HomeLink to CSALE  

The Greenhouse Gas Page

This page is currently under . It will contain data related to greenhouse gas and other issues related to agriculture.  Much of the material is included here as reference material for CAEEDAC staff members.

To import html and pdf files into Excel for use in a document, the following procedure can be followed: Import into wordpad, set deliminators such as a comma etc, copy and paste into excel.  Use the data command to change text to columns. Files in html can be saved on the web as text files and imported directly into Excel.

Since the page is still in development, it is recommended that, as a first step,  you use key words to search.  Press Edit on the Netscape or Microsoft Explorer menu at the top of the page, then Find in Page to search for items of interest. Or click on any of the following to go to the relevant linked item.

Send suggestions on adding to the page or on format to:

Andre Hucq College of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive,Saskatoon, Sask.,Canada S7N 5A8.

Phone:(306) 966-4025
Fax: (306) 966-8413
email: hucq@duke.usask.ca


Very New
Search for anyone in the Federal Government  
Photo's of farm equipment, weather, etc.  
Version 2.0 of the climate change/biodiversity bibliography has been\par posted. Over 400 citations were added in this version.Version 3.0 will include oneline posting of the Endnote file, facilitating\par importation of the citations if you use this program.}  
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Global Warming Site  
Cattlemen's Calculator  
Weathervane: Research into GHG issues The three primary forms of flexibility currently under debate in climate policy – "where," the physical location of where reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases will occur; "when," the date by which such reductions will take place; and "what," which greenhouse gases should be the focus of international efforts.
Do a search for Saskatchewan  
Saskatchewan Communities or Communilink  
Climatic Research Unit Drawing on the databank maintained by the Climatic Research Unit, Climate Monitor Online presents a summary of current climate conditions in tabular and graphical form including the very latest estimates of global surface air temperature.
Get free data from Stats Canada or have a custom search done.  
Community Networking ||
Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases 
Internet Edition 1.2 of the handy word finder reference tool.
WWWebster Dictionary 
The World Wide Web edition of Merriam-Webster's CollegiateŽ Dictionary, Tenth Edition.





  Grain handling: Final report  
  National Round Table on the Environment  
  Global Change Electronic Edition  
CICERO - International Climate and Environmental Research  
  The Canada Country Study  
U.S inventory of GHG and sinks  
More COP4 links or here  
	 How stuff works
        COP 4 (IPCC Page)
    	 COP 4 and IISD
        CoP4 reviews from the BBC etc.
        WhoWhere? International Directory Links
        Saskatchewan links or something on Saskatoon.
        Toronto Stock Exchange and Canoe 
        Energy Education.  
        Link to the CAEEDAC transportation page
        Link to the CAEEDAC hog production page.
        AgriWeb Home
Imperial oil and GHG
	 A couple of interesting sites ("El Nino" and "The great climate flip-flop")


Government Departments (and Institutions)




      U.S and other International links






Glossary of Terms (this section incorporates measurement converters and Calculators)


Kyoto Protocol


General Agricultural Data


Greenhouse Gas Related Home Pages


Greenhouse Policy Implications


Canadian Greenhouse Data




Joint Implementation


International Greenhouse Data

Government Departments


Departments of the Canadian government can be reached via this link.

    Canadian Government Information on the Internet 

The following have pages devoted to Greenhouse Gas (GHG):


 The government of Canada’s Global Climate Change siteContact Lynda Duchesne, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada.

 Natural Resources Canada.

     NRCan climate change website.

    The National Forestry Database Program

    Statistics Division of NRCan.
    Employee directory of NRCan.
    NRCan document search engine for GHG.
     Addressing Climate Change
     An Agenda to Address Climate Change
     The Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE)

Industry Canada


Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Environment Canada.

 The environmental links .
Atmospheric Environment Service
 Canada's National Environmental Indicator Series.
 Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) for satelite photos.
 The Green Lane on the Information Highway.
 Environment Canada data sources can be found at The State of Canada's Environment Infobase
 Pollution Data Branch and its Greenhouse Gases (GHG) page. From here you can access the Common Air Contaminants (CAC) page; the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) page; the Emission Forecasts and Trends (EFT) page and the Urban Air Quality Trends (UAQT) page.

Department of Justice - Consolidated Statutes

Statistics Canada and Cansim. International Statistics Organizations

Department of Finance

Agriculture and Agrifood Canada.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Programs and Services
Contact the Minister
The Ag Canada's Database.
The ICAR database provides information on agricultural research program at AAFC.
Agriweb with key words.
Agriculture Canada's Environment page.  
Ag Canada's Phone book.
Bi weekly news

    Canada's Electronic Tendering System (merx)

    Canadian IntergovernmentalConference Secretariat

     The Policy Research Initiative


Saskatchewan Greenhouse Gas Reduction Newsline web site
Information sharing network for local government in Saskatchewan (SARM, SUMA etc.)

Provincial governments can be reached via this link.

Saskatchewan Bureau of Statistics.  

Links to other statistical agencies.

 Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food .

      The Internet "Agricultural Magic Bus" directory of Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food.
   The Saskatchewan Wetland Conservation Corporation (SWCC)  
   The Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre .
      The Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association Home Page.
       The Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management page.
    Saskatchewan Environmental Society (SES) with email . Address P.O. Box 1372, Saskatoon, Sask. S7K 3N9
The Energy Research Unit ( ERU) website is more or less in 2 places at the moment.The official location is still: http://www.cas.uregina.ca/~eru. Because of SaskGGRN, you can access it at:http://www.eru.uregina.ca Please note that SaskGGRN is available only at:http://www.eru.uregina.ca/saskggrn
 AGINFONET which provides access to valuable information and services for those involved in prairie agriculture.
Extension Research Unit at the U of S (ERU).
Saskatchewan and the other Provincial statistical pages for mining, energy and forests can be reached here.
Ontario Agriculture
Alberta Agriculture
Manitoba Agriculture
Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan (PCS). (Good source of general information on fertilizers)
SaskPower (includes discussion of the Shand power station and their environmental programs).
SaskEnergy and the SaskEnergy transmission system
Saskatchewan Environment and Resource management.
Sask. Energy and Mines (SEM)


Other Canadian government/institutions pages of interest include:

Yahoo Ag Links
  Canadian Farm Business Management Data
  CN and CP
Global Energy Perspective
Dr. Brian D. Kybett, Director, Energy Research Unit, University of Regina, Regina, Sk, S4S 0A2, Canada
Tel: 306 585 4261. Fax: 306 585 5205.
Ag Links
Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics.  Search the entire database by entering your term(s) and clicking the Search button.
Conference Board of Canada.
Click here to the U of S library (USEARCH).  Follow through to the WinSPIRS and Agricola databases. WebSPIRS is the interface already in place for off-campus users of SilverPlatter databases, and for on-campus users external to the Libraries. Other resources can be accessed here or here.
Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute or here (PAMI) is an applied research and development organization serving agriculture, the industrial equipment sector, forestry, mining, and transportation industries. These services include technical and safety assessments, prototype design, fabrication and testing. PAMI offers expertise in the following areas: applied research, agricultural machinery and equipment, data acquisition and evaluation, agricultural machinery, product development, agricultural and industrial machinery, as well as testing on durability, standards, design and verification.
The National Forum on Climate Change was sponsored by the National Round Table on the Environment and the economy to raise public awareness of the climate change issue and to bring a citizens' viewpoint to the debate.
The Climate Change Secretariat
National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE)
The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency.
The Canadian Federation of Agriculture
 The National Energy Board
 Other links to the grain industry.
Global Climate Change page of the Government of Canada
Canadian Pipeline Energy Association Environment Policy Documents.
The Agricultural Institute of Canada (provides copies of the latest journals)
Canadian Farm Business Management.  The CFBMC Web Site has one of the most comprehensive listings of farm business management URLs in the world.
Canadian Federal government links.
Facts Page
Oil and Gas links
INGAA Pipeline Members are natural gas transmission companies in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
 Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat

