Proverbs and proverbial materials in Völsunga saga.


Editions used.   Fornaldar Sögur Norðurlanda, ed. Guðni Jónsson 1959 Vol. I.
Others.
Translations used.   The Saga of the Volsungs. The Norse Epic of Sigurd the Dragon Slayer, tr. Jesse L. Byock. Berkeley and L.A., 1990.
Others. The Saga of the Völsungs. Together with Excerpts from the Nornageststháttr and The Chapters of the Prose Edda, tr. George K. Anderson Newark, 1982.

Editorial comment.   The text contains about 26, 000 words.   The phraseology of Völsunga saga is of particular interest in literary critical considerations of the sagas because it is drawn from oral tradition and more importantly from poems preserving obviously pre-Christian communal wisdom. For this reason, I have recorded more data than usual from the text, some of it in no way didactically proverbial and yet important for its echoes in other saga narratives.  For pertinent discussions see Carolyne Larrington, A Store of Common Sense. Gnomic Theme and Style in Old Icelandic and Old English Wisdom Poetry, Oxford, 1993. Ch. 2, 73-96, "Wisdom in the Education of the Hero: the Poems of Sigurðr´s Youth," as well as Susan E. Deskis, Beowulf and the Medieval Proverb Tradition, Tempe, Arizona, 1996.

FSN I. 4. 115. Nú mælti Signý við föður sinn: "Eigi vilda ek á brott fara mað Siggeiri, ok eigi gerir hugr minn hlæja við honum . . ."
4.  Signy objects to her marriage to King Siggeir:
39.  Then Signy spoke to her father: "I do not wish to go away with Siggeir, nor do my thoughts laugh with him."

FSN I.   5. 117. “Ok eigi skulu meyjar því bregða sonum mínum í leikum, at þeir hræðist bana sinn, því at einn skall hverr deyja, en engi má undan komast at deyja um sinn. Er þat mitt ráð, at vér flýjum hvergi ok gerum af várri hendi sem hreystiligast.”
5. Speech of King Volsung in response to Signy’s urging that he not visit the court of King Siggeir.
40. “Maidens will not taunt my sons during games by saying tht they feared their deaths, for each man must at one time die. No one may escape dying that once, and it is my counsel that we not flee, but for our part act the bravest. ”
FJ Proverb word 67. Pages 74-5. deyja, dauði – eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Völs 9, Þórir (Sturl3 I 532). ‘En gang skal enhver dø’. Aasen: “Eingong döya skal alle mann”. Andre former er: deyja verðr (skal) hverr um sinn Örv (Boer) 110 (sål.også GJ), hverr deyr seggr eitt sinn Gisl Illugas. (lausav.) Nærbeslægtet hermed er: dauðr verðr hverr Hallfr. lausav. 28. þá mun hverr deyja er feigr er Reykd 31. ´Da vil enhver dø når hans dødstime kommer´. Jfr Aasen: “Han døyr som er feig (og liver some er seig)”.
TPMA 11. 327-8. 1. Tod als allbekannte und unausweichliche Realität  1.2 Der tod ereilt jeden ohne Ausnahme und Unterschied 1.2.1.2. Einmal (Schliesslich) muss jeder (alles) sterben3  Nord. 86 Þvíat eino sinni skal alda hverr Fara til heliar heðan Denn einmal muss jeder Mensch sterben (wörtl.: von hier ins Totenreich fahren) FÁFNISMÁL 10, 4. 87 Dœgr eitt er þér dauði ætlaðr! Eines Tages ist dir der Tod bestimmt GRÍPISSPÁ 25, 7 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 67. JÓNSSON 28). 88 Eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Jeder muss einmal sterben JÓMSVÍKINGA SAGA 47 (→FMS XI, 148). 89 Skal ok eitt sinn hverr deyja Jeder muss doch einmal sterben ÓLÁFR ÞÓRÐARSON (?), KNÝTLINGA SAGA 96 (→FMS XI, 339). 90 Þvíatt eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Dann jeder muss einmal sterben VÖLSUNGA SAGA5, 20 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 67. JÓNSSON 28). 91 En eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Aber jeder muss einmal sterben VÖLSUNGA SAGA 18, 56 (= GERING S. 7). 92 Deyja verðr hverr um sinn sakir Sterben muss jeder einmal ÖRVAR-ODDS SAGA 30, 5. 93. 94 Deyja skal hverr um sinn Übers. wie 88 ÖRVAR-ODDS SAGA 14. 16 (→ FAS II, 216. II, 225). 95 Ok skal um sinn hverr deyja Übers. vie 89 ISL. ÆV. 17, 206 (= Gering S. 7).      3Vgl. Hassell M 225; Whiting D 243.
Ed. note.  See Deskis, p. 83, fn 77.

