. Entz and H.H. Jansen, Release of Nitrogen from Alfalfa Residue as influenced by stand termination Method, Agron. Abs, 316, 1994.

 

Naeth, A., Review of the Effect of Zero Tillage on Soil Organic Matter Content in Western Canada and the Northern Plains of the U.S.A., Report to a Major Western Canadian Utility.

 

Nyborg, M., E.D. Solberg, S.S. Malhi and R.C. Izaurralde, Fertilizer N, Crop Residue and Tillage alter soil C and N content in a decade, in R. Lal et al (eds) Soil Management and Greenhouse Effect, Lewis Pub., Boca Raton, 1995, P. 93-99.

 

Rasmussen, P.E. and C.R. Rohde, Long-term changes in soil C, N and ph produced by NH4-N fertilization, Agron. Abstr. (1983) P. 176.

 

ü Reicosky, D.C. and M.J. Lindstrom, Impact of Fall Tillage on Short-Term Carbon Dioxide Flux, in Soils and Global Change, R. Lal, J Kimble, E. Levine and B.A. Stewart, Lewis Publishers, London, P.177-187, 1995.

 

ü Solberg, E.D., M. Nyborg, R.C. Izaurralde, H.H. Janzen, S.S. Malhi, and M. Molina- Ayala, Carbon Storage in Soils Under Continuous Cereal Cropping: N Fertilizer and Straw, PARI Website, (1996).

 

Cropping System References:

 

ü Aase J.K. and L.L. Reitz, Effects of Tillage Practices and Crop Sequence on Spring Grain Production in the Northern Great Plains, Applied Ag. Research, Vol. 4, No.1, P. 30-36.

 

ü Appleby, T., The Economics of Conservation Tillage in Alberta, Alberta Food and Rural Development, Agdex 821-67, October, 1993.

 

ü Brandt, S.A., Zero vs Conventional Tillage and their Effects on Crop Yield and Soil Moisture, Canadian J. Plant Sci., 72 (1992) P. 679-688.

 

ü CAEEDAC, Sustainable Farming Systems In Saskatchewan, Study for PFRA, 1997.

 

Campbell, C.A., R.P. Zentner, H.H. Janzen and K.E. Bowren, Crop Rotation Studies on the Canadian Prairies, Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Pub. 1841/E.

 

ü Ellert, K. M., Cropping Systems for a Sustainable Future: Long-term Studies in Alberta, CAESA, 1995.

 

ü Entz, M.H., N. Holliday, K.C. Bamford, D.L. Burton and J.K. Vessey, Sustainability of Conventional, Zero Tillage, Low Input and Organic Cropping Systems in Southern Manitoba: 1992 to 1996, Sustainable Farming Spring 1997.

 

ü Entz, M.H., P.D. Ominski, R. Mohr, A. Schoofs, D. Forster, W.J. Bullied, S. Shirtliffe and K.C. Bamford, Forages Improve Efficiency of Prairie Cropping Systems, Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, 1997.

 

ü Entz, M.H. and S.R. Smith, Increasing the Diversity and Efficiency of No-Till Rotations, University of Manitoba Extension.

 

ü Lafond, G.P., H. Loeppky and D.A. Derkson, The Effects of Tillage Systems and Crop Rotations on the Soil Water Conservation, Seeding Establishment and Crop Yield, Can. J. Plant Sci., 72 (1992) P 103-115.

 

ü Lafond, G.P., R.P. Zentner, R. Geremia and D.A. Derkson, The Effects of Tillage Systems on the Economic Performance of Spring Wheat, Winter Wheat, Flax and Field Pea Production in East-Central Saskatchewan, Can. J. Plant Sci., 73 (1993) P. 47-54.

 

ü Lafond, G.P., S.M. Boyetchko, S.A. Brandt, G.W. Clayton and M.H. Entz, Influence of changing tillage practices on crop production, Can. J. Plant Sci., 73 (1996)

P. 641-649.

 

Moes, J., Alternative Crops under Zero-Tillage, in Proceedings Manitoba/ND Zero Tillage Farmers Association Workshop, (1996) P. 179-180.

 

ü Smith, E.G., T.L. Peters, R.E. Blackshaw, C.W. Lindwall and F.J. Larney, Economics of Reduced Tillage follow crop systems in the Dark Brown soil zone of Alberta, Canadian J. Soil Sci., 75 (1996) P. 411-416.

 

ü Smolik, J.D., T.L Dobbs and D.H. Rickerl, The Relative Sustainability of Alternative, Conventional and Reduced Till Farming Systems, Am. J of Alternative Agriculture, 10.1, (1995) P. 25-35.

 

 

 

ü Stevenson, C., A. Johnston, S. Brandt and L. Townley-Smith, The Importance of Inputs in Different Tillage/Farming Systems : in Proceedings of the 1997 Ethanol Research and Development Workshop, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Natural Resources Canada, 1997.

 

ü Teague, M.L., D.J. Bernardo and H.P. Mapp, Meeting Environmental Goals Efficiently on a Farm-Level Basis, Review of Ag. Econ, 17(1995) P. 37-50.

