Applications 8.   Handout.  “To his friend a man should be a friend.” Some Literary Uses of Proverbs of Friendship and Enmity in the Old Icelandic Sagas.
Paper presented at a meeting of the Canadian Society of Medievalists, 10.15 29 May 2007.
 Richard L. Harris, Department of English, University of Saskatchewan   [heorot@sasktel.net]

TEXTS AND COMPILATIONS:
ÍF. X. Ljósvetninga saga með þáttum. Reykdæla saga ok Víga-Skútu. Hreiðars þáttr. Ed. Björn Sigfússon. Íslenzk fornrit 10. Reykjavík. 1940.
Ljósvetninga saga. Law and Literature in Medieval Iceland. Ljósvetninga saga and Valla-Ljóts saga. Tr. T. M. Andersson and W. I. Miller. Stanford. 1989.
ÍF. XI. Austfirðinga sögur. Þorsteins saga hvíta. Vápnfirþinga saga. Þorsteins þáttr stangarhöggs. Ölkofra þáttr. Hrafnkels saga Freysgoða. Droplaugarsona saga. Brandkrossa þáttr. Gunnars þáttr Þiðrandabana. Fljótsdœla saga. Þorsteins saga Síðu-Hallssonar. Draumr Þorsteins Síðu-Hallssonar. Þorsteins þáttr Austfirðings. Þorsteins þáttr sögufróða. Gull-Ásu-Þórðar þáttr. Ed. Jón Jóhannesson. Íslenzk fornrit. 11. Reykjavík. 1950.
ÍF XII. Brennu-Njáls saga. Ed. Einar Ól Sveinsson Íslenzk fornrit. XII. Reykjavík. 1954.
ASB 13. Brennu-Njálssaga Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Altnordische saga-bibliothek 13. Halle. 1908
Erasmus. Adages Ii1 to Iv100. Collected Works of Erasmus.Vol. 31. Trans. M. M. Phillips, ann. R.A.B. Mynors. Toronto. 1982.
The Fljotsdale Saga and the Droplaugarsons. Tr. Eleanor Haworth and Jean Young. London. 1990.
CSI. The Complete Sagas of Icelanders. Ed. Viðar Hreinsson. 5 vols. Reykjavík. 1997.
FSN Fornaldar sögur norðurlanda. Ed. Guðni Jónsson. 4 vols. Reykjavík, [repr. 1959].
GERING Gering, Hugo. "Altnordische Sprichwörter und sprichwörtlische Redensarten," ANF 32 1915-6. 1-31.
GJ Jónsson, Guðmundur. Safn af íslenzkum orðskviðum, fornmælum, heilræðum, snilliyrðum, sannmælum og málsgreinum. Copenhagen. 1830.
JÓNSSON Jónsson, Finnur. Íslenskt Málháttasafn. Copenhagen. 1920.
JÓNSSON, ARKIV. Jónsson, Finnur. "Oldislandske ordsprog og talemåder," ANF 30 1913-4. 61-111; 170-217.
Kuhn, Hans, ed. Edda. Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. Heidelberg, 1962.
Örvar-Odds saga. FSN II. 199-363.
Arrow-Odd: A Medieval Novel. Tr. P. Edwards and Hermann Pálsson. London. 1970.
TPMA Thesaurus Proverbiorum Medii Aevi. Lexikon der Sprichwörter des romanisch-germanischen Mittelalters. Ed. Kuratorium Singer der Schweizerischen Akademie der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften. 13 volumes and Quellenverzeichnis. Berlin, New York. 1995-2002.