U.S and Other International links

Murray Scharf's recommendations:www.dpie.gov.au/dpie/home.html and http://waffle.nal.usda.gov/ (or http://www.agnic.org/  ). AgNIC (Agriculture Network Information Center) is a distributed network that provides access to agriculture-related information, subject area experts, and other resources. Maintainer: U.S. National Agricultural Library.Annotated links: Selectively (Database and Information Systems annotations are the most  exhaustive). Strengths: Breadth of coverage, depth of Database and Information Systems annotations This meta-site is highlighted by the database and information system directory, an exhaustively annotated section containing hundreds of items. Also included are a meetings calendar, over 30 topic-based links to directories of experts, a small annotated directory of pointers to other agricultural meta-sources, a pilot on-line reference service center, and a section of plant disease announcements. It also contains the AGRICOLA Subject Category Code Scope Notes.
Links to International organizations
WTO Web site
Index of California's Energy Commission's Web Site
California Energy Commission
OECD documents
The Federal Web Locator is a service provided by the Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy and is intended to be the one stop shopping point for federal government information on the World Wide Web
U.S. States: Government servers
The U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Worldwide Web Server.
United States Department of Agriculture.
USDA Economic Research Services
U.S. Department of Agriculture: National Agricultural Statistics Service
Try the (U.S.) Federal Web Locator - the one stop shopping point for (U.S.) federal government information on the World Wide Web (for example, key in "AGRICULTURE").
FAO Home Page. This contains the Food and Agriculture of the United Nations statistics database.
U.S. Agricultural Census Data.
OECD Home page for food, agriculture and fisheries.
U.S. Prairie governments and universities
The World Bank Group has recently embarked on a review of issues and options relating to energy and the environment. This is the world bank's global climate change page.


David Oulton, Secretariat on Climate Change, Department of Natural Resources Canada,6 - 55 Murray Street Ottawa, Ontario,Canada K1N 5M3. Telephone: (613) 943-2669.
Canada:National & Regional Organizations. The page also incorporates worldwide Agribusiness, Food Industry & Forest Industry Associations on the Internet.
CNIE (U.S.) Committee for the National Institute for the Environment 1725 K Street, NW Suite 212, Washington, D.C. 20006 (202) 530-5810
Nick McCartney, NRCan contact:  Senior Policy Analyst,  Environment Division, Energy Sector, Natural Resources Canada. Ottawa, ON. (613) 995-7306.
Glossary, Measurements and Calculators
Table: Energy content of farm energy inputs
EARDC 's Converter.  Everything's here.
Measurements (or in html format). Try the International System of Units (tera, giga etc.) Try also this measurement converter. The Oak Ridge carbon dioxide information analysis and tables booklet is available in room 2E76 (AH). Try also the Alberta Agriculture page.
Metric Conversions (Grains) from SAF. Price of Grain per Tonne at Given Bushel Price;Bushel Per Acre Yields Expressed in Kilograms per Hectare;Bushels per Acre Yields Expressed in Kilograms per Acre.
Samson Diarra's tables
Metric/Imperial converter
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Factors.  Also Canada's GHG emission for 1990 can be found in the caeedac computer at caeedac/Environment Canada or at the GHG page of environment Canada.  This folder contains all necessary data to calculate emissions for 1990.
Glossary of GHG terms from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web Page.
Global Warming Potential Table
Terms relevant to Saskatchewan's Environment.
Acronyms taken from Canada's 2nd National Report on Climate Change (November 1997). A copy is filed in aolpress/cannce2.pdf.
Selected Climate Change Terms and Acronyms
Calculators: Choose the product (fertilizer, chemical etc.)  and the calculator will give you the cost of application per acre using the manufacturer's suggested retail price.
Definitions for many terms can be obtained here.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat: A Glossary of Climate Change Acronyms and Jargon.


World maps
Map of Canada with population numbers.
Statistics Canada - Census of Agriculture. View the interactive maps of Saskatchewan agricultural data. Incorporates maps of Field Crops and Forage Seed, Poultry, Livestock and Bees, Operating Arrangements, Land Use and Land Management, and Farm Capital.
The cropland of Saskatchewan (maps) has been divided into four areas based roughly on climate, vegetation and soil type.The relative yields of crop varieties tend to vary from area to area. In choosing a variety a farmer will want to consider the yields in their area and special requirements such as early maturity, disease resistance or sawfly resistance (ERU).
Ecoregions of Saskatchewan (Map) and Rural Municipalities of Saskatchewan. This is the Crop district of Saskatchewan map.
Saskatchewan soil zones and other maps including maps of Saskatchewan's Extension Districts.


GHG slides by Debbie Hills in c:\CAEEDAC\Debbie\GHGPRES.ppt.
This is an outline for a series of slides on climate change and the potential impacts of climate change. Content Titles lead you to an online view of slides in the respective section; each section consists of two to four slides. Alternately, Acrobat Files (right column) allow you to view or download individual sections in Adobe Acrobat 3.0 format -- slides in this format are ready for full page (8.5 X 11) printing (From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).

Kyoto Protocol

The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): Official web page of the Climate Change Secretariat.
The Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC will hold its fourth session (COP4) November 2-13,1998 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Additional information relevant to this meeting will be posted on this page as it becomes available.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I (WGI) was established in 1988 to assess available information on the science of climate change, in particular that arising from human activities. In performing its assessments the WGI is concerned with:
Official Documents
  SBSTA Meetings
National Communications
Climate Change information
Canada's 2nd National Report on Climate Change (November 1997) - A copy is filed in aolpress/greenhousegas/cannce2.pdf.  List of figures and Tables from this document. Includes demand, trends etc. For faster download, go to caeedac/ghg/cannce2.pdf.
Documents for the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI).In-depth reviews of first and second national communications and scheduling for future communications. Note by the secretariat.

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES. (pdf format) Issues related to land-use change and forestry: Note by the secretariat.  
The subsidiary bodies of the UNFCCC are meeting 2 - 12 June, 1998 at the Maritim Hotel in Bonn, Germany.This page will provide links to information relevant to these sessions as it becomes available.
UNFCCC page on agricultural technological sources
Preparatory Work Needed for the Fourth Session of the COP
  Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  The Kyoto Protocol ~ Worldview News on Global Warming
  Fact Sheet:  The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The IPCC Data Distribution Centre Provides Climate Change and Related Scenarios for Impacts Assessments. LIST OF REGISTERED USERS. This list also provides country location.
  The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
  Global and regional Activity Report.  Research taking place around the world.
  Activities Implemented Jointly
  1996 Report of Canada to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Sectoral Issues follow up.
  The 1995 Berlin Climate Summit
  April 29, 1998 - Canada today signed the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change at the United Nations in New York.

