Applications 9. Handout. Proverbs in Saxo and in the Sagas.
Session 27. Words and Things in the Germanic North: Lexical and Semantic Studies. Medieval Academy, 83rd Annual Meeting. Vancouver, 4 April 2008.
Richard L. Harris, English Department, University of Saskatchewan                           heorot@sasktel.net

Verba volant, scripta manent. [Unascribed Latin proverb]

I. From Saxo's Preface:
1. Because other nations are in the habit of vaunting the fame of their achievements, and joy in recollecting their ancestors, Absolon, Archbishop of Denmark, had always been fired with a passionate zeal to glorify our fatherland. . . . Even when church worship brought Latinity, the Danes' sluggishness matched their former ignorance and they were as wretchedly slothful now as they were uneducated before. [PF 4]
2. . . . the Danes of an older age, filled with a desire to echo the glory when notable braveries had been performed, alluded in the Roman manner to the splendour of their nobly-wrought achievements with choice compositions of a poetical nature; not only that, but they engraved the letters of their own language on rocks and stones to retell those feats of their ancestors which had been made popular in the songs of thier mother tongue. Adhering to these tracks, as if to some ancient volumes, and following the sense with the true steps of a translator, I have assiduously rendered one metre for another. My chronicle . . . the utterance of antiquity . . . a faithful image of the past, not a flashy exhibition of style.
3. The diligence of the men of Iceland must not be shrouded in silence; since the barrenness of their native soil offers no means of self-indulgence, they pursue a steady routine of temperance and devote their time to improving our knowledge of others' deeds, compensating for poverty by their intelligence. They regard it a real pleasure to discover and commemorate the achievements of every nation. . . I have scrutinesed their store of historical treasures and composed a considerable part of this present work by copying their narratives, not scorning, where I recognised such skill in ancient lore, to take these men as witnesses. [PF 5]

II. Structure of the Gesta:
Inge Skovgaard-Petersen.
1-4. Pagan epoch of the world. 5-8. Christian age outside Denmark. 9-12. Gradual conversion of the Danes. 13-16. The Archbishopric of Denmark.
Kurt Johannesson.
1-4. How fortitudo should be united with the other cardinal virtues, iustitia, prudentia, and temporantia. 5-8. Temperantia, "the secret of Erik in the fifth book and his instruction of King Frode." 9-13. "a new word and a new virtue: pietas," "in the Middle Ages regarded as a part of iustitia." 14-16. "Saxo in these books gives the last of the four cardinal virtues, prudentia, a new and decisive role.

III. The form of the Icelandic source(s) for Book V:
Joaquín Martínez-Pizarro, p. 115. "I would like to suggest that the core of Saxo's source is one of these 'king and Icelander' þættir."
Powell, p. xcix. "The medieval Icelandic composition dealing with old traditions, now known as the Fornaldar Sögur, are precisely on a par with his narratives in feeling and matter. . ." "That some of his foreign sources were written is most probable; one or two fair-sized vellums belonging to Arnold might easily have contained all the Old Northern material Saxo has used."

IV. Saxo's Eddic analogues and their occurrences in the sagas.
A. FOOLS.

O-R Liber quintus. 113. III. 2. In rebus mens stulta modum deprendere nescit,/turpis et affectus immoderata sui./Remorum ductus velorum vincitur usu,/æquora ventus agit, tristior aura solum:/Nam freta remigium penetrat, mendacia terras;/istas ore premi constat, at illa manu.
PF Book V. 127. Erik engages in a contest of words with Grep, who bullies with insolence, while the hero relies particularly upon proverbial wisdom for his own rhetorical weapons. Erik:
A blockhead, unrestrained and unseemly in his emotions,/cannot conduct his affairs with due moderation.32/Sailing tackle outstrips the pull of rowers; gales/ruffle the seas, but a drearier breeze the earth./Oars cleave the wave, falsehood the land; the latter/is vexed by men's mouths, but hands weigh hard on the other.33 HED 75-6: 32Certain passages in this poem recall statements in Hávamál on the subject of wisdom and folly, and the kind of behaviour distinguishing the wise man from the fool: e.g. 'The foolish man in company will do best to keep silent; no one will know how ignorant he is unless he talks too much' (27).
O-R Liber quintus. 113. III. 3. Ut gallus cæni, sic litis plenus haberis,/sorde gravis putes nec nisi crimen oles./Adversum scurram causam producere non est,/qui vacua vocis mobilitate viget.
PF Book V. 127. Erik engages in a contest of words with Grep, who bullies with insolence, while the hero relies particularly upon proverbial wisdom for his own rhetorical weapons. Grep:
You are crammed full of disputes, they say, as a cock with filth,/stinking of low breeding and accusations./It is hard to bring a case against a buffoon, who thrives/on a dance of words without expressing a meaning.
O-R Liber quintus. 113. III. 3. Hercule, ni fallor, ad eum, qui protulit ipsum,/editus ignave sermo redire solet./Ad prolatorem iusto conamine divi/fusa parum docte verba referre solent./Quando lupi dubias primum discernimus aures,/ipsum in vicino credimus esse lupum./Nulla fides fidei vacuo præstanda putatur,/quem rumor sontem proditionis agit.
PF Book V. 127. Erik engages in a contest of words with Grep, who bullies with insolence, while the hero relies particularly upon proverbial wisdom for his own rhetorical weapons. Erik:
By heaven, brainless talk, unless I am much mistaken,/often rebounds on the head of him who uttered it./Through the righteous dispensation of the gods, words poured forth/with too little wit return to plague the deliverer./As soon as we first detect a pair of suspicious wolf's ears,35/we believe the creature itself is lurking near./No one thinks we should trust a person empty of faith,/one whom report pronounces guilty of treason.
Eddic texts:
Hávamál, v. 6. "seldom does shame befall the wary." [PE 170] 16. "The foolish man thinks he will live forever,/ if he keeps away from fighting." [PE 170] 17. "The fool gapes when he comes on a visit." [PE 170] 21. "The fool never knows the measure of his stomach." [PE 170] 23. "The foolish man lies awake all night/ and worries about things." [PE 170] 24, 25. "The foolish man thinks that everyone/ is his friend who laughs with him." [PE 170] 26. "The foolish man thinks he knows everything/ if he takes refuge in a corner." [PE 170] 27. "The foolish man in company/ does best if he stays silent." [PE 170] 53. "Of small sands, of small seas,/ small are the mionds of men;/ for all men aren't equally wise,/ men everywhere are half wise, half not." [PE 170 ] 79. "The foolish man, if he managages to get/ money or love of a woman,/ his arrogance increases, but not his common sense;/ on he gboes deply sunk in delusion." [PE 170] 132. ". . . you should never bandy words/ with a stupid fool."
Sigrdrífumál v. 24. "That I advise you thirdly, that at the Assembly/ you do not contend with a fool;/ for the stupid man often permits himself to say/ worse words than he knows. [PE 170]
Saga texts:
ÍF XI. 3. 108. [Hrafnkels saga] Sámr svarar: "Ófúss geng ek at þessu. Meir geri ek þat fyrir frændsemi sakar við þik. En vita skaltu, at mér þykkir þar heimskum manni at duga, sem þú ert.”
CSI V. 6. Samr Bjarnason reluctantly undertakes the case for Thorbjorn: 267. Sam responded, "I go into conflict with Hrafnkel unwillingly. I do this mainly for the sake of my relationship with you. But you ought to know that I think I'm helping a fool." HP 46. I want you to know that in my opinion I’m helping a fool in helping you.
Note. See Kålund, p. 154: 74. illt er heimskum lid at veita (D, 7). Det er vanskeligt at hjælpe tåben. Hos G. Jónsson forekommer ordsproget, dog med leggja for veita. See GJ 183. Illt er heimskum lið að leggja (holl ráð kenna). as well as 181. Illt er að setja heimskum hátt. FJ 1920. See Harðar saga 12.33.

