Applications 6. Handout.  The Proverbs of Morkinskinna. A Preliminary Survey.
Session 110. Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Studies. 42 International Congress on Medieval Studies. 10 May 2007, Kalamazoo.
Richard L. Harris, Department of English, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., Canada []

Arkiv för nordisk filologi.
A-G Morkinskinna. the Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157) T.M. Andersson & Kari Ellen Gade, tr. Islandica 51. Ithaca. 2000.
FJ Morkinskinna, ed. Finnur Jónsson. S.T.U.A.G.N.L. 53. Copenhagen. 1932.
FSN Fornaldar sögur norðurlanda. Ed. Guðni Jónsson. 4 vols. Reykjavík, [repr. 1959].
GERING Gering, Hugo. "Altnordische Sprichwörter und sprichwörtlische Redensarten," ANF 32 1915-6. 1-31.
GJ Jónsson, Guðmundur. Safn af íslenzkum orðskviðum, fornmælum, heilræðum, snilliyrðum, sannmælum og málsgreinum. Copenhagen. 1830.
JÓNSSON Jónsson, Finnur. Íslenskt Málháttasafn. Copenhagen. 1920.
JÓNSSON, ARKIV. Jónsson, Finnur. "Oldislandske ordsprog og talemåder," ANF 30 1913-4. 61-111; 170-217.
TPMA Thesaurus Proverbiorum Medii Aevi. Lexikon der Sprichwörter des romanisch-germanischen Mittelalters. Ed. Kuratorium Singer der Schweizerischen Akademie der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften. 13 volumes and Quellenverzeichnis. Berlin, New York. 1995-2002.

1. Some paroemial material in Theodoricus, The Ancient history of the Norwegian Kings. Tr. D. & I. McDougall. London. 1998:
4. 7. After that the sons of his brother rose up against him, in the words of Lucan: ‘That is a fight for a poor kingdom.’ and as the same author says in another passage: ‘All power will be impatient of a consort.’
13. 17. He notes that some say that he was baptized in Bithynia in advanced old age, others in Constantinople, some at Rome by the blessed pope Sylvester. Who has written more truthfully is ‘a matter before the court.’
14. 19. And he reflected at the same time that Sveinn would scarcely be guided by brotherly love in dealing with him in other matters either, as those verses of Lucan put it: There is no faith between sharers in sovereignty;/and all power will be impatient of a consort.
17. 25. And the words of Scripture were fulfilled in them: ‘The impious man flees though none pursue him.’
27. 44. They knew perfectly well that any kingdom divided within itself would go to ruin; and therefore they made a firm agreement among themselves . . .
29. 45. When Harold drew near, most of the Norwegian forces, laden with booty, made for their ships. The remainder, though few, with steadfast courage prepared for battle. ‘But what can a few brave men do against so many thousands?’
28. 45. And as King Haraldr himself, mounted on horseback, endeavoured to draw up his battle line, his horse stumbled and he was thrown to the ground; whereupon he is reported to have said: ‘Seldom is a sign of this sort an omen of victory.’
30. 48. And when there were only boys remaining, he had bishops and priests ordained for them, who were to teach them the way of eternal salvation, since ‘a jar will long keep the scent of what it was once steeped in when new.’
31. 49. . . . so he wanted to reclaim them by force of arms if no alternative was offered. As Lucan says: . . to the man bearing weapons he grants everything.

2. Some paroemial material in Ágrip af Nóregs konunga sögum, Íslenzk fornrit 29. Reykjavík 1985, 3-54.
39. 41. Sjaldan fór svá, þá er vel vildi.
47. 44. Ill eru ill ráð.
47. 44. Illa koma hónum góðir frændr í hald.

3. Paroemial material in Morkinskinna, ( tentatively arranged in useful categories:


FJ 1. 2-3. at sa er ogaufgari er oþrom fostrar barnn.
A-G 1. 90. that it is the less distinguished man who fosters the other's child.
TPMA 7. 42. And see Hœnsa-Þóris saga, p. 7, note 1, in ÍF III (Borgfirð. s.)

FJ 2. 7. eigi munu aller jafnir j þui.
A-G 1. 92. not everyone should be cut over the same comb.
A-G 406. [Karl said: U 4.10-19 inserts a long passage from Flat
254.29-255.1, but with a few changes. FJ 7.11 appends the passage in a note.