 

Wright, A. T., General overview of conservation tillage. In G.P. Lafond and D.B. Fowler, eds. Proceedings of the Soil Conservation Symposium: Crop Management for Conservation. Division of Extension and Community Relations, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sk. 22-23 February, Yorkton, Sk. 1990b

 

ü Zentner, R.P., S.A. Brandt and C.A. Campbell, Economics of Monoculture Cereal and Mixed Oilseed-cereal Rotations in West Central Saskatchewan, Can. J. Plant Sci., (1995) P. 393-398.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., S.A. Brandt, K.J. Kirkland, C.A. Campbell and G.J. Sontag, Economics of Rotation and Tillage Systems for the Dark Brown Soil Zone of the Canadian Prairies, Soil and Tillage Research, 24 (1992) P. 271-284.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., M.A. Strumborg and C.A. Campbell, Effect of Crop Rotations and Fertilization on Energy Balance in Typical Production Systems on the Canadian Prairies, Ag. Ecosys. Environ., 25 (1989) P. 217-232.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., K.E. Bowren, J.E. Stephenson, C.A. Campbell, A. Moulin and L. Townley-Smith, Effects of Rotation and Fertilization on Economics of Crop Production in the Black Soil Zone of North-Central Saskatchewan, Can. J. Plant Sci., 70 (1990) P. 837-851.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., F. Selles, C.A. Campbell, K. Handford and B.G. McConkey, Economics of Fertilizer-N Management for Zero-Tillage continuous Spring Wheat in the Brown Soil Zone, Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 72 (1992) P. 981-995.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., E.G. Smith, D.D. Wall, C.A. Campbell, B.G. McConkey, S.A. Brandt, A.M. Johnston, G.P. Lafond and D.A Derksen, Economics of Conservation Tillage in The Canadian Prairies, 1997.

 

ü Zentner, R.P., B.G. McConkey, C.A. Campbell, F.B. Dyck and Selles, Economics of Conservation Tillage in the Semiarid Prairie, Can. J. Plant Sci.,(1996) P.697-705.

 

Other References:

 

ü Canola Council of Canada, Canola Growers Manual, 1984.

 

ü Conservation Tillage Productivity Centre, Minto Manitoba, Report 1993-1995

 

ü Derkson, D.A. and G.P. Lafond, How Crop Rotation Affects Weed Control in Direct Seeding Systems, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head, Sask., 1995 Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Assn. Direct Seeding Workshop, A Systems Approach, Lloydminister, Feb. 14-15, 1995.

 

ü Derksen, D.A., and L. Juras, Integrated Weed Management (IWM) and Crop Sequencing, Soils and Crops Workshop 1996 Proceedings.

 

ü Ducks Unlimited Canada and Conservation Production Systems Limited, Winter Wheat Production manual.

 

ü Farm Facts, Can-Sask Agreement on Soil Conservation, Comparing the Costs of Conventional and Direct Seeding, Jan 1995, ISSN 0840-9447 SCC21294.

 

ü Farm Facts, Risk Factors in Stubble Cropping, Sask Agriculture and Food, ISSN 0840- 9447.

 

ü Farm Facts, Chemical Weed Control in Direct Seeding Systems, Sask Agriculture and Food, ISSN 0840-9447 SCC0394R.

 

ü Farm Facts, Soil Temperature and Crop Emergence Under Conventional and Direct Seeding, 1994, ISSN 0840-9447 SCS1294.

 

ü Fowler, D., W. Geddes, A. Johnston and K.R. Preston, editors, Wheat Protein, Production and Marketing, University of Sakatchewan Extension Press, 1998.

 

ü Grant, C.A., Using NBPT to Increase Efficiency and Safety of Urea Fertilizer, in Proceedings of the 1998 Direct Seeding Conference.

 

ü Greer, K.J. and J.J. Schoenau, Short and Long Term Changes with Direct Seeding, Sask. Centre for Soil Research, University of Sask., Saskatoon, 1995 Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Assn. Direct Seeding Workshop, A Systems Approach, Lloydminister, Feb. 14-15, 1995.

 

ü Johnson, E., A Systems Approach to Weed Management, Sask. Agriculture and Food, North Battleford, Sask., 1995 Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Assn. Direct Seeding Workshop, A Systems Approach, Lloydminister, Feb. 14-15, 1995.

 

ü Johnston, A.M., Agronomic Pillars of Direct Seeding, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Melfort, Sask., 1995 Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Assn. Direct Seeding Workshop, A Systems Approach, Lloydminister, Feb. 14-15, 1995.

 

ü Lafond, G.P., D.A. Derksen, Soil Temperature In the Rooting Zone Under Conventional and Conservation Tillage, PARI web site, (1995).

 

ü Lafond, G.P., D.A. Derksen, Crop Water Use and Conservation Tillage, PARI web site, (1995).

 

ü Manitoba-North Dakota Zero Tillage Farmers Association, Zero Tillage Advancing the Art, 1997.

 

ü PAMI and SSCA, Direct Seeding Manual, ISBN # 0-9696896-0-8, 1994.

 

ü PFRA, Crop Residue Survey.

 

ü Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food, Crop Protection Guide 1998.

 

ü Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food, Principles and Practices of Crop Rotation, 1997.

 

ü Saskatchewan Pulse Crop Development Board, Pulse Production Manual,

ISBN# 0-9696896-2-4.

 

ü Soil Works, Economics of Zero-till, Canada-Sask Agreement on Soil Conservation.

 

Surveys:

 

ü Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Manure, Fertilizer and Pesticide Management in Canada, 1998.

 

Entz, M.H., Organic Farming Study of Man., ND, and SD

 

ü Haak, D., S. McNally, Direct Seeding and Crop Sequence Trends in West Central Saskatchewan, Soils and Crops 1996, P. 3555-358.

 

ü Reed, W.B., P.M. Maule and D. Wulfsohn, Maintenance of Soil Crop Production Under Minimum Tillage and Continuous Cropping, Agriculture Canada and PFRA , 1992.

 

ü Nagy, C.N. and R.A. Schoney, A Survey of Reduced Tillage Producers in Saskatchewan, 1995.

 

ü Statistics Canada 1991, 1996 Census.