B. WOLVES.
O-R Liber quintus. 113. III. 3. Hercule, ni fallor, ad eum, qui protulit ipsum,/editus ignave sermo redire solet./Ad prolatorem iusto conamine divi/fusa parum docte verba referre solent./Quando lupi dubias primum discernimus aures,/ipsum in vicino credimus esse lupum./Nulla fides fidei vacuo præstanda putatur,/quem rumor sontem proditionis agit.
PF Book V. 127. Erik engages in a contest of words with Grep, who bullies with insolence, while the hero relies particularly upon proverbial wisdom for his own rhetorical weapons. Erik:
By heaven, brainless talk, unless I am much mistaken,/often rebounds on the head of him who uttered it./Through the righteous dispensation of the gods, words poured forth/with too little wit return to plague the deliverer./As soon as we first detect a pair of suspicious wolf's ears,35/we believe the creature itself is lurking near./No one thinks we should trust a person empty of faith,/one whom report pronounces guilty of treason. HED 76: 35The same proverb is found in Fáfnismál 35: Mér ulfs vón es eyru sék (I know the wolf is not far off when I spy his ears).
O-R Liber quintus. 113. III. 4. Augurium timidi pravique assueta voluntas/numquam se digno continuere loco./Qui dominum fallit, qui fœdas concipit artes,/tam sibi quam sociis insidiosus erit./Æde lupum quicumque fovet, nutrire putatur/prædonem proprio perniciemque lari.
PF Book V. 127. Erik engages in a contest of words with Grep, who bullies with insolence, while the hero relies particularly upon proverbial wisdom for his own rhetorical weapons. Erik:
The predictions of the coward and the hardened cravings of the vicious/were never contained within their proper bounds./He who cheats his lord and hatches lewd designs/will be a snare to his comrades and himself./Whoever nurses a wolf in his home is generally thought/to be fostering a thief, a murderer of his own household.36 HED 76: 36Another proverb quoted in the Poetic Edda, in Sigurðarkviða 12: Skalat ulf ala ungan lengi (Never foster a wolf cub too long).
Eddic and saga texts:
TPMA 13. 174. WOLF/loup/wolf 6. Die Nähe des Wolfs 6.5. Wenn man die Ohren (das Gesichet) des Wolfs sieht, dann glaubt man ihn (seinen Schwanz) nahe Nord. 199 Þar er mér úlfs vón, er ek eyro sék Da erwarte ich den Wolf, wo ich (seine) Ohren bemerke FÁFNISMÁL 35, 7 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 170). 200 Ok þar er mér úlfsins ván, er ek eyrun sá Und da erwarte ich den Wolf, wo ich (seine) Ohren gesehen habe VÖLSUNGA SAGA 19, 40. 201 Þaðan er mer vlfs van er ek eyrun seg Von dort her erwarte ich den Wolf, wo ich (seine) Ohren sehe FINNBOGA SAGA 10 S. 23, 2.
TPMA 13. 174. WOLF/loup/wolf 14. Der junge Wolf 14.2. Einen Wolf aufziehen Nord. 323 Skalat úlf ala ungan lengi! Mann soll den jungen Wolf nicht lange ernähren! SIG. SKAMMA 12, 3 (=JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 171). 324 (At þú) hafir þar ulf at fœða er hann er Du hast in ihm einen Wolf aufziehen BISKUPASÖGUR I, 655 (?JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418 [=JÓNSSON 171]). Note. See also ch. 32 of Völsunga saga, rendering in prose the passage in Sigurðarkviða in skamma, cited above: Brynhild, inciting Gunnar to the killing of Sigurd, warns him to kill also his son by Guðrun: ". . . and I will return home to my kinsmen and remain there in sorrow unless you kill Sigurd and his son. Don't raise a wolf cub."
Laxdœla saga:
TPMA 13. 165. WOLF/loup/wolf 1. Bösartigkeit des Wolfs 1.8. Von einem gierigen Wolf ist Kampf zu erwarten Nord. 22 Er mér fangs vón at frekom úlfi Von einem gierigen Wolf habe ich Kampf zu erwarten. REGINSMÁL 13, 4. 23 Er fangs ván af frekum úlfi Von einem gierigen Wolf ist Kampf zu erwarten LAXDŒLA SAGA 19, 27. 24 Er því fangs ván at frekum úlfi Es ist deshalf von einem gierigen Wolf Kampf zu erwarten EYRBYGGJA SAGA 47, 6. 25 Sem vera muni fángs von at frekum úlfi Wie von einem gierigen Wolf Kampf zu erwarten sein wird EYMUNDAR ÞÁTTR HRÍNGSSONAR 11 (? FMS V, 294). 26 Þotte þeim þar fangs ván at frekvm vlfe Es schien ihm, da sei von einem gierigen Wolf Kampf zu erwarten STURLUNGA SAGA II, 212, 22 (=JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 170)3 3Gilt für alle nord. Belege dieser Gruppe.
See also ÍF XXX. 99. 153. "Höfðu þeir með sér it bezta ráðuneyti er í var landinu, tóku öll ríki konunganna, þeira er ættbornir váru til, allt þar til er Guð sendi útan af útskerjum einn lítinn mann ok lágan at steypa þeira ofdrambi, en sá maðr var ek. Ekki tókum vér þat af oss sjálfum, heldr sýndi Guð þat hversu lítit honum var fyrir at steypa þeira ofdrambi. Ok kømr þar at því sem mælt er, at sárt bítr soltin lús." Saga of King Sverri. 99. 124. They were supported by the best counsellors in the land, and they seized all the realm of the kings who were the rightful heirs, until God sent from the outlying islands a mean and lowly man to bring down their pride. I was that man. We did not effect that of ourselves; God rather showed by us how easy it was for Him to lower their pride. And here the saying applies, 'A hungry louse bites hard.'"
FJ Proverb word 418. Page 194. úlfr – . . . úlfar eta (reka) annars erendi Laxd 81, K. ‘Ulve æder (driver) en andens ærinde’. Reka kunde synes at være det mest passende udtryk, men eta findes i (den ældre) saga og er sikkert det oprindelige. Både i GJ og i færøsk findes samme dobbelthed. Eta ´fortære´ må så her være brugt om at ‘fordærve, ødelægge’ (ulve = personer hvis sind er som ulvenes). Jfr Låle (nr 341): “Hunde ædhe gernæ anden mandz ærendhe op” (jfr kommentaren hertil, s. 150). = GJ (bægge verber). GJ har også: “Hundar upp eta annars erindi á stundum (her er vist erindi blevet forstået som ekskrementer).
TPMA 13. 188. WOLF/loup/wolf 20. Die Wölfe fressen (betreiben) den Auftrag eines andern31 Nord. 463 Er þat ok satt, at sagt er, at úlfar eta annars erendi Es ist doch wahr, was gesagt wird, dass die Wölfe den Auftrag eines andern fressen LAXDŒLA SAGA 23, 14 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 171). 464 Ulfar reka anars erindi Die Wölfe betreiben den Auftrag eines andern KÅLUND 187 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 171). Vgl. HUND 1174. 31Der Sinn muss sein: Was man nicht selber tut, sondern einem andern aufträgt, wird schlecht oder gar nicht erledigt. VgL. LAXDŒLA SAGA 23, 14 Anm.
Kålund 172. úlfr. 187. ulfar reka anars erindi (E, 3). Som ulve udføre folk andres ærinde (?: med egenkærlig hensynsløshed). I Laxdœla saga (udg. s. 92), hvor ordsproget anvendes, forekommer, ved sidan af reka, i nogle håndskrifter som verbum eta. Sætningen i den ovenfor givne form synes dog at måtte foretrækkes. G Jónsson: Úlfr rekr (etr) annars erindi. Fœrøisk (Hmhb. nr. 9): Hundar eta (reka) annans örindi.