General Agricultural Data

  John Deere or see AgriWeb Home for other manufacturers.
  Economic and Policy Analysis Directorate of AAFC.  Reports and publications etc. See for example the Economic Overview of Farm Income reports.
  CD ROM Page
  Links from the CGC
  Energy Efficiency Trends in Agriculture (Report by Rhonda and Simon)
  Western Canada Farm Progress Show ; NAFSC -North American Farm Show Council; FEMA - Farm Equipment Manufacturers Association; FEWA - Farm Equipment Wholesalers Association; PIMA - Prairie Implement Manufacturers Association ;CWEDA - Canada West Equipment Dealers' ; WCGA - Western Canadian Wheat Growers; AIMRA - Agricultural Implement Manufacturers & Retailers Association; ARA - Agricultural Retailers Association;  CFIEI - The Canadian Farm and Industrial Equipment Institute. They compile monthly statistics on tractor and combine sales. Brent Hamre can be reached at (905)632-8483.
  Canadian International Farm Equipment Show
  Canadian Western Agribition
  Farm Tractor Sales for November
  Johannes Moerschner Home Page
  Sam's AAFC report (in html)GDP; CPI; Pop: Energy; Census; Agriculture; Residential; Manufacture; Food Processing; Chemical; Electrical; Commercial.
  Seeding trends in Saskatchewan (West Central)
  Commodity prices, futures, options etc.
  StatsCan data used for the AIMS CD 98 are in caeedac/census96 or in alh134/statscan
  Rhonda and Simon's input/output data is located in Caeedac/mcrae/data or alh134/Rhonda 
  Denise Schmidt's energy coefficients (preliminary)
  Samson Diarra's energy data is located in Caeedac/Sam or alh134/Sam.  The report is filed here.
  Farm equipment links
  Information on GIS
  The Economics & Agronomics of New Crops
  Varieties of grain crops 1998
  The Energy Efficiency Indicators Database (from oee) contains all of the data used in the preparation of the June 1998 report "Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 1996".
  Agriculture Canada's Search Engine
  Bioenergy Mailing List. Bioenergy mailing lists hosted on Solstice by CREST.
  Generating methane gas from manure or here.
  Everything you want to know about production in Saskatchewan.
  Practically Green (TM) provides research, consultancy and engineering to convert organic wastes into biogas , electricity and hot water (Co-generation of Heat and Power CHP), compost and liquid  fertiliser. Digesters.
  Crop Residue Management and Tillage System Trends in the U.S.
  Comparing the Cost of Conventional and Direct Seeding
  Hog industry links such as the Prairie Swine Centre.
  Hybrid Energy Systems: State of the Art Review.  Anaerobic Digester Description.
  U.S. Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators, 1996-97. This report identifies trends in land, water, and commercial input use, reports on the condition of natural resources used in the agricultural sector, and describes and assesses public policies that affect conservation and environmental quality in agriculture.
  Canadian Fertilizer Consumption, Shipments and Trade
  The purpose of this project is to track and document the economic costs of planting, maintaining, monitoring, and harvesting large-scale commercial agricultural plantings of hybrid poplar.
  Grain Trucking Costs
  Some U.S. agricultural research
  Partnerships to Develop and Apply Biomass Technologies
  Introduction to special crops
  Agricultural information from the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool (SWP)
  1996 Census of Agriculture - Characteristics of farm operations
  Report by Simon Weseen and Rhonda Lindenbach for caeedac
  Corn production and the Ontario Corn Producers' Association Home Page
  Statistics Canada - Census of Agriculture. View the interactive maps of Saskatchewan agricultural data. Incorporates maps of Field Crops and Forage Seed, Poultry, Livestock and Bees, Operating Arrangements, Land Use and Land Management, and Farm Capital.
  PAMI is studying the effects of different spread patterns of seed and fertilizer on the performance of canola, wheat, and barley. Three different soil openers (a knife, a spoon, and a sweep) were evaluated.  See also Swine Manure Management Technologies or the other research such as Shelterbelt Harvesting and Chipping Techniques.
  Guide to farm practices in B.C.
  Sustainable Agriculture Library.
  Fast Facts & Figures about agriculture.
  The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is dedicated to development and promotion of biomass-based, environmentally beneficial transportation fuels.  Ethanol1 can be made from a wide variety of biological materials. Agricultural crops - particularly grains - are likely to be usedbecause they have both high productivity and high levels of carbohydrates needed for ethanol manufacture by fermentation. Cars in the 21st century could run on ethanol2 fermented from fiber-rich crop residues like wheat straw or corn stalks instead of corn. Fuel Ethanol - 60% Reduction in Greenhouse Gases. See also Commercial Alcohols Inc has grown to be the largest manufacturer and supplier of industrial grade alcohol (ethyl alcohol or ethanol) in Canada.  Environmental Benefits of Fuel Ethanol.
  Some other pages that deal with ethanol:  http://www.ilsr.org/carbo/ethanol/netethan.html; http://www.ilsr.org/carbo/ethanol/taxcolumn.html#12;      http://www.greenfuels.org/ethaair.html;   http://www.ontariocorn.org/envrefs.html;      http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/ethanol-pollanl.html
  How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Ethanol?   The tables (such as Energy Used to Make Ethanol From Corn and Cellulose (Btus per Gallon of Ethanol)) are incorporated in the ethanol page .
  Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food: Soils, Nitrogen Fertilization in Crop Production etc.
  Carbon Storage in Soils Under Continuous Cereal Cropping: N Fertilizer and Straw
  This is the link to the Saskatchewan Discussion Group.  If you have a question, you might post it here and see what happens!
  1996 Direct Seeding Conference: "Managing Crop Residues for Profit"
  The Permanent Cover Program - Is Twice Enough?
  Socioeconomic Farm Data and the Soil Landscapes of Canada
  Farming Practices Affect Quality of Soils
  Conservation Easements in Alberta. Conservation easements are voluntary agreements between landowners and organizations interested in protecting the natural value of land. They allow an ongoing partnership between landowners and qualified organizations as opposed to outright purchase of a piece of land.
  Wetlands: Frequently asked questions.
  Nature conservancy in Canada
  Soil Management and Tillage Systems
  Precision Agriculture links and Introductory Precision Farming Info.   Also see General Precision Farming or ADM's page. The SSCS page on conservation tillage.
  The North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). The North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) is an international wetlands conservation program designed to restore waterfowl populations to levels recorded in the 1970s through securing, enhancing, and managing wetlands on a landscape level.
  Managing Crop Residues on the Prairies
  National Soil Conservation Program Evaluation Assessment
  Direct Seeding Potential in Saskatchewan.  (Graph for all crops, straw spread and chaff spread)
  Saskatchewan Crop Production Costs for 1998 ($/ACRE) BROWN SOIL ZONE .  DARK BROWN SOIL ZONE. BLACK SOIL ZONE.
  Saskatchewan crop, soil and livestock data.
  AgriWeb Canada is a national directory of Canadian agriculture and agri-food information resources available via the Internet and other electronic means.Canadian resources excluded from AgriWeb Canada because they contain only commercial information may be included in CAFFEINE.
  AgriCarta (TM) is an agricultural resource supplying information of value to Saskatchewan and prairie producers. Information covering topics of production, marketing and farm management is available to support farmers and their business operations.
  Saskatchewan statistics on crop production (summerfallow, seeding areas etc.) can be found here.
  Saskatchewan Farm Finance Statistics with incomes and input prices for insecticides, petroleum, fertilizer and herbicides.
  Statistics on Saskatchewan Agriculture can be found at: http://www.agr.gov.sk.ca/saf/
  Subscribers can access petroleum industry price data through a fax number.  The Canadian Petroleum Markets Data Service (CPMDS) can be accessed  VIA FAX at (403)283-6307.  The internet address is mervin@cadvision.com .
  ScienceNet, is available on the world wide web.It contains an online searchable database.ScienceNet's URL is http://www.sciencenet.org.uk
  Agricultural data from Stats Canada (tractors, tillage methods etc. for 1991).  This file is in excel 97 format.
  Agricultural data from Stats Canada (tractors, tillage methods etc. for 1996).  This file is in excel  97 format.
  1997 Agricultural Energy Survey Some data for the 10 provinces.
  1996 Agricultural Operations National and Provincial Highlights Tables (from Stats Canada - includes a comparison with 1991 Census Data).
  Copy of a rough draft of the CAEEDAC report on agricultural energy usein Canada (in pdf format).  This is a copy of the executive summary in pdf format.
  Alberta Statistics
  Saskatchewan Highlights of the 1991 and 1996 Census of Agriculture
  Quebec Highlights of the 1991 and 1996 Census of Agriculture
  Ontario Highlights of the 1991 and 1996 Census of Agriculture
  Agricultural Links:  This link is to the Ontario government home page.
  Science line:  Reply to question on photosynthesis.
  Ecozones and ecoregions of Canada.  The www page from which this map was taken is located at the University of Saskatchewan page http://www.usask.ca/ust/pics/ecozone1.jpg

