You may copy materials for which the university (e.g. the Library) has negotiated licenses according to the terms of the agreement. Fair dealing allows you to make one copy of a work for yourself for the purposes of private study, research, review, criticism or news reporting. Please review the Copying Guidelines, Fair Dealing Guidelines and the Copyright Policy for more information.
If you are making copies of your own work to distribute or share with other students in your class, that is permitted. If you want to make a handout for the rest of your class that includes material that you have not created, you need to ensure you have permission from the copyright holder to do so. Please review the Copying Guidelines, Fair Dealing Guidelines and the Copyright Policy for more information.
Copyright Act specifies that “every original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic work” is protected by copyright, and this includes student work. This means that your permission is required in order for an instructor or school to keep a copy or to share it with future students.
Often, the creator of a work (e.g., one who writes a book, magazine or newspaper article, play, poem, song lyrics or other writings, takes a photograph or makes a film, draws a map, or creates a painting, drawing, or sketch) is the first owner of the copyright in that work. However, ownership of copyright may be transferred, for example, to a publisher. Copyright also applies to other subject matter, including sound recordings, performances, and communication signals. Just because someone owns a copy of a work does not mean that they own copyright in that work.
Sometimes, but not necessarily. The copyright holder may be the author of the work or possibly the publisher (e.g. if the author has signed over copyright). In most cases, copyright of a published work is held by the publisher unless the author has exercised the option to retain some rights through an author’s addendum or through other licensing arrangements such as Creative Commons.
Copyright does not last forever. The main purpose of copyright law is to allow for creators of works to be reasonably rewarded for their creative efforts. Statutory rules were put in place to determine when copyright protection of a work comes to an end, usually 50 years after the death of the creator (e.g. the "life plus 50" rule).
For example, if a work is published on April 30, 1999, and the author dies on July 27, 2035, then copyright protection extends from April 30, 1999 to December 31, 2085. If the work was created by more than one person, copyright protection exists for the life of the creator who dies last, the remainder of the calendar year in which that person dies, plus 50 additional years. Both economic rights and moral rights will exist for the same period of time.Some types of works such as sound recordings and some photographs and films may have a different lengths of copyright. After copyright expires, a work becomes part of the public domain and may be freely copied and distributed. However, never assume that works are in the public domain.
Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO). Other countries have different laws and regulations which govern copyright protection but most countries offer similar protection in line with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaties and conventions.
Copyright does not last forever. The main purpose of copyright law is to allow for creators of works to be reasonably rewarded for their creative efforts. To that end, there are statutory rules to determine when copyright protection of a work comes to an end (e.g. the "life plus 50” rule). When the term of copyright expires, the work is said to come into the "public domain" and is then available for anyone to use and copy without seeking permission from the copyright owner (the author retains no rights to the work). This is the reason that Dickens' books, Shakespeare's plays, and Beethoven's symphonies no longer are protected by copyright.
Works can also be in public domain because the work was either not eligible for copyright protection in the first place or the copyright owner has given copyright to the work to the public. This can be done simply by stating on the work that it may be copied or reproduced without permission or payment of royalties. However, restrictions can be placed on the uses that can be made of works in this case and you must be sure to use the material accordingly.Project Gutenberg is a good resource for finding literary works in the public domain.
Copyright Act as a best practice of academic professionalism. You are only permitted to make lawful copies of works and use works in lawful ways. Failure to comply with the Copyright Act could lead to personal liability, as well as liability for the University, so ensure that you use copyrighted materials appropriately. Advise your students and colleagues to use copyrighted materials appropriately. Contact the Copyright Office if you have questions.