C. Feud.
i. Reciprocity.

O-R Liber quintus. 128-9. VI. 1. Ad quos Ericus: "Inverecundus," ait, "est latro, qui prior concordiam quærit aut bonis communicare præsumit. Qui enim obtinere gestit, obniti debet; ictus ictui opponendus est livorque livore pellendus." Cumque hoc dictum Gøtarus attentis eminus auribus excepisset, quam poterat clara voce: "Ita", inquit, "quisque virtuti militat, prout beneficii meminit." Cui Ericus: "Beneficentiam tuam reddito tibi consilio repensavi." Quo sermone egregios monitus omni donorum genere præstantiores indicabat.
PF Book V. 144. Gøtar, fearing Frothi's power, sends envoys asking for peace:
Erik talked to them: "It's a shameless robber who is the first to ask for a truce or ventures to offer one to blameless men. Those who long for possession must struggle for it; blow must be pitted against blow, hatred repel hatred."88 Gøtar listened to his words attentively from a distance and, in as distinct tones as he could muster, replied, "A man's gallantry in action is measured by his recollection of benefits received." Erik answered, "I've requited your generosity with the sound advice I've given you." He meant that excellent counsel was more valuable than any sort of gift, . . . HED 81: 88Kallstenius (p. 27, no. 61) gives some sayings resembling this. Grettir refers to such a proverb (Grettis Saga 47): 'It is an old saying, that one ill shall be mended by a greater.'
Grettis saga:
FJ Proverb word 62. Page 74. böl – svá skal böl bœta at bíða annat (mgl. Alex) meira Grett 108 (Boer 173), Alex 57. ‘Således skal man bøde på en ulykke at man lider en, der er större’, ?: en större ulykke bringer en mindre i forglemmelse. Dette er uden tvivl ordsprogets rigtige form; findes også i GJ med den urigtige var.: að bíða eigi annað meira.
Saxo (Kallstenius) 27. 61. Ont. ictus ictui opponendus est, liuorque pellendus, s. 15332. – Hart imod hart. Slag for slag, Vedel s. 1003; Med ondt skal mand ondt fordrive/om godt skal nogen tiid blive, Syv I s. 324, Ondt kan och medh ondt fördrifwas, Grubb s. 629; jfr: >>þat er fornt mál>>, segir Grettir, >>at svá skal böl bœta, at bíða annat meira>>, Grettis saga (Boer) s. 1733 (se Finnur Jónsson Ark. 30 s. 74).
TPMA 12. 91. UNGLÜCK/malheur/misfortune 3. Verhalten im Unglück (dem Unglück gegenüber) 3.3 Unglück mit Unglück überwinden Nord. 103 “Þat er fornt mál”, segir Grettir, “at svá skal böl bœta, at bíða annat meira” “Das ist ein altes Sprichwort”, sagt Grettir, “dass man ein Unglück so bessern soll, dass man auf ein anderes grösseres wartet” GRETTIS SAGA 47, 22 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 62. JÓNSSON 26) (vgl. LEID 8.8.).