Greenhouse Gas Related Home Pages and Data

  GHG and Agriculture. Review by Debbie Hills
  Changes in concentrations of key greenhouse gases since pre-industrial times
  Average annual heating degree-days in cities in Canada and other northern-latitude countries
  Changes in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and related factors
  Factors influencing growth in secondary energy use, 1990-1995 and secondary energy fuel shares.
  Canadian energy trade, 1995
  End-use energy demand by sector, 1990 and 1995
  Canadian energy production and demand.
  Greenhouse gas emission estimates in Canada by sector, 1990-1995 and Canada's greenhouse gas emissions, by gas, by sector, and by fuel/source, 1995
  Canada's national greenhouse gas emission inventory,1995
  Canada's greenhouse gas emissions from energy and non-energy sources, 1990-1995
  Global warming potentials of various greenhouse gases
  Trends in per capita carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product, 1990-1995
  Net greenhouse gas emissions from canadian agriculture are expected to decrease slightly as a result of the increased use of a number of economically viable practices and measures.
  GHG emissions by province 1990 - 2020
  GHG emissions 1990 - 2020
  This section describes the modeling structure underlying Canada's Energy Outlook.
  The gap: 1990–2000
  GHG emissions by sector 1990 - 2020
  Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Management Projects
  Animal Manure Methane Energy Recovery
  Energy pricing assumptions
  GHG (ah)
  Canada's GHG Emissions Factors.  Also most of Canada's GHG emission for 1990 can be found in the CAEEDAC directory; Environment Canada sub-directory (copy in alh134 directory) or at  the GHG page of environment Canada (download: Reports - Electronic Versions)  This folder contains all necessary data to calculate emissions for 1990. Carbon dioxide emissions by source; Methane and nitrous oxide emissions + a lot of other data for 1990. Some of the reports by Art Jaques have been incorporated in this document.
  PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd of Calgary has agreed to buy CO2 from the Great Plains coal-gasification plant in North Dakota, USA.The CO2 will be used for EOR in the Weyburn oil field in Saskatchewan. This will be the largest single CO2 injection project in Canada.
  Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and perennial grasses used as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber can provide multiple economic and environmental benefits.
  Anthropogenic methane sources
  U.S. methane emissions
  GHG and Agriculture
  GEOS magazine.
  IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme Newsletter
  Global Climate Change page of the Government of Canada
  TransAlta: Since 1994, TransAlta has had a voluntary goal in Canada of "returning its net contribution of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere to 1990 levels in the year 2000".
  Forests play a key role.In the wake of the December 1997 Kyoto summit on climate change, the terms 'carbon source' and 'carbon sink' have appeared in many news reports.Some media coverage has focussed on the fact that forests can be large reservoirs of carbon, which is contained both in living biomass -- tree trunks, branches, leaves, and roots, and other living plants -- and in soil and peat.  Canadian forest carbon budget.
  Methane that is released in anaerobic respiration . Methane is a greenhouse gas, so it contributes to global warming.
  Agriculture Canada: National Environment Strategy for Agriculture and Agri-Food
  Data on GHG emissions and sources from the UNFCCC home page
  Global Warming: The Need for Objectivity
  This page provides links to other National Programs: AUSTRALIA: Bureau of Meterorology, Climate Information; Environmental Resources Information Network (ERIN).   FRANCE: Medias-France   FINLAND: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change   GERMANY: German Advisory Council on Global Change   JAPAN: Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER)   SPAIN: Comision Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnologia   SWITZERLAND:   ProClim - InfoSystem on Climate and Global Change   THE NETHERLANDS:   The Dutch National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change   UNITED KINGDOM;   UK Global Environment Research Office.
  Internet links from The National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE)
  Sustainable Development links
    Agriculture and Forestry
  Trexler and Associates, Inc. World Leaders in the Field of Climate Change Mitigation...
  DATA on greenhouse gas emissions and sources
  Some Agriweb (Ag Canada's web page) links. Or try the main listing.
  Canadian Global Change Program
  Critical Global Environmental Trends from the World Resources Institute including a A Primer on Global Warming
  American Farm Bureau: Climate Change Treaty.
  Canadian Institute for Climate Studies
  From Environment Canada. ENVIRONMENTAL INTERNET SITES:Explore Canadian environmental Internet sites:
  Clean Development Mechanism: From Global Change Electronic Edition (GCEE) and the Global Climate Change Digest (GCCD).
  Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases.
  Some international organizations are listed here.  
  National Emission Inventory and Projections Task Group.  Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.
  We have a list of environmental hot links that will jump you where you want to go! Search our list, find who you need, click the button and you're there. We make it easy so you can spend your time doing better things. Hint: Bookmark this page and save even more time!
  The IEA GREENTIE Directory: contact details for more than 8,500 organisations and experts   covers the fields of energy and greenhouse gas mitigation technologies classified by technology expertise, industry, products, etc. The entries in the Directory have all been classified using two internationally recognised systems: Technical expertise categories: as defined by the IPCC Working Group II, Second Assessment Report. Economic Activities: as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of all economic activitiesAgriculture & Forestry Practices; Reduction Nitrogen Fertiliser & Animal Manure; Reduction Tillage & Agriculture Soils; Reforestation/Afforestation & Prevention of Deforestation ; Increasing Efficiency/Intensity of Forest Management ; Substitution of Fossil Fuels with Sustainably-Grown Fuelwood ; Increasing Agroforestry Endeavours; Livestock Technologies ; Improved Nutrition/Mechanical & Chemical Feed Processing ; Improved Nutrition StrategicSupplementation ; Production Enhancing Agents; Manure: Covered Lagoons; Manure:Small-Scale Digesters;Manure: Large-Scale Digesters .
  UCAN is a consortium of U.S. federal and state agencies that have joined together to unify access and availability of climate data and information for natural resource management. UCAN will provide users with "virtual access" via the Internet to climate datasets collected by federal, state, and county networks.UCAN will provide a networked computer and data storage infrastructure that will allow users to access climate information faster,easier, and more efficiently than previously possible.
  T he U.S. Geological Survey Global Change Research Program, an operational arm of the national U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP).
  International Sustainable Development, Climate Change and Voluntary Emissions Reporting Programs: - Annex 1 Countries: - Non-Annex 1 Countries: Miscellaneous.
  The Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) was established in 1995 as a key element of Canada's National Action Program on Climate Change. Initially housed at Natural Resources Canada, the VCR's purpose is to encourage private and public sector organizations to voluntarily limit their net greenhouse gas emissions, as a step towards meeting Canada's climate change goals. The VCR has enjoyed considerable success since its inception. More than 700 organizations have joined the initiative, including the federal government and all provincial governments. Participating companies represent over 70 percent of Canada's business and industrial potential for greenhouse gas reductions. Other sectors of the economy are currently being encouraged to join the initiative.
  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the available scientific, technical, and socio-economic information in the field of climate change. The IPCC is organised into three working groups: Working Group I concentrates on the climate system, Working Group II on impacts and response options, and Working Group III on economic and social dimensions. The IPCC released its Second Assessment Report in 1995 and continues to produce Technical Papers and develop methodologies (e.g. national greenhouse gas inventories) for use by Parties to the Climate Change Convention. The Third Assessment Report will be completed around the year 2000.
  The Committee for the National Institute for the Environment is a national, non-profit organization working to improve the scientific basis for making decisions on environmental issues through creation of a new, non-regulatory environmental science and education entity, the National Institute for the Environment (NIE).  Environmental Laws and Treaties;

