Climate Change Information Sheet 30


DATA on greenhouse gas emissions and sources


Table 1: A sample of greenhouse gases affected by human activities

                                  CO2           CH4               N2O                CFC­11      HCFC­22         CF4 
                                (carbon      (methane)     (nitrous                         (a CFC          (a perfluoro­
                                 dioxide)                   oxide)                          substitute)     carbon)

Pre­industrial concentration   ~280 ppmv+    ~700 ppbv   ~275 ppbv      zero         zero            zero
Concentration in 1994           358 ppmv     1720 ppbv    312' ppbv     268' pptv    110 pptv        72' pptv
Rate of concentration change*   1.5 ppmv/yr  10 ppbv/yr   0.8 ppbv/yr   0 pptv/yr    5 pptv/yr       1.2 pptv/yr 
                                0.4%/yr      0.6%/yr      0.25%/yr      0%/yr        5%/yr           2%/yr
Atmospheric lifetime (years)    50­200++     12+++        120           50           12              50,000


' Estimated from 1992­93 data.
+   1 ppmv = 1 part per million by volume; 1 ppbv = 1 part per billion by volume; 1 pptv = 1 part per trillion (million million) by volume.
++  No single lifetime for CO2 can be defined because of the different rates of uptake by different sink processes.
+++ This has been defined as an adjustment time which takes into account the indirect effect of methane on its own lifetime.
* The growth rates of CO2 , CH4 and N2O are averaged over the decade beginning 1984; halocarbon growth rates are based on recent years (1990s).
(Ed. note: 1kg of carbon = 3.664 kg of CO2.)


Table 2: Global energy consumption in 1990 by energy source and by sector, in EJ/yr

               Coal      Oil       Gas      Nuclear     Hydroa)     Electricity    Heat       Biomass      Total 
Primary        91        128       71        19           21        -            -           55          385
Final          36        106       41         -           -        35            8           53          279
Industry       25        15        22         -           -        17            4            3           86
Transport      1         59         0         -           -         1            0            0           61
Others         10        18        18         -           -        17            4           50          117
Feedstocksb)   0         14         1         -           -        -             -            -           15

Notes: Primary energy is recovered or gathered directly from natural sources (e.g., mined coal, collected biomass, or harnessed hydroelectricity), then is converted into fuels and electricity (e.g., electricity, gasoline, and charcoal), resulting in final energy after distribution and delivery to the point of consumption. (An EJ, or exajoule, is one billion joules, equal to the energy content of about 24 million tonnes of oil ­ ed.)

a) Nuclear and hydropower electricity have been converted into primary thermal equivalent, with an average factor of 38.5% (WEC, 1983).

b) Feedstocks represent non­energy use of hydrocarbons.

Source: Climate Change 1995, IPCC Working Group II, p. 83; based on IEA, 1993; Hall, 1991, 1993; UN, 1993; WEC, 1983, 1993a, 1993b: Nakicenovic et al., 1993.


Table 3: Land area and use, 1981­93

                                                                                         Land use (000 hectares)
                                           
                         Population     Domesticated          Cropland           Permanent pasture           Forest & woodland              Other Land
               land       density       land as a %                     %                        %                       %                         %
               area       1995          of land areaa)                 change                   change                  change                  change 
               (000       (per1,000                                    since                    since                   since                   since
               hectares)   hectares)                    1991-93       1981­83      1991­93     1981­83    1991­93      1981­83     1991­93     1981­83
Worldb)     13,098,404        436           38         1,450,834       1.3        3,364,537      3.6      4,168,956     (3.6)      4,114,077     (0.5)
Africa      2,963,611        246           35           187,357       5.8          853,049      1.2        760,576     (3.1)      1,162,630     (0.3)
Europec)     2,269,180        320           X            136,757      (2.7)          80,794     (5.6)       158,219      1.4         808,204      0.2    
North &
Central
Americad)     2,178,176         209           29          271,300      (0.9)          362,033      0.1        854,897      5.7         689,945      6.3
South 
America     1,752,925        182           34          104,567      1.6            495,884      3.9        846,721     (4.1)        305,753      (5.2)
Asiac)       3,089,163      1,119            X          470,322      2.9            799,881     12.9        533,087     (1.9)        958,376       9.1
Oceania        845,349        34           57           51,619      4.3            430,738     (3.7)       199,962      24.4        163,030       15.2

Notes: a) Domesticated land is the sum of cropland and permanent pasture. b) Does not include Antarctica. c) Regional land use totals do not include countries of the former Soviet Union. d) Includes Greenland. X = not available; negative numbers are shown in parentheses.