1. ÍF XII. 87. 209. Hrappr mælti: “Vinr em ek vina minna, en geld ek þat, er illa er til mín gört; enda spari ek eigi at leiga far,3 því at ek hefi nógt fé til þess.” 3leiga far: greiða gjald fyrir farið.
CSI III. 87. Hrapp speaks to Kolbein, seeking passage with him to Norway:
99. Hrapp spoke: “I am a friend to my friends, but when something bad is done to me, I pay it back. Anyway, I will spare no expense for my passage – I have plenty of money for that.”
TPMA 4. 39. FREUND/ami/friend 3. Art der wahren Freundschaft und des richtigen Verhaltens gegenüber Freunden 3.6. Liebe und Freund(schaft)lichkeit, Wohlwollen und Lob 3.6.2. Man sei freundlich und wie ein Freund zu den Freunden (und schlimm zu den Feinden) Nord. 675 Vin sínom skal maðr vinr vera Ok gialda giöf við gjöf; Hlátr við hlátri skyli hölðar taka, En lausung við lygi Seinem Freund soll der Mann ein Freund sein und Gabe mit Gabe belohnen. Gelächter sollen die Männer mit Gelächter entgegennehmen und Falschheit mit Lüge HÁVAMÁL 42 (vgl. LÜGEN 8.5.). 676 Vin sínom skal maðr vinr vera, Þeim ok þess vin; En óvinar síns skyli engi maðr Vinar vinr vera Seinem Freund soll der Mann ein Freund sein, ihm und dessen Freund; aber neimand soll der Freund des Freundes seines Feindes sein EBD. 43 (vgl. unten 5.6.). 677 Vinr em ek vinar míns, en geld ek þat, er illa er til mín gort Ein Freund bin ich meinem Freund; aber das, was mir Böses getan wird, zahle ich heim NJÁLS SAGA 87, 6. ?? FEIND 173 – 176, GUT (Adj.) 196 Vgl. oben 2.1.3.

2. ÍF XI. 11. 242. Þórir heyrir til tals þeirra ok tekr til orðs í því, er hann sprettr upp – hann hafði sprota í hendi ok rekr um eyru Þorgrími ok bað hann þegja ok mæla eigi fleiri orð –: “Er þat líkara, at þér vefist tunga um höfuð.3 En bið ek alla þá, sem hér eru við staddir, ef þeir þykjast nökkut mér eiga betr at launa en Þorgrími, gjöri svó vel, at engin reiði þessi orð.”4 3?: að tungan verði þér að bana. 4Á snærisspjótum var snæri í miðju, til þess að sveiflan yrði lengri og jafnframt skotlengdin.
CSI IV. 11. Thorir scolds Thorgim for suggesting Helgi Droplaugarson is son of Svart the slave:
396. Thorir heard their talk, and spoke out just as he jumped up. He had a stick in his hand, and struck Thorgrim across the ear with it, and told him to be quiet and say not a word more – “your tongue could well get wrapped round your head. And I ask all of you here, if you think you owe me more than you owe Thorgrim, that nobody should spread these words.”
TPMA 13. 444. ZUNGE/langue/tongue 13. Redensarten und Vergleiche 13.11. Vereinzelt Nord. 393 En gæti hann, at honum vefiz eigi tungan um höfuð Er möge sich hüten, dass sich ihm die Zunge nicht um das Haupt wickelt27 NJÁLS SAGA 102, 10. 27D.h. sich hüten, dass man sich nicht um Kopf and Kragen rede, vgl. BAETKE 667 s.v. tunga.
Ed. note. See Brennu-Njáls saga, ÍF XII. 102. 263-4. “Ok ætla ek ekki,” segir hann, “at vera ginningarfífl [see c. 138, 27] hans, en gæti hann, at honum vefisk eigi tungan um höfuð.”1 1?: verði honum að bana (tunga er höfuðs bani, Hávam.).