ii. Restraint and seemly delay.
O-R Liber quintus. 116. III. 11. . . . dissiliens Greppus, ut Ericum telo traiceret, procurrit, criminantis cæce suam redimere cupiens. Quem Rollerus destricto ense occupans molitionis suæ prædamnavit exemplo. Aitque Ericus: "Optima est affinium opera opis indigo." Et Rollerus: "Inter asperos casus officiose asciscendi sunt boni." Tum Frotho: "Credo eventurum vobis, quod vulgo dici assolet, ferienti interdum breve percussionis gaudium fore nec diu manum ictu exhilarari solere." Et Ericus: "Non est arguendus, cuius operi excusamentum iustitia tribuit. Tantum enim inter nostram atque Greppi operam distat, quantum inter defendentis se atque alium impetentis interest actionem."
PF Book V. 130. The altercation when Erik reveals Grep has slept with Hanunda, Frothi's wife:
. . . Grep sprang from his seat and ran at Erik to transfix him with his weapon, aiming to rescue his own life by killing his accuser. But Roller forestalled his attempt with drawn sword and paid him in his own coin. "Kinsmen's service is very valuable when you need help", remarked Erik. "In desperate straits you must have good men to oblige you",47 replied Roller. "I believe", Frothi said, "that the common saying will apply to you two. The assassin's pleasure will often be short-lived and the joy of his hand brief once it has struck.48 You can't criticise a fully-justified action", Erik answered. "The difference between Grep's work and ours is that between self-defence and a malicious attack." HED 77: 47Kallstenius (p. 23, no. 35) quotes similar but not parallel proverbs: e.g. Í þörf reynist vinr bezt (In time of need you discover your best friend). 48A similar proverb is quoted in Njáls Saga 42: Skamma stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin (The hand will not have long to rejoice over the blow). Kallstenius (p. 24, no. 38) has similar but not identical instances from Denmark.
FJ Proverb word 482. Page 204. þræll – . . . þræll einn þegar hefnisk en argr aldri Grett 28 (Boer 48). ‘Trællen ene hævner sig straks, den feje aldrig’. Synes at antyde, at en træl vil straks hævne sig, medens en fribåren godt kan vænte og vise sin overlegenhed vid udførelsen. GJ har: þrællinn hefnir en argr aldrei, hvilket giver en god mening for sig.
Gering 9. högg (nr. 196b). – Zu den dreimal in den Njála überlieferten sprichwort: skamma stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin vgl. Saxo (ed. Holder) 13726: nec diu manum ictu exhilarari solere. S. auch Rosenberg, Nordb. aandsliv 1, 245.
Kålund 157. hönd. . . . 88. stutta stund verdur hond hoggi feigenn (H. 43). Kort tid glæder hånd sig ved hug. Ordsproget, der kendes fra Niáls saga, og som også anføres hos G. Jónsson, forekommer bægge steder med skamma for stutta.
TPMA 9. 177. RACHE/vengeance 8. Verschiedenes Nord. 140 Eigi veit áðr hefndum lýkr Man weiss nich (, wie es ausgeht), bevor die Rache vollzogen ist MÁLSHÁTTAKVÆÐI 18, 6 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 166. JÓNSSON 66). 141 Þræll einn þegar hefniz, en argr aldri Ein Knecht rächt sich schnell, aber ein Feiger nie GRETTIS SAGA 15, 7 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482. JÓNSSON 190). 142 Fornrar skemðar skal fyrr hefna Alte Schande soll man zuerst (wörtl.: früher) rächen BÆRINGS SAGA 24 S. 111, 26 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 165. JÓNSSON 66).
Ed. note. See Deskis, p. 124, fn 77.
FJ Proverb word 196. Page 99. högg – . . . skamma (stutta) stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin Nj 178. 521. 703, K. ‘Stakket stund glæder hånden sig ved (sit) hug’ (ti hævnen kommer hurtig). Almindelig i brug.
Gering 9. högg (nr. 196b). – Zu den dreimal in den Njála überlieferten sprichwort: skamma stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin vgl. Saxo (ed. Holder) 13726: nec diu manum ictu exhilarari solere. S. auch Rosenberg, Nordb. aandsliv 1, 245.
Kålund 157. hönd. . . . 88. stutta stund verdur hond hoggi feigenn (H. 43). Kort tid glæder hånd sig ved hug. Ordsproget, der kendes fra Niáls saga, og som også anføres hos G. Jónsson, forekommer bægge steder med skamma for stutta.
TPMA 10. 120. SCHLAGEN/battre/to hit 16. Die Hand freut sich nicht lange am Schlag Mlat. 217 credo euenturum uobis, quod uulgo dici assolet, ferienti interdum breue percussionis gaudium fore, nec diu manum ictu exhilarari solere Ich glaube, es wird für euch herauskommen, was man allgemein zu sagen pflegt, dass für den, der schlägt, manchmal die Freude des Schlagens kurz sei und sich die Hand nicht lange am Schlag zu freuen pflege SAXO GRAMM. 137, 25. Nord. 218 Þat er mælt, at skamma stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin Das wird gesagt, dass die Hand sich (nur) kurze Zeit am Schlag freut NJÁLS SAGA 42, 9 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 196. JÓNSSON 82). 219 Mun hér sannaz þat sem mælt er, at skamma stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin Das wird sich hier deutlich zeigen, was man sagt, dass die Hand sich (nur) kurze Zeit am Schlag freut NJÁLS SAGA 99, 9 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 196). 220 Nú er svá orðit, sem mælt er, at skamma stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin Nun ist es so gesprochen, wie es gesagt wird, dass die Hand sich (nur) kurze Zeit am Schlag freut NJÁLS SAGA 134, 3 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 196). 221 Stutta stund verdur hond hoggi feigenn (Nur) kurze Zeit freut sich die Hand am Schlag KÅLUND 88 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 196).