FJ 2. 14. Deyia skal huer vm sinn.
A-G 1. 95. Everybody's got to die sooner or later
TPMA 11. 327.

FJ 2. 29-30. sid kueda aptans bida/oframs sok
A-G 3. 108. *18. the cautious man's business must wait until late in the evening.
TPMA 4. 125.

FJ. 3. 67-8. en giptan munde rada.
A-G 11. 138. let fortune take its course.

FJ. 3. 67-8. en þa hefir sa happ er hlytr og audit verdr.
A-G 11. 138. Luck goes to the lucky, as destiny determines.
TPMA 4. 488.

FJ 3. 73. margir ero fegiarnir.
A-G 12. 142. many people are eager for money.

FJ 5. 98. at braðgeþ er bernsca.
A-G 14. 156. youth is impetuous
TPMA 6. 376.

FJ 5. 98. Þat er fornt mal at enn vitrari scyli vegia
A-G 14. 156. the wiser man should yield.
TPMA 8. 308.

FJ 10. 108. goþr veri sa dagr er þinn ofsi steypiz.
A-G 19. 162. It will be a fine day when pride takes a fall.

FJ 12. 116. at braðgeþ verþa vngmenni.
A-G 21. 165. that youth is impatient.
TPMA 6. 376.

FJ 15. 125. fatt veit sa er søfr.
A-G 24. 171. The slug-a-bed is slow to learn.
TPMA 10. 105.

FJ 15. 126. at illt er litill at vera. þa er aflit ner ecki.
A-G 24. 172. It´s a disadvantage to be small and have almost no strength.
TPMA 7. 95.

FJ 17. 141. . . . yþr biþia at þer seþ vinir vina minna.
A-G 26. 182. I wish to request that you be a friend to my friends.
TPMA 4. 63.

FJ 27. 225. en sa happ hava er hlotið hafði
A-G 42. 238-9. each side was to keep what fortune allotted.
TPMA 4. 488.

FJ 33. 258. opt verdr villr saa er geta skal.
A-G 48. 259. the man who guesses often goes astray.7 7"Þat er fornt mál, herra, at opt verðr villr, sá er geta skal." The saying is not included in Halldór Halldórsson's Orðtakasafn.
TPMA 3. 41.

FJ 35. 274. Fall er farar heill.
A-G 50. 269. A fall is good fortune.
TPMA 3. 149.

FJ 35. 275-6. betra er at þiGia bana af brøþr sinom en veita honom bana
A-G 50. 270. It is better to suffer death at the hands of your brother than to be responsible for his death.
TPMA 11. 363. TOD/mort/death 5. Tod als Wert und Vorteil 5.3. Der Tod ist besser als das Leben 5.3.2. Spez. Ehrenvoller Tod ist besser als ein Leben in Schande Nord.

FJ 35. 280. nv scylldo þeir fa sciott aNnathvart bana e. sigr.
A-G 50. 273. they would either die or gain the victory.

FJ 40. 304. Ill ero ill raþ.
A-G 55. 290. Ill counsels, ill outcomes
TPMA 9. 187.

FJ 41. 309. Nv er oc sva at hveR verþr sin at geta.
A-G 56. 293. Now everyone should save himself.
TPMA 12. 290.

FJ 41. 309. at hveR virþir sic.
A-G 56. 293. that everyone knows his own worth.
TPMA 9. 304.

FJ 41. 312. betra er at falla afe sino en flyia oþol sin.
A-G 56. 295. It is better to fall on one's land than to abandon one's inheritance.

FJ 41. 312. goþum dreng er þar gott sem hann lifir.
A-G 56. 295. An excellent man gets on well wherever he lives.

FJ 50. 356. þvi at þat verþr stvndom at monnum verþr harms sins at lettara er vm røtt.
A-G 65. 328. sometimes . . . people are relieved of their sorrows when the matter is discussed.
TPMA 7. 355.

FJ 59. 388. Mart kaN scipaz amaNz efiNi.
A-G 74. 350. Many things can change during a man's lifetime.

FJ 59. 389. Seint ma reyna mennina hvilikir ero.
A-G 74. 351. It takes a long time to test the true nature of men.
TPMA 8. 193.