Soil and Water Conservation Society, 7515 NE Ankeny Road, Ankeny, Iowa 50021

Phone (515) 289-2331;Fax (515) 289-1227; http://www.swcs.org

  Greenpeace Canada.
  Pembina Institute's climate change education web site.
  Some web sites.  This site provides links and information such as for e.g. Methane (CH4) increased from roughly 0.8 ppmv in1800 to more than 1.7 ppmv in 1992. Nitrous oxide (N2O) rose from a preindustrial level of about 0.275 ppmv to 0.310 or so ppmv in1992 [IPCC 94, p 87-8, 91-2] and the quarterly consequences edited by John A. Eddy, has readablearticles by first rate scientists on past climates, climate models, and more. html UNEP's Information Unit on Climate Change (IUCC)at Geneva offers concise fact sheets covering science, impacts and responses.
  Understanding Climate Change: A Beginner's Guide to the UN Framework Convention.
  Greenhouse Effect Visualizer: The Greenhouse Effect Visualizer is designed to let you explore the Earth's radiation budget and ozone data.
  What Are Greenhouse Gases?
  The Economics of Climate Variability and Global Change ( The Clim-Econ Homepage)
  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (The IPCC Data Distribution Centre Providing Climate Change and Related Scenarios for Impacts Assessments)
  Understanding the Science of Greenhouse Gases: Some Basics
  Understanding the Science: Ozone Depletion: When Less Is Not Enough
  Among the most biologically productive lands, wetlands cover approximately 4 to 6 percent of the Earth’s land surface. The high productivity results from the essential characteristic of a wetland: an area that is flooded part of the time but not all of the time. This flooding ensures that the wetlands have ample supplies of water, minerals, or both.
  The projected 2°C (3.6°F) warming could shift the ideal range for many North American forest species by about 300 km (200 mi.) to the north. If the climate changes slowly enough, warmer temperatures may enable the trees to colonize north into areas that are currently too cold, at about the same rate as southern areas became too hot and dry for the species to survive.
  How Does Climate Change Influence Alaska's Vegetation? Insights from the Fossil Record.
  The impacts of climate change on grasslands has not been studied in the same detail as the implication for forests. Nevertheless, the existing research suggests a number of likely outcomes.
  The success or failure of a harvest has always depended on climate, with the most important factor being a sufficiently moist soil during the growing season. During extended droughts such as the 1930s Dust Bowl, crop failures have been widespread. Some climatologists suggest that such conditions could become more widespread due to the drier soils that may accompany changing climate. Increased heat stress, more frequent flooding, and salinization of soils due to sea level rise could also threaten agriculture in some areas.
  CLIMATE CHANGE TUTORIAL : We have gathered some of the best resources we can find on the specific issues related to earth's changing climate.
  Climate Change Info Kit. Word97 version. The original version can be found at Climate Change Fact Sheets Index.  This 90-plus fact sheets are organised into three series: Causes, Impacts, and International Response. Reworked into html and pdf format for easy use.  Series One: The causes of climate change in html.  The role of human activities in html .
  Crafting policies that are cost-efficient  or here
  Global Warming and Its Impacts on Agriculture
  The Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Forests.  This site also contains information pertaining to the Likey Effects of the Kyoto Protocal on Agriculture and Opportunities to Mitigate GHG Emissions.
  Climate Change and its Effect on Farmers.  The Kleckner address.
  Climate Change and its Effect on Farmers.  The M. Strange address.
  Climate Change Info Sheet ~ new Approaches to Forestry and Agriculture
  Global Warming and Agricultural Impacts
  Global Warming Impact on Agriculture
  Information on Greenhouse Emissions
  Sierra Club of Canada: 1996 Rio Report Card on Saskatchewan
  Canada's Second National Report on Climate Change
  The greenhouse gases section of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Worldwide Web Server. This page directs you to EIA's two main sites for greenhouse gases information, and offers links to other greenhouse gas and climate change sites of potential interest. The EIA also announces a new brochure, Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change and Energy, which provides a basic overview of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, paying particular attention to energy-related emissions.
  Welcome to the IEA (UK) Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme identifies means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases arising from the use of fossil fuels.The Science of global warming; Technical Solutions for greenhouse gas reduction; IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme Newsletter.
  Nature Conservancy Home Page.The goal is to assist public and private land managers, through the provision of information, to manage their lands with the goal of ecological sustainability.
  Links to Climate Change and Related Information.
  We've compiled the following links as a potential resources that can supplement the information available on the Global Climate Information Project site.
  The American Petroleum Institute has the following relevant pages on GHG.
  Links to detailed listings of all American Council for Capital Formation/ ACCF Center for Policy Research materials on a particular topic:Carbon Taxes,Capital Costs and Environmental Policy, Climate Change Policy,Risk Assessment and Regulation, Solid Waste Management , International Comparison of Environmental Regulation.
  In alphabetical order, the web sites listed here directly or indirectly relate to the issue of global warming. Included are sites for universities, climatology and atmospheric research centers, state and federal agencies, nongovernmental organizations (e.g., environmental groups and trade associations), and international bodies of government scientists and policy makers.)  This is an EPA site.
  Moving towards good practise (OECD)

Greenhouse Policy Implications

  Carbon sequestration in soils. Report by the Soil and Water Conservation Society (swcs).
  Cogeneration projects.  See also MIT cogeneration projects.Husky and Transalta have the Meridian Cogeneration project.Cogeneration Business in the United States.  Try companies such as Weyerhauser.
  The report on the economic impact of the Kyoto commitments in Canada is available at Standard and Poor's DRI web site  (copied to directory CAEEDAC/REPORT-DRI in caeedac computer).
  Office of Energy Research and Development (PERD and NRCan)
  The climate policy of the European Community
  British Columbia, the Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Pilot (GERT)
  Energy and Climate Change (PERD)
  Developing a Framework for Short- and Long-Run Decisions on Climate Change Policies
  Mitigating Climate Change and Land-Use Change and Forestry Actions and Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas Programs
  Scenarios of U. S. Carbon Reductions
  List of relevant titles from the Environmental Policy Analysis section of the American Council for Capital Formation
  Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases. Or this page
  The Canada Country Study (CCS) - Canada Country Study national summary for policy makers
  Global CO2 Reductions: Domestic and International Consequences
  President Clinton's Climate Change Proposal
  Issue Brief: The Appropriate Timing of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions
  National Environment Strategy for Agriculture and Agri-Food.  This page incorporates pdf versions of Strategy for Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Agri-food Development in Canada and the companion document: Profile of Production Trends and Environmental Issues in Canada's Agriculture and Agri-food Sector.
  Federal/Provincial Actions on Climate Change — Next Steps:   Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR). For further information, contact: Susan Copeland, Communications, Natural Resources Canada (613) 947-4105.
  AAFC: A Framework For Action. The Framework for Action section includes: an outline for a strategic approach; principles to guide this approach; an outline of the instruments available to encourage change (financial incentives, education and extension, regulation and self-regulation, cross compliance and economic instruments) and a discussion of the roles and responsibilities of the major stakeholders.
  Economic Benefit of Wetland Protection from Livestock: There is a significant amount of literature that identifies various management practices available to farmers to enable them to protect wetlands and riparian areas, and improve forage quality by restricting access by livestock.
  CAEEDAC report by Debbie Hills (draft): The purpose of this report is to identify and qualify anthropogenic (human induced) sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in order to determine possible solutions for reducing emissions. The gases that will be discussed are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Report in pdf format.
  Sustainable development (graph)
  The CLIMATE CHALLENGE program is a successful, joint, voluntary effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the electric utility industry to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gases.
  Rural Prairie Sustainability : A background paper and Rural prairie sustainability: Part 2: follow-up
  Adoption of Soil Conservation Practices on the Canadian Prairies
  Factsheet contains worksheets which assist the producer in comparing the economics of conservation fallow to a conventional fallow system. The principle of partial budgeting is used.
  This publication focuses on the variables that can be managed in existing forage stands. Subjects covered include the grazing of pastures, management of hay and silage crops, management of pests, harvesting, stand rejuvenation and wildlife considerations
  The economics of carbon taxes (html )
  WETNET: The Wetlands Network
  Economics of Shelterbelts
  Factsheet outlines benefits of zero tillage, and assists producers in assessing the economic advantages and disadvantages of adopting zero tillage by leading them through a series of worksheets.
  United States Global Change Research Program Map page
  Market distortions can be intra or inter jurisdictional. In the first (intra jurisdictional), environmental externalities applied only to fossil-based electrical generation will almost certainly raise their operational costs relative to other energy sources (Alberta Energy).
  The Implications of Choosing Greenhouse-Gas Emission Reduction Strategies
  The SO2 emission allowance
  The Environmental Tax Program promotes sustainable development by advancing innovative fiscal policies that align environmental,economic and social justice goals. It fosters public discussion of environmental tax reform through policy development, environmentaland economic analysis, publications, public education, and other forms of information dissemination.
  Technologies for mitigation of GHGs in agriculture and the potential decreases in emissions of CO2 , CH4 and N2 O are shown in Table 12. Also shown in Table 12 are the equivalent carbon emission reductions for CH4 and N2 O based on their respective ratios of global warming potential (SAR I, Table 2.9). Of the total possible reduction in radiation forcing (shownas C-equivalents), approximately 32% could result from reduction in CO2 emissions, 42% from carbon offsets by biofuel roduction on existing croplands, 16% from reduced CH4emissions and 10% from reduced emissions of N2 O. are needed to aid the adoption of improved practices.Options to mitigate CO2 emissions from agriculture include reducing emissions from present sources, and creating and strengthening carbon sinks.