ÍF XI. 11. 242. En þó bar hinn veg raun á, at enn vóru eigi allir svá þagmælskir, at þegði yfir með, ok kemr opt at því, sem mælt er, at ferr orð, er um munn líðr.
CSI IV. 11. Narrative comment, after Thorir has scolded Thorgim for suggesting Helgi Droplaugarson is son of Svart the slave:
396. Many of them made a firm promise that they would do as he asked over this. But when it came to the proof it turned out that not everyone was so discreet as to keep his mouth shut about it, and it often happened, as the saying goes, that word travels once it leaves the mouth.
FJ Proverb word 314. Page 177. orð (jfr dróttinn) – . . . (þegar) ferr orð af (er) um munn líðr Vápnf 15 (Austf. 43), Dropl * 38, Fms IV 279, ÞSíð 1 (Austf. 215), Sturl3 I 249, eller i poetisk form: orðin fara þegar munninn líðr Mhk 16. ‘Ordet (ordene) farer afsted (bliver bekendte) så snart de har forladt munden’. = GJ.
TPMA 13. 241. WORT/parole/word 9. Vergänglichkeit und Unwiderruflichkeit der Worte Vgl. unten 612, 22.13. 9.3. Worte fliegen (fahren) davon (wie der Wind) Nord. 168 En þat var, sem mælt er, at ferr orð er mun líðr Und es war, wie das Sprichwort sagt, dass das Wort (davon) fährt, wenn es den Mund verlässt SNORRI, ÓLÁFS SAGA HELGA 120 (?FMS IV, 279 [= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 314]). 169 En svá er satt, sem mælt er: "Ferr orð, er munn líðr" Und so ist es wahr, wie das Sprichwort sagt: "Das Wort fährt (davon), wenn es den Mund verlässt" VÁPNFIRÐINGA SAGA 7 S. 40 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 314. JÓNSSON 128). 170 Orðin fara þegar munninn líðr Die Worte fahren (davon), sobald eines den Mund verlässt MÁLSHÁTTAKVÆÐI 16, 10 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 314. JÓNSSON 128). 171 Svá er, sem mælt er, at ferr orð, er um munn líðr So ist es, wie das Sprichwort sagt, dass das Wort (davon) fährt, wenn es aus dem Munde geht ÞORSTEINS SAGA SÍÐU-HALLSSONAR 1 S. 299 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 314). 172 Þviat brat ferr orð, er um mvnn líðr Denn schnell fährt das Wort (davon), wenn es aus dem Munde geht STURLUNGA SAGA I, 249, 10 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 314). 173 Og kemur [off]t ad þui, sem mællt er, ad fer orð, er umm munn lijdur Und es kommt oft dazu, wie das Sprichwort sagt, dass das Wort (davon) fährt, wenn es aus dem Munde geht FLJÓTSDŒLA SAGA 38, 12.

ÍF XI. 13. 250. “. . .en þar kemr at því, sem mælt er, at betra er véltum at vera en öngum at trúa, því at þú hefir trúat honum sem sjálfum þér.” Fljótsdœla hin meiri (Kålund, Kh, 1883) p. 48. en þar kemur ad þui, sem mællt er, ad betra er vieltum ad vera en ongum ad trua; þuiat þu hefur truad honum sem sialfum þier. vieltum] BDDE: villtum; F. villr. I G. Jonssons "Safn af íslenzkum orðskviðum" har ordsproget ved en besynderlig misforståelse fået formen: Betra er viltum að vera, enn öllum að trúa.
CSI IV. 13. Nollar, egging Bersi to stop Helgi’s visits to Helga:
402. “Your foster-son Helgi has come out to Skeggjastadir and is planning to lure Helga Thorbjarnardottir out to Eyvindara and put her in bed beside him, and the saying’s come true, that it’s better to be betrayed than to trust anyone, because you have trusted him like yourself. It would take more than a few words to tell the honour you have done to him, and he rewards you with what he has in plenty, wickedness and deceit.”
FJ 198.447. Drop.* 48.
Young and Haworth. 13. 32. 'Helgi, your foster-son, has come out to Skeggjastead and means to seduce Helga, Thorbjorn's daughter, away to Eyvindara and go to bed with her; and it's come tho this, as the saying goes: "It's better to be betrayed than to trust no one" -- because you have trusted him as you would yourself. What you have done for him can't be put into words, and now look how he repays you with what he has plenty of --wickedness and deceit.'
ÍM 349. VÉLA. Betra er véltum að vera en engum að trúa. Fljótsd. 13. kap.