FJ 64. 396. ecki sva eiNa agett. at eigi metti verþa aNat slict.
A-G 79. 356. nothing was so remarkable that it could not be matched.
Hrólfs saga kraka, FSN I. 37. 71. Taldi Hrólfr konungr fyrir þeim miklar fortölur, at þeir mætti nú sjá þat, at eigi væri neitt svá ágætt, sterkt eða stórt, at ekki mætti þvílíkt finna.
Völsunga saga, FSN I. 18. 153. “Sá ægishjálmr, er þú sagðir frá, gefr fám sigr, því at hverr sá, er með mörgum kemr, má þat finna eitthvert sinn, at engi er einna hvatastr..”


FJ 2. 29. ofrausn er þat ræse/jnnanlandz ath vinna.
A-G 3. 107. *14. It is insolent of a king to harry in his own country.
Ed. note. The cautionary example of the Danish king Heremod in Beowulf.

FJ. 2. 36. ofiall ofiall fostri segir hann.
A-G 4. 113. Too great a jarl, too great a jarl, foster son.8 8"Too great a jarl" translates ofjarl. On the title "jarl," see Arne Bøe, "Jarl," in KLNM 7, 559-64. Ch. 48 of "Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar" (ÍF 28, 130; trans. Hollander, p. 615) tells us that in the time of Óláfr Haraldsson and Magnús, there was only one jarl in Norway. Such a jarl might therefore potentially be the king's most powerful rival.

FJ 27. 220. er þat konungligt at hallda vel orþ sinn.
A-G 42. 236. it is fitting for a king to keep his word.
TPMA 7. 130. KÖNIG/roi/king 3. Voraussetzungen, die ein (guter) König erfüllen muss 3.3 Der König muss mit Weisheit, tugend, Gerechtigkeit und Güte regieren 3.3.5. Der König soll sein Wort halten5 Nord. 80 Fastorðr skyli . . . vesa þengill Ein König soll sein Wort halten SIGVATR 11, 10 (= GERING 30). 81 Eigi muntu, konungr, vilja ganga á bak orðum þínum Du wirst, König, deine worte nicht zurücknehmen wollen SNORRI, HEIMSKRINGLA 163, 9 (Ólafs saga Tryggvasonar 28). 82 Oc er þat konungligt at hallda vel orþ sinn Und es ist königlich, sein Wort gut zu halten MORKINSKINNA 84, 39. 83 Þvi at eigi byriar konungligu valldi þvi at heita, sem at falsi reyniz Denn es ziemt sich für die königliche Herrschaft nicht, das zu versprechen, was sich als Betrug erweist HEIL. M. S. I, 414, 18 (Katerine saga).

FJ 60. 391. þat er vant viþ konvngenn.
A-G 75. 352. It is hard to contend with the king


FJ 2. 67. hier mun eigi þat til ath taka et minna er eigi fæzth hid meira.
A-G 11. 137. Where the greater remedies won´t work, there's no point in trying the lesser. 6 6"Hér mun eigi þat til at taka et minna, er eigi fæsk et meira." The saying is not included in Halldór Halldórsson's Orðtakasafn.
TPMA 7. 95. also in MLat, Fr, Gmn.

FJ 3. 69. latum eigi þat hlægi henda oss ath briotazt uid þat er ecke verdr ath giort.
A-G 12. 139. Let us rather explore further and not commit the foolishness of undertaking what we cannot achieve.

FJ 3. 69. er illt ath setiazt optar nidr enn hann ris vpp.
A-G 12. 139. It is no good to sit down more often than you get up.1 1"Er illt at setjask optarr niðr en hann ríss upp." This saying is not registered in Halldór Halldórsson's Orðtakasafn.


FJ 2. 28. skal hond j hofi/ . . . of stytta.
A-G 3. 107. *13. the hand must be measured by moderation.
TPMA 10. 120. SCHLAGEN/battre/to hit 16. Die Hand freut sich nicht lange am Schlag Nord. 218 Þat er mælt, at skamma stund verðr hönd höggvi fegin Das wird gesagt, dass die Hand sich (nur) kurze Zeit am Schlag freut NJÁLS SAGA 42, 9 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 196. JÓNSSON 82).