Table of Technologies for mitigation of GHGs in agriculture and the potential decreases in emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O

Stabilization of Atmospheric Greenhouse: Gases: Physical, Biological and Socio-Economic Implications, Feb. 1997

Implications of Proposed CO2 Emissions Limitations, Oct. 1997 and tables.

  The Impact Of A Broad-Based Energy Tax On The Competitiveness Of U.S. Industry
  For further information on tradeable credits contact any of the Pilot Emissions Reductions Trading programs. At the moment there are two - the addresses are as follows:  Pilot Emissions Reduction Trading (based in Ontario) and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading Pilot (based in B.C)
    Industry associations contacts list:

Sarah Mullin, Technical Coordinator, VCR Inc.Tel: (613) 565-5151

Gary Webster, Vice President, Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

       Suite 2100, 350 - 7th Avenue

Calgary, AB T2P 3N9
PH: (403) 267-1100
FX: (403) 261-4622

Jennifer Keyes, Environmental Affairs, Canadian Gas Association

       243 Consumer Road

Suite 1200
North York, ON M2J 5E3
PH: 416-498-1994 ext. 332
FX: 416-498-7465

Bonnie Stowkowy, Manager, Special Projects, Canadian Energy Pipeline Association

      Suite 1650, 801 6th Avenue
Calgary, AB T2P 3W2
PH: 403-221-8777
FX: 403-221-8760

Doug Bruchet (works out of the U Calgary campus), Vice President - Environment & Energy Research

 	Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI)
#150, 3512 - 33 Street NW
Calgary, AB T2L 2A6
ph: 403-282-1231
fx: 403-284-4181

John Dillon, Senior Associate, Policy and Legal Council, Business Council on National Issues

806 - 90 Sparks Street
Ottawa, ON K1P 5B4
PH: 613-238-3727
FX: 613-236-8679

Rob Hornung, Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development

    Suite 500, 251 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, ON K1P 5J7

International Institute for Sustainable Development

6th Floor, 161 Portage Avenue East
Winnipeg, MN R3B 0Y4
PH: 204-958-7700
FX: 204-958-7710

Andrew Spoerri

Environment Canada
Hull, Quebec
(819) 994-1044

Art Jaques, Head, Greenhouse Gas, Pollution Data Branch,  Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec

(819) 994-3098

  The National Action Program will explore opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by addressing barriers which may impede actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions across various sectors of the Canadian economy. There is an important role for governments in this regard as part of their commitment to foster the right conditions for actions by others.
  A potentially significant domestic resource for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions relates to the adoption of practices that will increase the capacity of agricultural soils to absorb, or sequester, carbon. For example, prairie soils, with 137 million acres of agricultural land, represent a large land area for enhancing Canada's carbon absorption capacity. It is estimated that carbon sinks could, on average, elevate their carbon content 2.5 to 4 tonnes per hectare over a 12 year period.
  Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Quickfacts on GHG. Other environmental issues are also covered.
  Mitigation: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a complex task involving actions that touch almost every aspect of Canadian lifestyles. The issues are so broad, and the changes required ultimately so pervasive, that an approach which includes measures appropriate across a range of economic sectors is clearly required.
  INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE  (IPCC): Technologies, Policies and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change.
  This Technical Paper includes discussions of technologies and measures that can be adopted in three energy end-use sectors (commercial/residential/institutional buildings, transportation, and industry), as well as in the energy supply sector and the agriculture, forestry, and waste management sectors. Broader measures affecting national economies are discussed in a final section on economic instruments. Agricultural Sector Section.
  The prospect of global warming from an increase in greenhouse gases became a major science policy issue during the past decade.Seeking answers to a number of questions -- How much warming?...How soon?...Should we worry? -- a growing number of policymakers at national and international levels continue to debate the advantages and disadvantages of an active governmental role in forging policies to deal with prospective climate change.
   CRS issue brief for Congress.  Broader national responses could range from engineering countermeasures, to passive adaptation, to prevention, and an international law of the atmosphere (the Kyoto Protocol). One policy that has been widely advocated, and to some degree implemented, is the so-called "no regrets" approach, which in theory not only reduces emissions of greenhouse gases but provides benefits to society as well.
  Cropland and the Carbon Budget. It is difficult to be specific about how much carbon might be gained or lost through transformations of grasslands, pasturelands or croplands into different uses.
  Carbon Taxes for Climate Protection in a Competitive World
  Global Warming and Climate Change Policy
  Growing forest accumulates carbon until it achieves, over time, a balance between the carbon taken up in photosynthesis and the carbon released back to the atmosphere from respiration, oxidation of dead organic matter, and fires and pests. In the meantime, fossil fuels are used to meet society's energy needs.
  Modeling Carbon Flows: A paper from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discussing carbon flows, and land use and carbon dioxide. It incorporates a discussion of biomass fuels.