Source: Adapted from World Resources 1996­97, published by WRI, UNEP, UNDP, and the World Bank, pp. 216­217; based on Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Population Division and other sources.


Table 4: Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 , excluding land use change and forestry: Relative inventory figures for 1991­1994 and projections for 2000 (percentage relative to 1990, 1990=100)

                                           Data from inventories                          Data from projections a)                                           
                      1990              1991                    1992                  1993                  1994                   2000
                      (Gg)                %                       %                     %                    %                       %
Australia            288 965                                                                                                     115
Austria               59 200                                                                                                     110
Bulgaria (1990)       82 990                                                                                                      84
Bulgaria (1988)b)        96 878                                                                                                       72
Canada               462 643              98                      101                102                   105                   113
Czech Republic       165 792              94                       86                 84                                          83
Denmark               52 025             121                      110                114                   121                   103
Denmark               58 278             105                      104                103                   101                    92
(elec.trade adjusted)c)
Estonia               37 797              97                       74                 55                    57                  46­61
Finland               53 900             100                       96                 97                   108                   130
France               366 536             106                      102                100                                         104d)
(temp.adjusted)d)
Germany            1 014 155             96                        91                 90                                          90
Greece                82 100                                                                                                     115
Hungary (1990)        71 673                                                                                                      99
Hungary (1985­87)b    83 676                                                                                                      84
Iceland                2 172             96                       101                106                                         105
Ireland               30 719                                                                                                    <120
Italy                 428 941                                                                                                    114
Japan               1 155 000            102                      103                101                    107                  102
Latvia                 22 976                                                                                                    <74
Liechtenstein             208                                                                                                    118
Luxembourg             11 343                                                                                                     67
Monaco                     71      
Netherlands           167 600            104                      103                104                    105                 >100
Netherlands           174 000            100                      101                100                    102                  >96
(temp.adjusted)e)
New Zealand            25 476            102                      110                107                    108              >(114­117)
Norway                 35 514             95                       96                101                    106                  114
Poland (1990)          14 930             96                       90   
Poland (1988)b)        478 880             83                       78                                                           74­99
Portugal               42 148                                                                                                     140
Romania (1990)        171 103             83                       72                70
Romania (1989)         198 479             71                       62                61 
Russian Federation  2 388 720                                                                                                    83­87
Slovakia               58 278                                                                                                      84
Spain                 227 322                                                                                                     116
Sweden                 61 256             89                       92                90                      95                   104
Switzerland            45 070            103                      101                98                      96                    96d)
(temp.adjusted)d)
United Kingdom         577 012           102                       99                97                      96                  92­96
United States        4 957 022            99                      100               103                     103                   >103


Notes: Gg = 1,000 tonnes
a) For further notes to the 2000 figures see table B.1 (FCCC/CP/1996/12/Add.2).
b) Some Parties with economies in transition have chosen different base years than 1990, referring to Article 4.6.
c)All figures are adjusted for electricity trade.
d)The 2000 figure refers to the temperature adjusted 1990 figure.
e)All figures are adjusted for temperature.

Source: Second Compilation and Synthesis Report of first national communications submitted by Parties to the Climate Change Convention, Doc. FCCC/CP/1996/12 and Add.1 and Add.2, Climate Change Secretariat.


Table 5: Greenhouse gas emissions, 1991 (000 metric tons)

               CO2                   CO2
               emissions           emissions                             Methane from anthropogenic sources 
               from                from 
               industrial          land use            Solid           Coal             Oil & gas      Wet rice
               processes           change              waste           mining           production     agriculture    Livestock          Total
World         22,339,408           4,100,000            43,000         36,000           44,000           69,000         81,000          270,000
Africa           715,773            730,000              1,700          1,700            6,000            2,400          9,000           21,000
Europe         6,866,494             11,00              17,000          6,600           15,000              420         14,000           53,000
North &
Central
America        5,715,466            190,000             11,000          6,100            8,200              590          9,200           35,000
South
America          605,029           1,800,000            2,200             280            2,200              870         15,000           21,000
Asia           7,118,317           1,300,000            9,900          20,000           12,000           65,000         30,000          140,000
Oceania          297,246              38,000              690           1,400              310               75          3,300            5,800


Source: World Resources Institute, as cited in World Resources 1996­97, pp. 326­329.


Table 6: Per­capita CO2 emissions (metric tons):
10 indicative rates

Brazil               1.39
China                2.27
Czech Republic      13.04
Japan                8.79
Russian Fed.        14.11
Swaziland            0.33
India                0.88
Malaysia             3.74
UK                   9.78
US                  19.13


Source: Adapted from CDIAC as cited in World Resources 1996­97.