FJ 15. 129. eigi mon sva mannfatt vera at eigi comi þat þo vpp er melt verðr.
A-G 24. 174. there are never so few people that word of what is said doesn´t get around,
TPMA 13. 241. WORT/parole/word 9. Vergänglichkeit und Unwiderruflichkeit der Worte Vgl. unten 612, 22.13. 9.3. Worte fliegen (fahren) davon (wie der Wind) Nord. 168 En þat var, sem mælt er, at ferr orð er mun líðr Und es war, wie das Sprichwort sagt, dass das Wort (davon) fährt, wenn es den Mund verlässt SNORRI, ÓLÁFS SAGA HELGA 120 (?FMS IV, 279 [= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 314]).

FJ 15. 129. vitrligra at vera helldr hia þeim er vm mic hyGr sem Þorðr er broþir minn
A-G 24. 174. wiser to be near someone who cares for me, like my brother Þórðr,
Ed. note. Proverbial allusion: "bare is his back"
TPMA 2. 128. BRUDER/frère/brother 1. Ein Bruder ist wertvoll und von grossem Nutzen 1.3. Wer keinen Bruder hat, ist nackt (ungeschützt) Mlat. 9 Nudum habere tergum fraternitatis inopem, referebat (scil. Ericus) Er (Ericus) rief, dass der Bruderlose einen ungeschützten Rücken habe SAXO GRAMM. 135, 19. Nord. 10.11 Berr er hverr á bakinu (NJÁLS SAGA: at baki), nema sér bróður eigi Jeder ist am Rücken nackt, ausser demjenigen, der einen Bruder hat GRETTIS SAGA 82, 13 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 25. GERING S. 6. JÓNSSON 22).

FJ 27. 231. hann kynni eigi sia efnitre sitt
A-G 42. 242. he did not know his own limitations well enough
TPMA 3. 28. ERKENNEN/(re)connaître/to recognize 12. Selbsterkenntnis 12.2. Beurteilung von Selbsterkenntnis 12.2.2. Wer sich selbst erkennt, ist weise Nord. 84 Ok er þat satt, at sá er svinnr, er sik kann Und das ist wahr, dass der klug ist, der sich kennt HRAFNKELS SAGA FREYSGOÐA 3 S. 106 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 403. JÓNSSON 163).

FJ 28. 240. en þat nafn þiccir eKi vel sama með oss at heita gridniþingr.
A-G 43. 248. The name of a truce-breaker does not sit well with us.

FJ 28. 241. þotti þat mest nauþsyn at sekia þangat fyrst til beinan er mestr var.
A-G 43. 248. it seemed important to go to where the greatest help was.9 9This passage apparently refers to the disbursement of tithes. According to the Icelandic tithe law, one fourth of the tithes was to be distributed among needy people with dependents, and the disbursement could be made in cloth, marketable furs, sheepskins, food, or any kind of livestock (except horses). However, tithes were not legislated until 1097, that is, considerably later than our story would imply. See Jón Jóhannesson 1974: 169, 174.

FJ 34. 263. frendr varir gøraz oss fiandr. þeira fiandmenn scolo oc þa vera minir frendr.
A-G 49. 262. Our kinsmen become our enemies, but their enemies can also be our kin."2 2Tostig elaborates the logic of "Hávamál," st. 43 (Neckel/Kuhn, Edda, p. 23): "Vin sínum/skal maðr vinr vera/þeim ok þess vin;/en óvinar síns/skyli engi maðr/vinar vinr vera" (A man should be a friend to his friend, and to that friend's friend; but no man should be a friend to his friend's enemy). The next step is to be a friend to your enemy's enemy.
TPMA 4. 63. FREUND/ami/friend Empfehlenswerte und verwerfliche Freudnschaften 5.6. Freundschaft mit dem Freund des Freundes is angemessen Nord. 1086 Vil ek yðr þess biðja, at þèr sèð vinir minna vina Ich will euch darum bitten, dass ihr Freunde meiner Freunde seid HARALDS SAGA HARÐRÁÐA 35 (? FMS VI, 226). 1087 Vertu vinr Vinar míns Werde du Freund meines Freundes! SKJALDEDIGTNING B II, 158, 55. 1088 Þess vil ec yþr biþja at þer seþ vinir minna Übers. wie 1086 MORKINSKINNA 46, 24.

FJ 35. 280. þeir hofþo meira lvt sem fiolmennari voro.
A-G 50. 273. the army with the greater numbers had the upper hand.
TPMA 12. 249. VIEL/beaucoup/much 2. Viel(e) als überlegene Mehrheit 2.2. Viele sind stärker und einflussreicher als wenige 2.2.1. Gegn viele ist nichts auszurichten Allg. Nord. 26,27 Ecki ma við margnum Man kann gegen viele nichts ausrichten HALLFREÐAR SAGA 38, 1 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275. JÓNSSON 116). KARLAMAGNÚS SAGA 97 (? JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275).