3. ÍF XII. 49. 128. Hallbjörn var úti ok mælti til Otkels: “Illt er at eiga þræl at eingavin, ok munu vér þessa jafnan iðrask, er þá hefir aptr horfit, ok er þat óvitrligt bragð at senda inn lygnasta mann þess ørendis, er svá mun mega kalla, at líf manna liggi við.”
CSI III. 49. Hallbjorn to Otkel, on his having left communications in the hands of the maliciously dishonest Skamkel:
60. Hallbjorn was outside and spoke to Otkel: “It’s bad to have a wretch for a best friend, and we will always be sorry that you turned back: it’s not a clever move to send the worst liars on an errand which, we may say, will affect the lives of many men.”
ASB 13. 49. 113. 37. 14.15. Illt – engavin, ein allit. sprichw., auch in Grettiss. c. 82, 8 u. ö.
FJ Proverb word 482. Page 204. þræll – . . . ilt er at eiga þræl at eingavin Nj 223, Grett 184 (Boer 282), Fas III 486, Þhreð 44. ‘Det er slemt at have en træl til sin fortroligste ven’. = GJ (fyrir f. at2 ). Alml. i brug.
Gering 14. þræll (nr. 482c). – Den belegen für das sprichwort: illt er at eiga þræl at einkavin ist hinzuzufügen Konungsskuggsjá (1848) 979. Vgl. auch Edd. min. XIV, 65: illr er Óðinn at einkavin, das unter die mythol. sprichwörter (s. 207) hätte aufgenommen werden sollen.
Saxo (Kallstenius) 22. Herre och thänere. 28. Decipitur quisquis seruum sibi poscit amicum, s. 1346. – Ilt er ad eiga þræl firi einkavin, se JR II n:r 181 (s. 19).
TPMA 2. 255. DIENEN/servir/to serve 9. Diener 9.10 Umgang mit dem Diener 9.10.4. Man soll vom Diener Abstand halten Nord. 600 Ilt er at eiga þræl at einkavin Schlimm ist es, einen Diener zum vertrauten Freund zu haben KONUNGS SKUGGSJÁ 42 S. 97 (??GERING S. 14) 601 Satt er et fornkveðna . . .: illt er at eiga þræl at einkavin Wahr ist das Sprichwort: . . . GRETTIS SAGA 82, 8 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482). 602. 603. Illt er at eiga þræl at engavin NJÁLS SAGA 49, 37 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482. JÓNSSON 191). ÞÓRÐAR SAGA HREÐU 44 (??JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482). 604 Er illt at eiga þræl at einka vin HJÁLMÞÉRS SAGA OK ÖLVERS 12 (??FAS III, 486 [= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 482]). Vgl. HERR 4.1.3., KNAPPE 15, VERTRAUT 1.1.

4. FJ Proverb word 418. Page 194. úlfr – . . . úlfar eta (reka) annars erendi Laxd 81, K. ‘Ulve æder (driver) en andens ærinde’. Reka kunde synes at være det mest passende udtryk, men eta findes i (den ældre) saga og er sikkert det oprindelige. Både i GJ og i færøsk findes samme dobbelthed. Eta ´fortære´ må så her være brugt om at ‘fordærve, ødelægge’ (ulve = personer hvis sind er som ulvenes). Jfr Låle (nr 341): “Hunde ædhe gernæ anden mandz ærendhe op” (jfr kommentaren hertil, s. 150). = GJ (bægge verber). GJ har også: “Hundar upp eta annars erindi á stundum (her er vist erindi blevet forstået som ekskrementer).
TPMA 13. 188. WOLF/loup/wolf 20. Die Wölfe fressen (betreiben) den Auftrag eines andern31 Nord. 463 Er þat ok satt, at sagt er, at úlfar eta annars erendi Es ist doch wahr, was gesagt wird, dass die Wölfe den Auftrag eines andern fressen LAXDŒLA SAGA 23, 14 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 171). 464 Ulfar reka anars erindi Die Wölfe betreiben den Auftrag eines andern KÅLUND 187 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 171). Vgl. HUND 1174. 31Der Sinn muss sein: Was man nicht selber tut, sondern einem andern aufträgt, wird schlecht oder gar nicht erledigt. VgL. LAXDŒLA SAGA 23, 14 Anm.