FSN I.   5. 117. “Ok eigi skulu meyjar því bregða sonum mínum í leikum, at þeir hræðist bana sinn, því at eii sinn skal hverr deyja, en engi má undan komast at deyja um sinn. Er þat mitt ráð, at vér flýjum hvergi ok gerum af várri hendi sem hreystiligast."
5. Continued.
40. “Maidens will not taunt my sons during games by saying tht they feared their deaths, for each man must at one time die. No one may escape dying that once, and it is my counsel that we not flee, but for our part act the bravest.”
FJ Proverb word 67. Pages 74-5. deyja, dauði – eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Völs 9, Þórir (Sturl3 I 532). ‘En gang skal enhver dø’. Aasen: “Eingong döya skal alle mann”. Andre former er: deyja verðr (skal) hverr um sinn Örv (Boer) 110 (sål.også GJ), hverr deyr seggr eitt sinn Gisl Illugas. (lausav.) Nærbeslægtet hermed er: dauðr verðr hverr Hallfr. lausav. 28. þá mun hverr deyja er feigr er Reykd 31. ´Da vil enhver dø når hans dødstime kommer´. Jfr Aasen: “Han døyr som er feig (og liver some er seig)”.
TPMA 11. 327-8. 1. Tod als allbekannte und unausweichliche Realität  1.2 Der tod ereilt jeden ohne Ausnahme und Unterschied 1.2.1.2. Einmal (Schliesslich) muss jeder (alles) sterben3  Nord. 86 Þvíat eino sinni skal alda hverr Fara til heliar heðan Denn einmal muss jeder Mensch sterben (wörtl.: von hier ins Totenreich fahren) FÁFNISMÁL 10, 4. 87 Dœgr eitt er þér dauði ætlaðr! Eines Tages ist dir der Tod bestimmt GRÍPISSPÁ 25, 7 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 67. JÓNSSON 28). 88 Eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Jeder muss einmal sterben JÓMSVÍKINGA SAGA 47 (→FMS XI, 148). 89 Skal ok eitt sinn hverr deyja Jeder muss doch einmal sterben ÓLÁFR ÞÓRÐARSON (?), KNÝTLINGA SAGA 96 (→FMS XI, 339). 90 Þvíatt eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Dann jeder muss einmal sterben VÖLSUNGA SAGA5, 20 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 67. JÓNSSON 28). 91 En eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Aber jeder muss einmal sterben VÖLSUNGA SAGA 18, 56 (= GERING S. 7). 92 Deyja verðr hverr um sinn sakir Sterben muss jeder einmal ÖRVAR-ODDS SAGA 30, 5. 93. 94 Deyja skal hverr um sinn Übers. wie 88 ÖRVAR-ODDS SAGA 14. 16 (→ FAS II, 216. II, 225). 95 Ok skal um sinn hverr deyja Übers. vie 89 ISL. ÆV. 17, 206 (= Gering S. 7).      3Vgl. Hassell M 225; Whiting D 243.
Ed. note.  See Deskis, p. 83, fn 77.

FSN I.   5. 118. “Ok kemr mér at því, sem mælt er, at unir auga, meðan á sér, ok því bið ek þeim eigi lengra, at ek ætla, at mér muni ekki tjóa.”
5. Signy asks Siggeir to keep her brothers in stocks, rather than executing them immediately.
41. “For it is with me as in the saying, ‘the eye takes pleasure while it yet beholds.’”
FJ Proverb word 22. Page 66. auga (jfr dagr, fótr, karl) – . . . unir auga meðan á sér Vls. 10. ‘Öjet er tilfreds (glad) så længe det kan se på (den eller den genstand, man holder af)’. Genfindes i norsk: “Augat vil vera der, som kært er (og handi der som saart er)”.
TPMA 1.   286.  AUGE/oeil/eye 6. Auge und Liebe 6.2. Wo die Liebe ist, da is das Auge Nord. 196 Ok kemr mér at því, sem m{{é}}lt er, at unir auga, meþan á sér Es geht mir, wie das Sprichwort sagt: "Das Auge ist zufrieden, solange es (den Gegenstand seiner Zuneigung) anschaut" VÖLSUNGA SAGA 5, 48 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 22. GERING S. 6. JÓNSSON 8). 197 Augna gamans fýsir aptr fán, Hvars hann getr svást at siá Kaum einen treibt es von der Augenweide (wörtl.: vom Vergnügen der Augen) zurück, wo er Liebes zu sehen bekommt9 FIÖLSVINNSMÁL 5, 1. 198 Jr petit angorem cor gazas visus amorem. – Ther ær hand som saart øgen so kært oc hiærtee som rijgdom Die Hand geht zum Schmerz, das Herz zum Reichtum, der Blick zur Liebe. – Dort is die Hand, wo die Wunde ist, die augen beim Lieben und das Herz beim Reichtum LÅLE 516.