FJ 53. 362-3. þar þicciz hvaR oðrom meiri.
A-G 68. 332. each thinks he is superior to the other.


FJ 2. 23. fyrr aa gomlum oxanum at bæsa en kalfinum.
A-G 2. 102. The old ox should be put in his stall before the calf

FJ 2. 31. so skorpnar skor aa fæti mer ath huergi ma eg vr stad komazt.
A-G 3. 109. My shoes pinch me so that I can't move from the spot.

FJ 10. 108. sva sem nv ertv hofþi heri en aþrir. scyldir þv bratt hofþi legri.
A-G 19. 162. By as much as you are now a head taller than everyone else, you will soon be a head shorter.
Ed. note.  Closure to an apophthegmatic scene.

FJ 15. 125-6. þa scytr i tvau hornn meþ ocr. Þorþr. mer þøtti þvi betr er þu kømir þar siþr er fiolment veri.
A-G 24. 172. That makes for a real difference between us, . . . because the less you get into crowds the better off you seem to me.
TPMA 10. 81.

FJ 15. 132. fauc hann fyrir sem vindli.
A-G 24. 176. like a wisp of straw

FJ 15. 132. var hann fastr fyrir sem vegr.
A-G 24. 176. stood like a stone wall

FJ 18. 155. elldisc argalinn nv
A-G 30. 194. The old cock is drooping now.

FJ 20. 179-80. myrt er imalstofo konungs.
A-G 35. 210. It's hard to see in the king's quarters.

FJ 20. 179-80. hvat bita nv hvndar konungs.
A-G 35. 210. The king's dogs (FJ 180) have sharp fangs.

FJ 27. 233. engi dvgir sva sem Koþrans bani.
A-G 42. 243. No one does his job like Koðrán's Killer.
Derivative proverbial source phrase--fable and proverb links:
GJ 80: Ekki þarf Njáli ráð að kenna.
GJ 196: Látum Kormák kyrran liggja.
GJ 234: Misvitið var Njáll, því var hann inni brendr.

FJ 32. 252. ec emc Kattar s.
A-G 47. 256. I am the cat's son.

FJ 27. 272. at sia sem ismol veri.
A-G 50. 268. It looked just like gleaming ice.
Hrólfs saga kraka, FSN I. 37. 70. Ok svá kemr nú annarr jólaaftann, at eitt sinn, at Hrólfr konungr sat undir borðum, at spruttu upp dyrr hallarinnar, ok gengu þar inn tólf berserkir, allir gráir af járnum, svá sem á eina ísmöl sæi.

FJ 35. 275. hann scal hafa .vii. feta rum e. þvi lengra sem hann er heri en flestir menn aðrir.
A-G 50. 270. King Haraldr will have seven feet of sod, or as much more as he needs because he is taller than other men.
TPMA 4. 142.

FJ 41. 307. var sem a ismol veri at sia.
A-G 56. 292. it looked like gleaming ice.

FJ 41. 309-10. er þv vart sva hreddr ef þv vart aleiþ hans sem mvs i screppv. vartv sva hulþr fautom sem hvndr ascipi. var þer sva troþit ikyl sem corni ibelg. vartv sva eltr af oþolom3 sem arþzgelldingr or stoþi. attir þu einnveg andar rvm sem otr ikelpv.
A-G 56. 293-4. you were as timid as a mouse in a trap when you crossed his path. You skulked under cover like a dog on a boat. You were downtrodden like grain in a sack. You were as nervous as a gelded plow ox in the mating pen. You had as much breathing space as an otter in a weir.
TPMA 8. 158. MAUS/souris/mouse16. Redensarten und Vergleiche 16.2. Furchtsam wie eine Maus (in der Falle)

FJ 53. 363. Erat hera at borgnara at høna beri sciolld.
A-G 68. 333. It is no help for the hare that the hen bears a shield.
TPMA 6. 213.

FJ 53. 364. sem hvndr a beinom.
A-G 68. 333. like a dog gnawing a bone.