O-R Liber quintus. 119. III. 20. Noctu Gunwara, tacite excitato eo, fuga opus esse proponit, perquam utile referens rebus integris incolumi redire curru.
PF Book V. 134. Gunvara warns Erik of the need to escape:
During the night Gunvara quietly awoke Erik, declaring they must flee; it would be a distinct advantage if they could return safely while the wagon was still sound.58 HED 79: 58This appears to be a proverb, and Kallstenius (p. 25, no. 50) quotes the Icelandic equivalent: Hollast er í heilum vagni heim að aka (It's best to drive home while the wagon's still sound), cf. the English expression 'Go while the going's good'.
FJ Proverb word 428. Page 196. vagn – gott (bezt) heilum vagni heim at aka Eg 119, Icels I 219, Flat II 282, Fas II 115, Karl. 388. ‘Det er godt (bedst) at køre hjem med en hel vogn’ (hel = ubeskadiget).
TPMA 12. 311. WAGEN (Subst.)/voiture/waggon 2. Fahren mit dem Wagen 2.1. Es ist gut, mit ganzem Wagen heimzufahren Mlat. 24 . . . utile referens, rebus integris incolumni redire curru Indem er darlegte, es sei von Nutzen, dann zurückzukehren, wenn die Verhältnisse noch gut stünden und der Wagen noch unbeschädigt sei SAXO GRAMM. 141, 16. Nord. 25-27 Ok er gott heilum vagni heim at aka Und es ist gut, mit unbeschädigtem Wagen heimzufahren SVERRIS SAGA 76 (?FMS VIII, 186). SNORRI, ÓLÁFS SAGA HELGA 147 (?FMS IV, 364). SNORRI, HEIMSKRINGLA 345, 29 (Óláfs saga helga 151). 28 Ok er nú gott heilum vagni heim at aka Und es ist nun gut . . . HARALDS SAGA HARÐRÁÐA 8 (?FMS VI, 151). 29 Er nu gott heilum vagni heim at aka Es ist nun gut .. . . ORKNEYINGA SAGA 106. S. 318, 19. 30 Þá var gott heilum vagni heim at aka Damals sei es gut gewesen, dass er mit unbeschädigtem Wagen heimgefahren sei EGILS SAGA 38, 7 (=JÓNSSON, ARKIV 428. JÓNSSON 173). 31 Þvíat betra er heilum vagne heim at aka . . . Denn es ist besser, mit unbeschädigtem Wagen heimzufahren ALEXANDERS SAGA 61. 32 Ok kvað gott heilum vagni heim at aka Und er sagte, es sei gut . . . KETILS SAGA HÆNGS 2 (?FAS II, 115 [=JÓNSSON, ARKIV 428]).
Laxdœla saga:
ÍF V. 46. 143.
Óláfr svarar: “Enn vilda ek sem fyrr, at þú létir vera ok hjá þér líða þetta vandræði; mun ek leita eptir þessu í hljóði; því at þar til vilda ek allt vinna, at ykkr Bolla skilði eigi á; er um heilt bezt at binda, frændi,” segir hann.
CSI 46. Olaf Hoskuldsson to Kjartan regarding the disappearance of the headdress and his fear of an open breach between Kjartan and Bolli:
73. Olaf answered, “As before, I want to ask you to take no action; try to ignore what has happened, and let me see what I can do privately. I will do everything I can to prevent a split between you and Bolli. Least said, soonest mended,” he added.
PC 166. “. . . I would do anything to prevent a breach between you and Bolli. ‘Whole flesh is easier to dress than wounds’, my son,” he said.
ASB 4. 46. 146. 27. 29.30. at – líða, “dass du (dies) unerwähnt und unbeachtet liessest”. 32. er – binda, sprichwort; wörtl. “das unbeschädigte ist am leichtesten zu verbinden”.
FJ Proverb word 168. Page 93. heill (adj.) – er um heilt bezt at binda Laxd. 177. ´Det er bedst at forbinde helt (usåret)´ (?: det er bedst at der intet sår er). GJ: um heilt er bezt at binda (jfr búa).

O-R Liber quintus. 114. III. 6. Contra rex docet deliberationem furori dandam: improvida plerumque nocere consilia, nihil caute simul ac celeriter geri posse, plurimum præcipites obesse nisus; ad ultimum multitudine paucos incessere non decere. Ceterum sollertum esse, qui furenti animo frenos iniciat sævientemque ad tempus impetum interpellet. Taliter rex præcipitem iuvenis iram consilio cedere coegit.
PF Book V. 128. When Grep returns to court in defeat, Frothi counsels him to restrain his wrath:
The king on the other hand suggested he should reflect a while in his wrath; hasty schemes very often misfired, nothing could be carried out both quickly and warily, and frantic ventures mostly turned against their devisers; lastly it was improper for a few men to be attacked by a great swarm.39 The clever individual was one who could throw a curb on his rage and interrupt his violent impetuosity in time. In this way the king forced the young man to be thoughtful in his impuslive anger.
FJ Proverb word 482. Page 204. þræll – . . . þræll einn þegar hefnisk en argr aldri Grett 28 (Boer 48). ‘Trællen ene hævner sig straks, den feje aldrig’. Synes at antyde, at en træl vil straks hævne sig, medens en fribåren godt kan vænte og vise sin overlegenhed vid udførelsen. GJ har: þrællinn hefnir en argr aldrei, hvilket giver en god mening for sig.
TPMA 9. 177. RACHE/vengeance 8. Verschiedenes Nord. 140 Eigi veit áðr hefndum lýkr Man weiss nich (, wie es ausgeht), bevor die Rache vollzogen ist MÁLSHÁTTAKVÆÐI 18, 6 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 166. JÓNSSON 66). 141 Þræll einn þegar hefniz, en argr aldri Ein Knecht rächt sich schnell, aber ein Feiger nie GRETTIS SAGA 15, 7 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482. JÓNSSON 190). 142 Fornrar skemðar skal fyrr hefna Alte Schande soll man zuerst (wörtl.: früher) rächen BÆRINGS SAGA 24 S. 111, 26 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 165. JÓNSSON 66).
Ed. note. See Deskis, p. 124, fn 77.