FSN I.  6.  120.  Nú er þau systkin finnast, segir Sigmundr, at hann þótti ekki manni at nær, þótt sveinninn væri hjá honum.
6. Sigmund comments to Signy on the lack of manliness in her and Siggeir`s son.
42.  When brother and sister next meet, Sigmund said that he thought himself no closer to having a companion, even though the boy was there with him.
See Bjarnar saga ÍF III. 24. 176. Þórðr kvað sér ekki mönnum nær, þótt þeir væri, ok rak þá á brott.

FSN I.   8. 124. Sigmundr leggr hann nú á bak sér ok berr heim í skálann, ok sat hann yfir honum, en bað tröll taka úlfahamina.
8. Sigmund becomes angry after biting Sinfjotli’s windpipe and finding they can’t get out of their wolfskins that day.
45. He cursed the wolfskins, bidding the trolls to take them.

FSN I.   8. 125-6. Nú hlaupa menn utar þangat ok vilja höndla þá, en þeir verja sik vel ok drengilega, ok þykkist þá sá verst hafa lengi, er mest er.
8. In the battle with Siggeir, Sigmund and Sinfjotli fight fiercely.
46. For a long while the one who was nearest them thought himself to have it the worst.

FSN I.   8. 127. “Hér erum vit Sinfjötli, systursonr minn,” sagði Sigmundr, “ok ætlum vit nú, at þat skulir þú vita, at eigi eru allir Völsungar dauðir.”
8. Sigmund tells Siggeir who has set the hall afire.
47. “Here I am with Sinfjotli, my sister’s son,” said Sigmund, “and we want you to know that not all the Volsungs are dead.
Ed. note.   See Ch. 17, p. 147, as Sigurd proclaims his determination to seek vengeance on the sons of Hunding for the killing of his father, Sigmund. In Heimskringla, Sigurðr Búason cunningly avoids his intended execution at the battle of Hjörungavógr, making himself known with the comment, “Eigi eru enn allir Jómsvíkingar dauðir.” [ÍF 26. Heimskringla I. 285.]

FSN I.  9. 129.  ". . . en ek hefi því heitit, at ek vil eigi eiga hann heldr en einn krákunga."
9.  Sigrun on the prospect of marrying Hodbrodd:
48.  "But I have sworn that I would no sooner have him than a young crow."

FSN I.  9. 130.  Nú gerði at þeim storm mikinn ok svá stóran sjó, at því var líkast at heyra, er bylgjur gnúðu á borðunum, sem þá er björgum lysti saman.
9.
49.  A violent storm broke upon them with seas so hight that the waves creashing against the hulls sounded like cliffs colliding.

FSN I. 9. 130.  Sinfjötli stendr upp ok hefir hjálm á höfði skyggðan sem gler ok brynju hvíta sem snjó, spjót í hendi með ágætligu merki ok gullrenndan skjöld fyrir sér.
9.

FSN I. 9. 130.  Sinfjötli stendr upp ok hefir hjálm á höfði skyggðan sem gler ok brynju hvíta sem snjó, spjót í hendi með ágætligu merki ok gullrenndan skjöld fyrir sér.
9.

FSN I. 9.  131.  Granmarr segir: "Fyrri vilda ek seðja fugla á hræi þínu en deila við þik lengr."
9.
50.   "I would rather feed the birds on your corpse than quarrel with you any longer."

FSN I. 9. 132.  Þá sá þeir skjaldmeyjaflokk mikinn, svá sem í loga sæi.
9.
50.  Then they saw a large band of shield-maidens--it was like looking into a fire. . .

FSN I.   10. 133. Sigmundr kveðst eigi láta hann í brott fara ok býðr at bæta henni með gulli ok miklu fé, þótt hann hefði engan fyrri bætt mann, kvað engi frama at sakast við konur.
10. Sigmund, telling Borghild he will compensate her for her brother’s death by Sinfjotli, even though he has never before paid compensation for a man.
51. Sigmund said he would not let him go away and offered to compensate her loss with gold and great wealth, even though he had never before paid compensation for a man. He said there was no distinction to be had in contending with women.