Canadian Greenhouse Data

  The State of the Environment Report (1997) for Saskatchewan. This document is also filed in the caeedac office under caeedac/ghg/sask.pdf which will allow for quicker download. Much information on the Saskatchewan environment (such as a Description of the Prairie Ecozone or ecozones map and Ecoregions of Saskatchewan, soil landscape, land use etc) is available. Tables include: Cultivated Land within the Prairie Ecozone; Trends in Agricultural Land Use: Total Cultivated Area; Summary of Pesticide Regulatory Activities in Saskatchewan; Pesticide Monitoring and Surveillance Programs.
  Canada Country Study:The Resource Centre contains links to Government of Canada information that is available on the web on climate change.
  Environment Canada's GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG) data. Incorporates the following:  Table of Greenhouse Gas Emissions(1990-1994), Maps and graphs on: CO2 Emissions and GDP per Capita 1950-1994 ; Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Canada by Province for 1990; Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Canada by Sector for 1990 ; Canada's 1990 Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Methane Emissions in Canada by Sector for 1990; Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Canada by Sector for 1990; Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Canada by Province for 1994; Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Canada by Sector for 1994; Canada's 1994 Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Methane Emissions in Canada by Sector for 1994; Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Canada by Sector for 1994; Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1980-1994; Canada Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1995; Trends in Per Capita Emissions and Gross Domestic Product 1990-1995; GHG Emissions in Comparison to Stabilization Target 1980-1995; Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas for 1995.  Some of these graphs can be obtained here. Environment Canada's Green Book on 1990 emissions is available - computer directory in the CAEEDAC office :CAEEDAC - Environment Canada. 
  NRCan : C h a p t e r 7 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: This chapter offers a reference projection for Canada's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the next twenty-five years. The projection covers emissions both from energy use, about 90 percent of the total, and from non-energy sources.
  NRCan: Office of Energy Efficiency Annual Report 1998:
  Secondary Energy Use by Sector, 1996: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector, 1996
  PERD: Energy and Climate Change The Greenhouse Effect.
  Canadian GHG data for 1990 - 1994 in excel or html format (Source Environment Canada).
  Discussion paper for the Ad Hoc Sinks Table (April 20, 1998). CAEEDAC office Sinks box (yellow folder).
  Canadian Indicator: Global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases
  Canadian Indicator: Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use with data (from Environment Canada's Environmental Indicator Series).The technical supplement for this bulletin is currently in preparation.
  Potential Soil Carbon Sequestration in Canada.
  Summary of soil Carbon Sequestration in Canada over the next 20 years based on adoption rate experience
  The State of Canada's Environment Infobase.
  Canada: indicator of Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use
  CD-ROM application.  Contains some energy use data.
  Welcome to Environment Canada's National Environmental Indicator Series. These indicators give a "snapshot" of the state of Canada's environment and help measure progress towards sustainability. The technical supplement for this bulletin is currently in preparation.
  The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Outlook to 2020
  ENERGY USE TRENDS IN CANADIAN AGRICULTURE: l99O TO 1996 (Word 6 format). Report by Ewen Coxworth.This report contains the following tables: (For a copy in html format click here.)
  Percentages of energy used on farms employed for farm business purposes. Comparison between 1981 and       1996.
  Gasoline use (PJ) in Canadian agriculture (farm business only). 1990 to 1996.
  Energy expended (PJ) in the manufacture and repair of farm machinery in Canada. 1990 - 1996.
  Energy used (PJ) in fertilizers sold in Canada. 1990 - 1996
  Amounts (thousands of tonnes) of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizer nutrients sold in Canada, eastern         Canada and western Canada in the period 1990 to 1996.
  Energy used for the production of fertilizers.
  Effects of tillage systems and fallow on fuel usage for spring wheat production.
  Changes in tillage practices on Saskatchewan farms between 1991 and 1996.
  Agricultural energy use (PJ) of refined petroleum products for the period 1990 to 1996. Business and                   personal uses combined
  Diesel fuel use (PJ) in Canadian agriculture (business and personal). 1990 to 1996.
  Gasoline use (PJ) in Canadian agriculture (business and personal). 1990 to 1996.
  Canada uses less pesticides and fertilizers than many other countries.
  Summary of Decisions. Joint meeting of federal, provincial and territorial ministers of energy and environment. April 24, 1998
  Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion, per capita and per dollar real GDP
  Canada's Energy Outlook: 1996-2020: National and Provincial Results
  The following are available from the Canadian Petroleum Communication Foundation .
    Canada in a Global Context
    Canada's National Circumstances
     Balancing Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability
    Canada's Energy: A Vital Industry
     Facts on Global Warming
     Charts on Canada's GHG emissions
    Information Package notes and quotes: A compendium of quotations from authoritative sources.
  Fertilizer: GHG Coefficients.  This file was created by Cecil Nagy of CAEEDAC.
  The following file contains data on a number of energy use coefficients collected by Cecil Nagy of CAEEDAC.The whole file is available in html, Word6 and Excel97 format.

Energy Amounts in Seed Inputs and Grain Outputs;

Field Machinery: Energy and GHG Coefficients;

Field Machinery: Energy and GHG Coefficients;

Fertilizer: Energy Coefficients;

Fuel: Energy and GHG Coefficients;

Electricity Generation;

Herbicide: Energy and GHG Coefficients;

Energy and Carbon Studies;

Fungicides: Energy and GHG Coefficients;

Pesticides : Energy and GHG Coefficients;

Farm Buildings: GHG and Energy Coefficients;

Transportation: Energy and GHG Coefficients;

The Environmental Implications of Increased Trucking due to Branch line Abandonment in Western Canada;

Methane Emissions from Animals;

BIOMASS: GHG Coefficients;

Herbicide: Energy Coefficients from M.B. Green (1987) multiplied by coefficients from Coxworth (1994);


Nitrous Oxide Emission Coefficients;

  GHG Emissions, Energy Use and Economics of Alternative Cropping Systems - Review of Nitrous Oxide and Carbon Dioxide Release (This  report was compiled by Cecil Nagy of CAEEDAC.)
  Review of Energy and GHG Coefficients. This data was compiled by Cecil Nagy of CAEEDAC.
  Environment Canada ~ Global Climate Change
  Management Practises that can increase soil carbon (for a copy in word7 use this link)
  The Canada Country Study is the first-ever national assessment of the social, biological, and economic impacts of climate change for Canada. Environment Canada has brought together climate experts from government, industry, academia, and non-government organizations to review existing knowledge on climate change impacts and adaptation; identify gaps in research; and suggest priority areas where new knowledge is urgently needed.
  Climate Change page of Environment Canada
  The objectives of the national environmental research initiative on greenhouse gases are to address from a Canadian perspective the issues of: understanding and quantifying the role of agriculture on the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O); making recommendations to reduce the contribution of agriculture to the greenhouse effect.
  Changing Content of Carbon Dioxide in the Earth's Atmosphere.The following graph illustrates the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide from 1744 to 1992. Note that this rise is exponential in nature.
  Some early studies indicated that nitrous oxide emissions from the soil could increase with zero tillage (Coxworth) in Word7 , html or pdf.
  Discussion paper:  Carbon sequestration in forestry and agriculture.
    OECD Performance Review of Canada

Joint Implementation

JIQ the Quarterly Magazine on Joint Implementation
The overall objective of the World Bank AIJ program is the maximization of participation in, and learning value from, the AIJ pilot phase, which is critical for establishing a long-term basis for AIJ and other environmental trading schemes.
Anne McLellan, Minister of Natural Resources Canada, today announced the opening of the Canadian Joint Implementation Initiative (CJII) Office.For information: Pierre Gratton, Press Secretary to the Minister Minister's Office (613) 996-2007 or Mrs. Anne Boucher,Natural Resources Canada, CJII office, 19th floor, 580 Booth St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E4, Canada. Tel: (613) 996-2921; Fax: (613) 947-6799; E-mail: CJII@es.nrcan.gc.ca
The concept of "joint implementation," or "JI," was introduced early in the negotiations leading up to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio.
Cooperative efforts between countries or entities within them to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions offer significant potential to combat the threat of climate change and to promote sustainable development.
  For Canada, 235 VCR submissions with quantifiable action plans were examined. These initiatives are categorized by type and sector in Table 4.1
Professor Heller's article discusses why there has been little progress after the Rio Earth Summit in developing the Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Wisconsin Energy: Joint implementation (JI) projects involve a collaborative effort between private entities from two or more countries to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This approach enables these entities to achieve GHG reductions at a lower cost than would otherwise be possible.
Joint implementation in climate policy (or try here): Greenhouse gas abatement co-operation between Finland and neighbouring areas.
Project Salicornia is Phase I of a two-phase project to cultivate a native halophyte (a salt-tolerant euphorb plant, Salicornia bigelovii) in a coastal desert region of northwest Mexico. Phase I is designed to research and demonstrate Salicornia cultivation on 30 hectares of coastal land.
The following table contains projects which have been accepted, approved or endorsed by the designated national authorities for AIJ of the Parties concerned.
Joint Implementation or Activities Implemented Jointly: Trexler and Associates, Inc. World Leaders in the Field of Climate Change Mitigation.  What is JI?  and Why Invest in JI?  and how much will mitigation cost?
The following list of recommended readings has been compiled through a series of consultations with experts.
Agriculture: Federal Actions on Climate Change Next Steps (For information, contact: Greg Wilburn, Environment Canada (819) 994-3425)
The designated national authority for AIJ acts as the primary national contact for AIJ, and is authorized to "accept, approve, or endorse activities implemented jointly and to report them to the COP through the secretariat.
Tradable Emissions Rights and Joint Implementation: What Are the Issues? by Richard Schmalensee
Guidelines for a USIJI Project Proposal
U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation. See also the gopher or Index of /usiji.
Joint Implementation: A Strategy Option for Global Emissions Reductions
NERA - Considerations in Designing and Implementing an Effective International Greenhouse Gas Trading Program (Adobe PDF Format)
The Proposed Plan to Reduce Carbon Emissions: Uncertain Benefits and High Costs (API)
REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON JOINT IMPLEMENTATION IN COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION: For more information contact Dr. Milos Tichy, SEVEn, T: +42 2 24247552, F:+42 2 24247552, e-mail: milos.tichy@ecn.cnz. Internet at http://www.ji.org. For information contact: Lynn M. Fischer, Climate Change Program Manager, CEC, 393 rue St. Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2Y6, Canada,T: +1 514 350-4300, F:+1 514 350-4314, e-mail: lfischer@ccemtl.org or fischerl@msn.com.
Joint Implementation and the Climate Change Treaty
Joint implementation could potentially achieve greater emission reductions than might be possible if each country pursued only domestic actions, and could achieve these reductions more cost-effectively.
To many particularly southern delegates and NGOs, and many northern NGOs, JI represents shifting the principle responsibility for adequate carbon reductions within the Annex 1 countries to cheaper options in the South.
Environment & Policy books (for example: Lowering the Cost of Emission Reduction: Joint Implementation in the Framework Convention on Climate Change).
This web site is designed to be an online resource for information about worldwide Joint Implementation (JI) activities.
Climate Change - Global Warming - Joint Implementation links
Canada prepares JI Pilot Initiative. Other countries:
Submission by the Group of 77 and China:   Note by the secretariat
Technology Transfer Projects
Private investment in advanced technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will have to play an essential role in addressing the problem of global climate change.Private Financing for Global Environmental Initiatives: Can the Climate Convention's "Joint Implementation" Pave the Way? Technology Transfer Projects