iii. Support.
O-R Liber quintus. 114. III. 8. Deinde procedentem paulisper Ericum subit destinanda regi esse ab advenis dona. Igitur repertum forte glaciale frustum veste diligenter obvolvens muneris loco regi deferendum curavit. At ubi ad regiam perventum est, prior introitum petens fratrem pone consequi iubet. Et iam vernæ regis, ut ludibrio venientem exciperent, lubricam limini substravere pellem; quam, ingrediente Erico, celeri funis tractu corripientes lapsum insistenti fecissent, ni Rollerus pone subiens pectore nutabundum exciperet fratrem. Ericus itaque semifusus nudum habere tergum fraternitatis inopem referebat. Cumque Gunwara talia regi permittenda negaret, ille stoliditatis legatum damnabat, apud quem insidiarum cautela non esset. Itaque ludibrii excusationem ludificati incuriam fecit.
PF Book V. 128. Erik approaches Frothi's court:
After Erik had proceeded a little further, it occurred to him that strangers ought to offer gifts to the king. Chancing to discover a piece of ice, he wrapped it carefully in his cloak to preserve and offer it to the ruler as a present. When he reached the palace, before seeking admittance he asked his brother to follow close behind him. Now the royal servants, to have some fun at the expense of their new arrival, had laid down a slippery hide at the threshold; when Erik entered and stepped on it their quick jerk on the rope would have overturned him, had not Roller, coming up behind, caught him against his chest as he reeled. 41 Erik, leaning at an angle, remarked that a brotherless man has a bare back. 42 Although Gunvara stated that a king should not be allowed to play such tricks, Frothi criticised the envoy for his foolishness in not watching for a trap. He made out that his prank was excusable because Erik, its butt, had been careless. HED 77: 41Another example of skinndráttr (see note 11 above). 42This is a popular saying quoted more than once in the sagas: Berr er hverr at baki, nema sér bróður eigi (Bare is the back of the man without a brother). This is found in Njáls Saga 152 and Grettis Saga 82. cf. Kallstenius p. 20, no. 17, where he gives a Danish equivalent.
FJ Proverb 25. Page 66. bak – berr er hverr á bakinu nema sér bróður eigi Grett 185 (Boer 283). ‘Enhver er bar på ryggen (værgeløs bagfra) medmindre han har sig en broder’. Også i GJ med udeladelse af sér.
Saxo (Kallstenius) 20. 17. nudum habere tergum fraternitatis inopem, referebat, s. 13519. – Bar er broderløs Bag, Vedel s. 8911. Se vidare D n:r 395 med komm., Rosenberg a. a. II s. 601 not, Gering Ark 32 s. 6 och JR II n:r 169 (s. 19).
Gering 6. bak (nr. 25b). – Das sprichwort: berr er hverr á bakinu nema sér broður eigi (Grett. c. 82, 13) steht auch Njála c. 152, 5. Vgl. Saxo (ed. Holder) 13519: nudum habere tergum fraternitatis inopem; Peder Låle nr. 395: fraternitatis orbatus est pro nudo reputatus (bar ær brodherløss man).
TPMA 2. 128. BRUDER/frère/brother 1. Ein Bruder ist wertvoll und von grossem Nutzen 1.3. Wer keinen Bruder hat, ist nackt (ungeschützt) Mlat. 9 Nudum habere tergum fraternitatis inopem, referebat (scil. Ericus) Er (Ericus) rief, dass der Bruderlose einen ungeschützten Rücken habe SAXO GRAMM. 135, 19. Nord. 10.11 Berr er hverr á bakinu (NJÁLS SAGA: at baki), nema sér bróður eigi Jeder ist am Rücken nackt, ausser demjenigen, der einen Bruder hat GRETTIS SAGA 82, 13 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 25. GERING S. 6. JÓNSSON 22). NJÁLS SAGA 152, 5. 12 Fratribus orbatus est pro nudo reputatus. – Bar ær brodherløss man Jemand, der seiner Brüder beraubt ist, wird als nackt angesehen. – Ein bruderloser Mann ist nackt LÅLE 395. Variiert: Nord. 13 Opt kømr mér Mána brúþar (H.s.: bjarnar2) Í byrvind Brœþraleyse; Hyggjomk umb, Es hildr þróask Oft kommt mir der Mangel an Brüdern in den Sinn (wörtl.: in den Fahrtwind der Mondbraut [des Mondbären]); ich denke darüber nach, wenn der Kampflärm anschwillt EGILL, SONATORREK 13, 1 (?EGILS SAGA S. 305).

iv. (Unsuitable) friends.
O-R Liber quintus. 113-14. III. 5. En te cura premit culpæ rea, tutior huic est/libertas, cui mens intemerata manet./Decipitur quisquis servum sibi poscit amicum;/sæpe solet domino verna nocere suo.
PF Book V. 127. Erik engages in a contest of words with Grep, who bullies with insolence, while the hero relies particularly upon proverbial wisdom for his own rhetorical weapons. Erik:
See! your pressing anxiety indicts you. Independence/is safer where the mind remains untainted./He is deceived who wants a servant for his friend;/a menial often damages his master.38 HED 76: 38Kallstenius (p. 22, no. 28) quotes an Icelandic proverb: Ilt er að eiga þræl firi einkavin (It´s a bad thing to have a thrall for a close friend).
FJ Proverb word 482. Page 204. þræll – . . . ilt er at eiga þræl at eingavin Nj 223, Grett 184 (Boer 282), Fas III 486, Þhreð 44. ‘Det er slemt at have en træl til sin fortroligste ven’. = GJ (fyrir f. at2). Alml. i brug.
Gering 14. þræll (nr. 482c). – Den belegen für das sprichwort: illt er at eiga þræl at einkavin ist hinzuzufügen Konungsskuggsjá (1848) 979. Vgl. auch Edd. min. XIV, 65: illr er Óðinn at einkavin, das unter die mythol. sprichwörter (s. 207) hätte aufgenommen werden sollen.
Saxo (Kallstenius) 22. Herre och thänere. 28. Decipitur quisquis seruum sibi poscit amicum, s. 1346. – Ilt er ad eiga þræl firi einkavin, se JR II n:r 181 (s. 19).
TPMA 2. 255. DIENEN/servir/to serve 9. Diener 9.10. Umgang mit dem Diener 9.10.4. Man soll vom Diener Abstand halten Nord. 600 Ilt er at eiga þræl at einkavin Schlimm ist es, einen Diener zum vertrauten Freund zu haben KONUNGS SKUGGSJÁ 42 S. 97 (?GERING S. 14). 601 Satt er et fornkveðna . . . : ill er at eiga þræl at einkavin Wahr ist das Sprichwort: . . . GRETTIS SAGA 82, 8 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482). 602,603 Illt er at eiga þræl at engavin NJÁLS SAGA 49, 37 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482. JÓNSSON 191). ÞÓRÐAR SAGA HREÐU 44 (?JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482). 604 Er íllt at eiga þræl at einka vin HJÁLMÞÉRS SAGA OK ÖLVERS 12 (?FAS III, 486 [= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482]). Vgl. HERR 4.1.3., KNAPPE 15, VERTRAUT 1.1.

