1. In 1995, Canadians released an estimated 619 Mt of greenhouse gases (GHG) (on a carbon dioxide, or CO 2 , equivalent basis) into the atmosphere.

2. Overall, Canada is characterized by short, intense summers with wide temperature variations and long, cold winters, which place a heavy demand on energy consumption, especially for heating buildings. Despite its geographic immensity, Canada supports only a relatively modest population — more than 29 million in 1995, or 0.5% of the world’s people — but emits 2% of the global greenhouse gas emissions. Average population density is low — about 3.0 persons per square kilometre — but this figure is misleading, as the population is highly concentrated in major urban areas in the south near the Canada – U.S. border.

3. Developed countries, including Canada, represent only about 20% of the world’s population but use about 80% of the world’s resources. Canada has the second highest population growth rate among industrialized countries (due mainly to net immigration). Over the period 1973–1993, Canada’s population grew at an annual rate of 1.22%, compared with 0.98% for the United States, 0.14% for the United Kingdom and Germany, and 0.69% for Japan. This population growth puts a demand on the production of goods and services.

4. Gross domestic product (GDP) is one measure of a country’s ability to generate wealth. From 1990 to 1995, Canada’s GDP rose by 8.2% (Table 2.2). Canadians use energy at rates similar to those of residents of other developed countries  but countries like Japan, with a slightly higher GDP per capita, use much less energy. Part of the reason is that Canada exports energy-intensive products. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of these products are attributed to Canada, not the importing country.Following a small reduction in 1991,Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions increased steadily from the 1990 level of 567 Mt of carbon dioxide equivalent to 599 Mt in 1994 and 619 Mt in 1995. This represents an increase of 9.0% over 1990 levels in 1995 while the population grew by 6.5% over the same period, representing a per capita increase of almost 3%. Canada’s GDP increased by 8.2% over the same period (Table 2.2), leading to an increase in emissions per unit of GDP of 1.2%.

5. There are five major factors that, through their interaction, determine the nature and extent of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions: (1) population size and growth, (2) economic activity, (3) energy intensity (i.e., amount of energy consumed by a given population or level of economic activity), (4) greenhouse gas intensity of energy requirements (i.e., the extent to which carbon-based fuels are used in energy consumption), and (5) land use (i.e., urban development, agricultural and forestry practices). Understanding these factors or indicators helps to reveal why greenhouse gas emissions are rising or falling for a particular sector over a specified time period.

6. The production and consumption of fossil fuels (petroleum products, natural gas, and coal) are the main sources of the chief anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide). Therefore, both the extent to which and the way in which Canadians use energy or produce it for export are pivotal for Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions.

7. Our modern economy and lifestyles are energy dependent. As population grows, a higher demand for goods and services has traditionally followed. Meeting these needs requires energy, much of which is fossil fuel based (especially the  transportation sector, as well as electricity production in certain regions). Canada’s population grew by 6.5% over the period 1990–1995, outpacing that of all other G-7 countries, and it is projected to grow at an annual rate of 0.9% to 2020, raising the population from 29.6 million to 36.8 million. Canada’s GDP increased by 8.2% from 1990 to 1995 and is projected to be 12% higher in 2000 than it was in 1995, and 70% higher in 2020.

8. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy production and use can be divided into emissions resulting from energy used in the domestic market and those resulting from energy produced for export. The bulk of exported energy resources are crude oil and natural gas — over 50% of domestic production in 1995 — followed by coal (about 45% of domestic production) and electricity (about 6% of domestic and much of it hydroelectric). Between 1990 and 1995, oil and gas production increased by 35%, and exports doubled. The emissions associated with this production were the single most important cause of the increase in Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions over the 1990–1995 period, accounting for 31% of the total increase in emissions. Despite the very significant decrease in the amount of energy consumption required per unit production, the sheer volume of export activity overwhelmed any energy efficiency improvements insofar as greenhouse gas emissions were concerned. As the review of the National Action Program on Climate Change (NAPCC) concluded, had it not been for the growth in oil and gas exports, the petroleum industry’s emissions in Canada would have been approximately stable over the 1990–1995 period. This raises important, and as yet unresolved, questions about the attribution of emissions between exporters and importers of energy. Canada’s natural gas exports are playing a significant role in the increased use of high-efficiency cogeneration in many areas of the United States, resulting in reduced air emissions within North America. Although Canada does not consume these energy resources bound for export and so important to our economy, the emissions associated with their production, partial processing, and transportation to the United States and elsewhere are attributed to Canada.

9.  Canada is a land of extremes and contrasts. Its surface area (land plus fresh water) of 9 970 620 km 2 occupies 7% of the world’s land mass and is second only to that of the Russian Federation. Canada extends roughly 5 300 km east to west, the distance between Paris and New York, and nearly 4 600 km south to north. As a consequence, Canada faces long freight haulage demands, which contribute to greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector.

10.An Agriculture Canada model to calculate carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from soils (“Century”) has allowed this source to be incorporated. Studies currently under way on nitrous oxide from manure and soils may reveal additional emissions that need to be accounted for. wood wastes. Newer agricultural studies, showing lower generation rates of methane from farm animals, have changed our estimate for “livestock/manure” emissions.

11. Approximately 89% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in 1995 were attributable to fossil fuel production, transportation, and consumption. On a sectoral basis, energy industries accounted for about 34%, industry (fuel combustion and process  emissions) 20%, transportation 27%, residential 10%, commercial and institutional 5%, and agricultural sources 5% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in 1995.

12. While carbon dioxide’s share of the total greenhouse gas emissions in 1995 declined one percentage point from 1990’s share of 82%, overall greenhouse gas emissions rose about 9% over the 1990 level of 567 Mt. Although carbon dioxide is the dominant greenhouse gas, the increase in emissions of carbon dioxide was overshadowed by increases in emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. Over the period 1990–1995, carbon dioxide emissions increased about 8% from a level of 464 Mt to 500 Mt, methane emissions almost 16%, from 3 200 kt to 3 700 kt, nitrous oxide emissions about 28%, from a level of 86 kt to 110 kt, while PFCs and emissions of sulphur hexafluoride remained relatively constant at levels of 6 and 2 Mt of carbon dioxide equivalent, respectively. Emissions of HFCs were 0.0 Mt in 1990 and 0.5 Mt of carbon dioxide equivalent in 1995.