FJ 55. 380. at honom matti einom fingri dreyra vekia.
A-G 70. 344. flushed so that he could have been bled from one finger.

FJ 56. 383-4. greiptv aþvi kylino . . . at fyr longo myndi springa.
A-G 71. 346. you have hit the sore spot that . . . was ready to bleed.


FJ 41. 308. Era hlvms vant q. refr dro horpo at isi.
A-G 56. 293. 'There´s no lack of an oar-handle,' (U 138) said the fox, and dragged the shell along the ice.
TPMA 4. 103. FUCHS/renard/fox 18. "Es fehlt kein Rudergriff", sagte der Fuchs und zog eine Muschel auf das Eis Nord. 212 Era hlums (Var.: hlús; CLEASBY 272 b: hlunns) vant, kvað Refr, dró hörpu at ísi "Es fehlt kein Rudergriff (keine Schiffsrolle)", sagte der Fuchs und zog eine Muschel auf das Eis MAGNÚS SAGA BERFŒTTS 10 (? FMS VII, 19). 213 Era hlvms vant qvaþ refr dro horpo at isi MORKINSKINNA 137, 39 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 327. JÓNSSON 135). 214 Sem melt er: 'Era hlunnz vannt', kvað refr, dró hörpu at ísi Wie gesagt wird: . . . MÁGUS SAGA 12 S. 22, 35 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 327).

FJ 41. 309. Sneliga snvGir sveinar qvoþo FiNar atto andra fala.
A-G 56. 293. ‘There's a whiff of snow lads,' said the Lapps. They had snowshoes for sale.4 4The proverb seems to mean that the Lapps are luring customers with false promises of snow. We are to understand that the king's words are equally false (Hermann Pálsson 1997: 25). This saying is also missing from Halldór Halldórsson's Orðtakasafn.
TPMA 10. 213. SCHNEE/neige/snow 14. Verschiedenes Nord. 58 Snæliga snuggir, kváðu Finnar, áttu andra fala "Es sieht nach Schnee aus", sagte Finnur; (da) hielten sie die Schneesschuhe feil MAGNÚS SAGA BERFŒTTS 10 (? FMS VII, 20). 59 Sneliga snyggir sveinar qvoþo Finnar atto andra fala "Es sieht nach Schnee aus, Leute", sagte . . . MORKINSKINNA 138, 13.

FJ 41. 309-10. Putt s. hann. scomm hvnda. scito refar ibrvnn carls.
A-G 56. 293-4. 'What shameful dogs,' he said. 'The foxes have fouled our wells.'
TPMA 6. 274. HUND/chien/dog 29. Hund und Hase (Fuchs) 29.1. Schande über die Hunde: Die Füchse haben in den Brunnen geschissen Nord. 901 Putt, putt, skömm hunda! skitu refar í brunn karls Pfui, pfui! Schande über die Hunde! Die Füchse haben in den Brunnen des Bauern geschissen MAGNÚS SAGA BERFŒTTS 10 (? FMS VII, 21 = [JÓNSSON, ARKIV 187. JÓNSSON 79]). 902 Putt . . . scomm hvnda. scito refar i brvnn carls Pfui! Schande . . . MORKINSKINNA 138, 34. 903 Skaumm hunndum, skitu refar í brunn karls Schande . . . MÁGUS SAGA12 S. 22, 49 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 187).

FJ 53. 362. Sticc imer q. reka.
A-G 68. 332. 'Dig me in,' said the spade
TPMA 10. 42. SCHAUFEL/pelle/shovel Nord. 1 Her mun nú at því koma, sem mælt er: stikk mer í, kvað reka Hier kann es nun dazu kommen, wie es heisst: "'Stich mir ein!' sagte die Schaufel" SIGURÐAR SAGA JÓRSALAFARA 25 (? FMS VII, 115). 2 Sticc i mer kvaþ reka MORKINSKINNA 172, 28 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 332. JÓNSSON 136). ? HACKE 3



Ayensu, Edward S. Ashanti Gold. The African Legacy of the World’s Most precious Metal. London. 1997. Provides interesting illustrations of the significance of proverbs among the Ashanti, whose gold weights are shaped in figures representative of proverbs or proverb clusters, and he displays a photograph in which “Chiefs sit in state, with their linguists displaying their staffs of office. The various figures on the staff-top all have symbolic messages,” pertinent to the community’s storehouse of oral wisdom.

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