v. Equality of opposing forces in feud.
O-R Liber quintus. 119. III. 18. Quod Frotho videns: "Arduum," inquit, "reor contra fortem fune contendere." Et Ericus: "Arduum utique, cum corpori struma insidet aut tergum occupat gibbus."
PF Book V. 133. Frothi comments on the unfairness of the rope pulling contest between Erik and Vestmar:
When Frothi saw this he said: "I think it's difficult to tug the rope against a strong man."56"Diffcult, certainly," said Erik, "when you have a tumour on your body or a hump on your back." HED 78: 56This is close to a saying in Njáls Saga 6: Við ramman mun reip at draga (This is tugging against a strong opponent), found again in Hrólfs Saga kraka 1. The metaphor is that of a tug-of-war, and the meaning is that it is useless to contend against a force too strong to resist; the implication in the saga passages is that magic powers are involved (cf. Kallstenius, p. 22, no. 31).
FJ Proverb word 311. Page 180. reip – (þar er) við ramman reip at draga Nj 22, Fms II 107. ‘Det er en stærk mand at trække reb med’, om noget meget vanskeligt. Alml. i brug. Findes også hos Låle (I 25).
Gering 11. reip (nr. 331). – Die redensart: hér er við ramman reip at draga findet sich auch in der Hrólfs s. kraka c. 1 (Fas. 1, 416), Vatnsd. c. 44 (Forns. 754) und Kjalnes. s. c. 3 (Ísl. s. II2, 4089).
Saxo (Kallstenius) 22-3. Kraft. 31. Arduum, inquit, reor contra fortem fune contendere, s. 14027. – Illt er vid ramman reip ad draga, se JR II n:r 179 (s. 19). Jfr D n:r 304 och Rosenberg a. a. II s. 601 not.
ÍOS II. 79. REIP VIÐ RAMMAN ER REIP AÐ DRAGA "við mikla öðugleika er að etja, við erfiðan andstæðing er að fást". Orðtakið kemur nokkrum sinnum fyrir í fornritum, sbr. t. d.: "Við ramman mun reip at draga", segir Gunnhildr, "ok leyfið þér honum at fara sem honum gegnir bezt". ÍF XII, 20, sbr. enn fremur VIII, 122, FMS II, 107, FAS I, 4. Þess má geta, að orðtakið kemur fyrir í tveimur gervum hjá Saxo (SAXO LIB V, 119; XII, 333 (Kbh. 1931). Frá 19. öld eru kunnig afbrigðin: eiga við ramman reip að draga og draga reip við hinn ramma: Hann á við ramman reip að draga (GJ 129 (OB)) – að taka því, sem í boði er og draga ekki reip við hinn ramma. JSBRÉF2, 125 (OB). Orðtakið á rætur að rekja til reipdráttar, við ramman (sérstætt lo.) merkir "á móti sterkum manni". HHÍO 309, EÓS í Skírni 1954, 217.
TPMA 11. 175. STRICK/corde/rope 2. Ziehen am Strick (Seil) 2.3 Gegen einem Starken am Seil ziehen Nord. 37 Er þar við ramman reip at draga Man muss dort gegen einen Starken am Seil ziehen GROSSE ÓLÁFS SAGA TRYGGVASONAR 184 (?FMS II, 170 [=JÓNSSON, ARKIV 331]). 38 Hér er við ramman reip at draga Hier muss man gegen einen Starken am Strick ziehen HRÓLFS SAGA KRAKA 1 (?FAS I, 4 [GERING S. 11]). 39 Ok má vera, at við ramman væri reip at draga Und es mag sein, dass wir gegen einen Starken am Seil habe ziehen müssen VATNSDŒLA SAGA 44, 30 (= GERING S. 11). 40 Vid ramman mun reip at draga (Hier) muss man gegen einen Starken am Seil ziehen NJÁLS SAGA 6, 5 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV, 331. JÓNSSON, 136). 41 Creditur incautum forti resti (lies: restis) dare tractum. – Onth ær meth ramme stærcke reeb (lies: meth ramme reeb) at drawæ Es gilt als unvorsichtig, mit einem Starken am Seil zu ziehen. – Es ist schlecht, mit einem Starken am Seil zu ziehen Låle 204. 42 Est graue grandeuum (lies mit Låle S. 259: gradiuum) per restis vincere tractum. – Thet ær onth at drawe reeb meth gamlæ (lies mit Druck B: ramme) Es ist schwierig, den Kampftüchtigen durch das Ziehen des Seiles zu besiegen. – Es ist schlecht, mit einem Starken am Seil zu ziehen EBD. 338. 43 Nú er við raman reip at draga Man muss jetzt gegen einen Starken am Seil ziehen KJALNESINGA SAGA 3 S. 11 (= GERING S. 11).

O-R Liber quintus. 114. III. 6. Contra rex docet deliberationem furori dandam: improvida plerumque nocere consilia, nihil caute simul ac celeriter geri posse, plurimum præcipites obesse nisus; ad ultimum multitudine paucos incessere non decere. Ceterum sollertum esse, qui furenti animo frenos iniciat sævientemque ad tempus impetum interpellet. Taliter rex præcipitem iuvenis iram consilio cedere coegit.
PF Book V. 128. When Grep returns to court in defeat, Frothi counsels him to restrain his wrath:
The king on the other hand suggested he should reflect a while in his wrath; hasty schemes very often misfired, nothing could be carried out both quickly and warily, and frantic ventures mostly turned against their devisers; lastly it was improper for a few men to be attacked by a great swarm.39 The clever individual was one who could throw a curb on his rage and interrupt his violent impetuosity in time. In this way the king forced the young man to be thoughtful in his impuslive anger. HED 77: 39The final maxim, that it is improper for a few to be attacked by many, is used again by Erik later in the book (note 94 below) to good effect.
O-R Liber quintus. 129-30. VII. 3. Cui Ericus: "Numquam Frotho domi inimicum præstolatur exercitum nec hostem inn ædibus opperitur. Pernox enim et pervigil esse debet alienum appetens culmen. Nemo stertendo victoriam cepit, nec luporum quisquam cubando cadaver invenit." Quem rex exquisitis dictorum sententiis callere cognoscens: "Hic," ait, "fortasse Ericus est, a quo filiam meam falsi criminis insimulatam accepi." Qui continuo prendi iussus, non decere inquit unum a pluribus abripi.
PF Book V. 145. Hun, the Hunnish king, recognizes Erik by his eloquence:
"Frothi never waits at home, lingering in his halls, for a hostile army. Whoever intends to scale another's pinnacle must be watchful and wakeful. Nobody has ever won victory by snoring, nor has any sleeping wolf found a carcase." The king recognised his intelligence from these carefully chosen apothegms and reflected, "Here perhaps is the Erik who, so I've heard, laid a false charge against my daughter." He gave orders for him to be pinioned at once, but Erik pointed out how unsuitable it was for one creature to be manhandled by many.94 HED 82: 94This appears to be a recognised proverb or maxim (see note 39 above), and this may be why the king is so impressed by Erik's words. There is a similar reaction in The Battle of the Goths and Huns, when the command to seize Gizur, the messenger of Angangyr, is countermanded by King Humli with the words: "We must not do harm to heralds who travel alone' (28).
FJ Proverb word 275. Page 172. margr – ekki (eigi, engi) má við margnum Hfr 89, Völs 28, Flóv 205, Karl. 97, Þjalarjónss. ‘Ingen kan stå sig mod mange’. = GJ (Enginn osv.). Man lægge mærke til margr her brugt substantivisk.
TPMA 12. 249. VIEL/beaucoup/much 2. Viel(e) als überlegene Mehrheit 2.2. Viele sind stärker und einflussreicher als wenige 2.2.1. Gegn viele ist nichts auszurichten 2.2.1.1. Allg. Nord. 26,27 Ecki ma við margnum Man kann gegen viele nichts ausrichten HALLFREÐAR SAGA 38, 1 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275. JÓNSSON 116). KARLAMAGNÚS SAGA 97 (? JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275). 28 Ok kom þa at því, sem mælt er, at ekki má við margnum Und es kam dann so, wie es im Sprichwort heisst, dass man gegen viele nichts ausrichten kann ÓLÁFR ÞÓRÐARSON(?), KNÝTLINGA SAGA 59 (? FMS XI, 278). 29 Nú er sem mélt, at eigi má viþ margnum Nun ist es so, wie . . . VÖLSUNGA SAGA 11, 55 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275). 30 Fór hónum þá, sem mælt er, at ecki má við marginum Es erging ihm da so, wie . . . HRÓLFS SAGA 62, 4 (= GERING S. 11). 31 En þó kom at því sem mælt er, at ekki má við margnum Aber es kam doch so, wie . . . GROSSE ÓLÁFS SAGA TRYGGVASONAR 153 (? FMS II, 10). 32 Þviat eingi er sva roskr, at eigi verþi sottr, ef margir sekia Denn keiner ist so tapfer, dass er nicht bezwungen würde, wenn viele (ihn) angreifen FLÓVENTS SAGA I 18 S. 144, 58. 33 Munn her koma at þui, sem mælt er, ath, 'ecki maa vid margnum' Es wird hier so kommen, wie es im Sprichwort heisst, dass man gegen viele nichts ausrichten kann FLÓVENTS SAGA II 19 S. 205, 24 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275). 34 Þvíat hann mun ekki mega einn við mörgum Denn er wird als einziger gegen viele nichts ausrichten können PARCEVALS SAGA 22, 29. 35 En þo matti hann ecki við marginvm Und doch konnte er gegen viele nichts ausrichten BÆRINGS SAGA 23 S. 110, 18 (= GERING S. 11). Vgl. EIN 4.7., ZWEI 4.1.5.