5. FSN II. 29. 331. Ok enn kvað hann: “Eltak æsi/örhjartaða tvá,/sem fy úlfi geitr/argar rynni;/illt er at eiga Óðin/at einkavin;/skalt eigi lengr/skrattann blóta.”
Arrow-Odd. 101-2. And he said again: ‘I gave chase/and these gutless gods ran/like frightened goats/in front of a wolf./It’s bad to have Odin/for a bosom friend:/so we’ll do away/with devil-worship.’
ASB 45. 91. 5. Verse 60. Þá svaraði Oddr ok kvað: 60. “Hirþek eige, þót heiter þú (40)/Fargjarnt hofþ! Freys reiþe mér;/ilt ´s Óþen at eiga at einka vin,/skolo þér eige skratta blóta.” 20. Diese zeile variiert das alte sprichwort: er ilt at eiga þræl at einka vin (Fas III, 486; Njála 49121; Grett. S. 18423).
(Notice repeated Odin references in this sequence of visur.)
TPMA 4. 66. FREUND/ami/friend 8. Verschiedenes Nord. 1156 Ílt er at eiga Óðin At einka vin Es ist schlimm, Odin zum vertrauten Feind zu haben ÖRVAR-ODDS SAGA 29 (FAS II, 291). Segðu mier vinenn þinn. Þa veit ec vitet þitt Nenne mir deinen Freund, dann kenne ich deinen Verstand! KÅLUND 194 (=JÓNSSON, ARKIV 458. JÓNSSON 181) (vgl. GESELLE 2.1.).

6. ÍF X. 6.(14.) 35. C-text. Guðmundr kvað þetta upphafit mega heita. “Ok er seint mann at reyna. Ek hugða, at þú myndir hlutvandr maðr vera.”
A&M 14. Guðmundr remarks upon Þorir Helgason´s protestations when he summons him over the marked goats:
178. Gudmund said that this was only the beginning – “It takes time to know people. I thought you were an upright man.”
FJ Proverb word 333. Page 180. reyna (jfr vita) – . . . lengi skal manninn reyna Grett 48 (Boer 81). ‘Længe (det tager lang tid at . .) skal man prøve et menneske’ (pludselig kan en vise en ny side af sin karakter, man ikke för har kendt). = GJ (med var.: marka).
TPMA 9. 162. PRÜFEN/metre à l'épreuve/to test 1. Prüfen (Versuchen) als positive Handlung 1.1 Prüfen (Versuchen) ist gut und weise 1.1.2. Spez. 1.1.2.2. Man prüfe die Menschen Nord. 16 Satt er þat, er mælt er: lengi skal manninn reynaWahr ist, was gesagt wird: "Lange soll man den Menschen auf die Probe stellen" GRETTIS SAGA 29, 6 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 333. JÓNSSON 137). 17 Ýmist verðr at freista Man muss sich gegenseitig prüfen ÄLTERE FRIÐÞJÓFS SAGA 3 (? FAS II, 493). ? FREUND 546 – 554.
Ed. note. For proverbial reference, see TPMA 8. 193.

7. From Hávamál:
42. To his friend a man should be a friend/and repay gifts with gifts;/laughter a man should give for laughter/and repay treachery with lies.
43. To his friend a man should be a friend/and to his friend’s friend too;/but a friend no man should be/to the friend of his enemy.
44. You know, if you’ve a friend whom you really trust/and from whom you want nothing but good,/you should mix your soul with his and exchange gifts,/go and see him often.
45. If you’ve another, whom you don’t trust,/but from whom you want nothing but good,/speak fairly to him but think falsely/and repay treachery with lies.
46. Again, concerning the one whom you don’t trust,/and whose mind you suspect:/you should laugh with him and disguise your thoughts,/a gift should be repaid with a like one.
47. I was young once, I travelled alone,/then I found myself going astray;/rich I thought myself when I met someone else,/for man is the joy of man.
62. The eagle snaps and cranes his neck when he comes to the sea,/to the ancient ocean;/so does a man who comes among the multitude/and has few people to speak for him.
64. Every man wise in counsel/should use his power in moderation;/for when he mingles with warriors he finds out/that no one is boldest of all.
From Loddfáfnismál (sts 112-137of Hávamál):
119. . . . if you’ve a friend, one whom you trust/go to see him often;/for brushwood grows, and tall grass,/on the road which no man treads.
120. . . . draw to you in friendly intimacy a good man/and learn healing charms all your life.
121. . . . with your friend never be/the first to tear friendship asunder;/sorrow eats the heart if you do not have/someone to tell all your thoughts.
124. That is the true mingling of kinship when you can tell/someone all your thoughts;/anything is better than to be fickle;/he is no true friend who only says pleasant things.

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