International Greenhouse Data

  Climate Action Report: 1997 Submission of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Department of State Publication 10496. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs. Office of Global Change.Released July 1997. Greenhouse Gas Inventory .  Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-1995(MMTs of Carbon Equivalent);
  U.S. carbon emissions
  Projected Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2020 (U.S.)
  U.S. Sources of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 1995 (Millions of Metric Tons)
  Hawaii Greenhouse Gas Inventory: GHG Emissions from Agricultural Activities
  Who produces What?
  This inventory methodology workbook presents the Australian methodology to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and sinks for livestock.  In 1990 Queensland's gross greenhouse gas emissions totalled the equivalent of 171 million tonnes (Mt) of Carbon Dioxide.
  Energy Information Administration reports
  The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) which includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Reports and databases available from CDIAC, by number.
  Canada: Environmental Review. Canada's energy consumption per capita is among the highest in the world, owing mainly to a large natural resource endowment and a high concentration of energy-intensive industries. The Canadian federal government faces the difficult challenge of building consensus for increased energy efficiency and pollution control, while at the same time protecting economic development of its vital energy industry. 
  Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Environmental Publications and Data. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data. The main EIA page.
  The U.S. Global Change Research Program
  Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996
  USDA National Agricultural Statistics. U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service
  Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Also U.S. GHG emissions (graph)
  Australia's Greenhouse Gas Emissions.  See also The Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory records estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. Only greenhouse gas emissions from sources and removals by sinks resulting from human (anthropogenic) activities have been estimated and included in the Inventory. Emissions from natural processes lie outside the scope of the Inventory.
  DATA on greenhouse gas emissions and sources or here.
  Emissions and Other Data
  Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions have increased dramatically since the beginning of the industrial age due        largely to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation (Figure).
  Why Are Atmospheric Levels Increasing? Greenhouse Gases, Global Climate Change and the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new flier discussing greenhouse gases, their role in climate change and the role of energy in greenhouse gas emissions.
       The  Global Carbon Cycle
  INVENTORY OF U.S. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND SINKS - 1990 – 1996 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Policy, Planning and EvaluationWashington, D.C., U.S.A.
  U.S. data on agricultural activities  Agriculture contributes directly to emissions of greenhouse gases through a variety of processes. The agriculture sector includes the following sources: enteric fermentation in domestic livestock, livestock manure management, rice cultivation, agricultural soil activities, and agricultural residue burning. Several other agricultural activities, such as irrigation and tillage practices, may also generate anthropogenic greenhouse gasemissions; however, the impacts of these practices are too uncertain to estimate emissions. Agriculture related land-use activities, such as conversion of grassland to cultivated land, are discussed in the chapter on the Land-Use Change and Forestry sector below.
  U.S. Land-Use Change and Forestry. This chapter provides an assessment of the net carbon dioxide (CO2) flux caused by changes in forest carbon stocks (trees, understory, forest floor, forest soil, wood products, and landfilled wood), and a preliminary assessment of the net CO2 flux caused by changes in non-forest soil carbon stocks.
  Climate Change in the European Union
  Anthropogenic Emissions.  This is an Excel file that contains data on International Anthropogenic emissions and removals from land-use change and forestry and impact on total CO 2 emissions, 1990 (Gigagrams).                     


Relevant bibliographies found on the Internet by Cynthia Edwards.  The bibliography has been copied in both html format .
The Prairie Hog Report is a magazine for and about pig farmers and pork producers in Western Canada.
CAEEDAC newsletter for April 1998 (in French).  The newsletter in pdf format.
  Prepare to debate the issues for the Buenos Aires meeting
Hot Talk, Cold Science: Global Warming's Unfinished Debate
  (Fred Singer)
List of 79 documents at the OECD.  As an example:Theory of transaction costs; International GHG Emission Trading; How international GHG emission trading could help to meet future commitments under the UN FCCC;Agricultural policy reforms have influenced emissions and removals of GHGs in the agricultural sector;
Transferable Fish Quotas. The New Zealand government created Individual Transferable Quotas.
Carbon taxes
Carbon Offset and AIJ Reports and Technical papers
Further reading. References
Environment Studies
  "Greenhouse Issues" Number 38, September 1998
See the document in my office: Greenhouse gases and Canada's Agriculture Sector by Kulshreshtha, Bonneau and Boehm in the box "Reports on Greenhouse gas".
Scientific American Articles
The Economist
New Scientist articles
National Geographic
Review of Energy Use and CO2, N2O, CH4 Release Studies.  This review was compiled by Cecil Nagy of CAEEDAC. It incorporates a review of energy and GHG coefficients and Cropping System References.
Bibliography by Subject Category: REDUCING AND MANAGING EMISSIONS
Committee for the National Institute for the Environment brief
Student Paper by Cynthia Edwards of Caeedac on GHG emissions. This class paper examines how changes in the prices of direct and indirect energy affect CO2 emissions generated via grain production and cultivation; Tables include: Refined Petroleum Products used in Saskatchewan Agriculture;Net Machinery and Fertilizer Expenditures in Saskatchewan Agriculture;CO2 Emissions from the use of Refined Petroleum Products and Fertilizer in Saskatchewan;
Student Paper by Cynthia Edwards of Caeedac on GHG emissions. This class paper has two focuses; the first is on the present situation and issues surrounding the Farm Fuel Program in Saskatchewan; an overview of the program is included, beginning with the Fuel Tax Act of 1987. The second focus is the possible impact that removal of the policy currently in place would have on farm income in the Saskatchewan primary agriculture sector. Tables include:Economic Effects of the Removal of the Saskatchewan Farm Fuel Tax Rebates and Excemptions.
US Country Studies Program. Major Country Reports and this list of journal articles or these technical papers.
CAEEDAC publications are available on the main web page.  These include: An Assessment of the Existing Information on Agricultural Energy Use; A Bibliography of Agricultural Energy Use; Energy and Non-Energy Input Substitution in Agriculture: A Case Study of the Prairie Provinces; The Impacts of Energy Taxes on CO2 Emissions and Farm Income in Prairie Agriculture;The Impacts of the Removal of Farm Fuel Tax Rebates on Emissions and Farm Income in Central Canadian Agriculture.
Sustainable agriculture and rural development
List of Public Libraries with Gopher/WWW Services
CARLweb presents a beautiful, seamless and simple gateway and navigation aid to the information universe.
USDA Economic Research Services (ERS)
Notes from Energy Information Administration GHG document.


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