Select Bibliography.
Editions. J. Olrik and H. Ræder. Saxonis Gesta Danorum. Copenhagen, 1931. (Abbrev. O-R)
Translations. English. The First Nine Books of the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus. Tr. Oliver Elton. With some considerations on Saxo's Sources, Historical Methods, and Folkore, by Frederick York Powell. (Abbrev. Powell) London, 1894. Saxo Grammaticus. The History of the Danes. Books I-IX. Tr. Peter Fisher, ed. and commentary Hilda Ellis Davidson. Cambridge, 1979-80. [Repr. one volume Woodbridge, Suffolk. 1996, 2002.] (Abbrev. PF, commentary, HED.) Danish. Anders Sørensen Vedel. Den Danske krønicke. Copenhagen, 1575, facs. edn. Copenhagen, 1967. J. Olrik tr 1908-1912.
Studies.
Eric Christiansen, "The place of fiction in Saxo's later books," SG, 27-38.
Hilda R. Ellis Davidson. "Wit and eloquence in the courts of Saxo's early kings," SG, 39-52.
Karen Friis-Jensen, ed. Saxo Grammaticus. A Medieval Author Between Norse and Latin Culture. Copenhagen, 1981. (Abbrev. SG)
Bjarni Guðnason, "The Icelandic sources of Saxo Grammaticus," SG, 79-94.
Kurt Johannesson, "Order in Gesta Danorum and order in the Creation," SG, 95-104.
______________, Saxo Grammaticus. Komposition och världsbild i 'Gesta Danorum' Stockholm, 1978.
Anker Teilgård Laugesen, Introduktion til Saxo Copenhagen, 1972.
Axel Olrik, Kilderne til Sakses oldhistorie; and literatur-historisk undersögelse, 2 vols. Copenhagen, 1892-4. (Also in Aarbøger f. nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie (2) 7, pp. 1-134.)
Joaquín Martiínez-Pizarro, "An Eiríks þáttr málspaka? Some conjectures on the source of Saxo's Ericus Disertus," SG, 105-120.
C. Rosenberg, Nordboernes Aandsliv fra oldtiden til vore dage II, 600. Copenhagen, 1880.
Inge Skovgaard-Petersen, "Gesta Danorums genremæssige placering," Saxostudier, Copenhagen, 1975.
Stephani Johannis Stephanii. Notæ uberiores in historiam danicam Saxonis Grammatici. Sorø 1645. Facs., intro. H. D. Schepelern. Museum Tusculanum Press. Copenhagen, 1978. Contains references to comments by Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson.
Other works:
The Complete Sagas of Icelanders, ed. Viðar Hreinsson. Reykjavík, 1997. (Abbrev. CSI)
The Poetic Edda, tr. Carolyne Larrington. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford, 1996. (Abbrev. PE)
Thesaurus Proverbiorum Medii Aevi, ed. by the Kuratorium Singer. 13 volumes and Quellenverzeichnis. Berlin & New York, 1996-2002. (Abbrev. TPMA)
Hugo Gering, "Altnordische sprichwörter und sprichwörtlische redensarten," ANF 32 1915-16. (Abbrev. Gering)
Halldór Halldórsson, Íslenzkt Orðtakasafn. 2 volumes. Reykjavík, 1968-69. (Abbrev. ÍOS)
Finnur Jónsson, "Oldislandske ordsprog og talemåder," ANF 30 1913-14. (Abbrev. FJ)
Gottfrid Kallstenius, "Nordiska ordspråk hos Saxo," Studier til Axel Kock, ANF (Tillagsband til bd. 40 (NF)) Lund, 1929. (Abbrev. Saxo(Kallstenius))
Kr. Kålund, "En islandsk ordsprogsamling fra 15de århundrede," 6. in Småstykker 1-16. Copenhagen, 1884-1891. (Abbrev. Kålund)
Peder Låle. Östnordiska och Latinska Medeltidsordspråk. Copenhagen, 1889-94. (Abbrev. Låle)

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