FSN I.   10. 133. Sigmundr kveðst eigi láta hann í brott fara ok býðr at bæta henni með gulli ok miklu fé, þótt hann hefði engan fyrri bætt mann, kvað engi frama at sakast við konur.
10. Sigmund, telling Borghild he will compensate her for her brother’s death by Sinfjotli, even though he has never before paid compensation for a man.
51. Sigmund said he would not let him go away and offered to compensate her loss with gold and great wealth, even though he had never before paid compensation for a man. He said there was no distinction to be had in contending with women.

FSN I.   11. 137. Konungrinn hlífði sér ekki ok eggjar mjök liðit. Nú er sem mælt, at eigi má við margnum.
11. After King Sigmund has been confronted by Óðinn in the battle against King Lyngvi, the luckless suitor of Hjordis.
53. The king did not seek to protect himself and fiercely urged his men on. Now it is as they say: no one is able against many.
FJ Proverb word 275. Page 172. margr – ekki (eigi, engi) má við margnum Hfr 89, Völs 28, Flóv 205, Karl. 97, Þjalarjónss. ‘Ingen kan stå sig mod mange’. = GJ (Enginn osv.). Man lægge mærke til margr her brugt substantivisk.
TPMA 12.  249. VIEL/beaucoup/much 2. Viel(e) als überlegene Mehrheit 2.2. Viele sind stärker und einflussreicher als wenige 2.2.1. Gegn viele ist nichts auszurichten 2.2.1.1. Allg. Nord. 26,27 Ecki ma við margnum Man kann gegen viele nichts ausrichten HALLFREÐAR SAGA 38, 1 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275. JÓNSSON 116). KARLAMAGNÚS SAGA 97 (→ JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275). 28 Ok kom þa at því, sem mælt er, at ekki má við margnum Und es kam dann so, wie es im Sprichwort heisst, dass man gegen viele nichts ausrichten kann ÓLÁFR ÞÓRÐARSON(?), KNÝTLINGA SAGA 59 (→ FMS XI, 278). 29 Nú er sem mélt, at eigi má viþ margnum Nun ist es so, wie . . . VÖLSUNGA SAGA 11, 55 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275). 30 Fór hónum þá, sem mælt er, at ecki má við marginum Es erging ihm da so, wie . . . HRÓLFS SAGA 62, 4 (= GERING S. 11). 31 En þó kom at því sem mælt er, at ekki má við margnum Aber es kam doch so, wie . . . GROSSE ÓLÁFS SAGA TRYGGVASONAR 153 (→ FMS II, 10). 32 Þviat eingi er sva roskr, at eigi verþi sottr, ef margir sekia Denn keiner ist so tapfer, dass er nicht bezwungen würde, wenn viele (ihn) angreifen FLÓVENTS SAGA I 18 S. 144, 58. 33 Munn her koma at þui, sem mælt er, ath, 'ecki maa vid margnum' Es wird hier so kommen, wie es im Sprichwort heisst, dass man gegen viele nichts ausrichten kann FLÓVENTS SAGA II 19 S. 205, 24 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 275). 34 Þvíat hann mun ekki mega einn við mörgum Denn er wird als einziger gegen viele nichts ausrichten können PARCEVALS SAGA 22, 29. 35 En þo matti hann ecki við marginvm Und doch konnte er gegen viele nichts ausrichten BÆRINGS SAGA 23 S. 110, 18 (= GERING S. 11).
Vgl. EIN 4.7., ZWEI 4.1.5.

FSN I.   12. 137. En hann svarar: “Margr lifnar ór lítlum vánum, en horfin eru mér heill, svá at ek vil eigi láta græða mik.”
12. After the battle, Hjordis visits her husband Sigmund as he lies dying on the battlefield, and she asks if he could be healed.
53. He, however, answered: “Many a man lives where there is little hope, but my luck has forsaken me, so that I do not want to let myself be healed.”
FJ Proverb word 252. Page 108. lifna – margr lifnar ór litlum vánum Völs. 28. ‘Mange lever op uden at der havde været meget håb derom’. = GJ.
TPMA 4.   443.  GESUND/sain/healthy 1. Wesen, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Gesundheit  1.6. Gesundheit ist das (unerwartete) Ergebnis und Ende der Krankheit  1.6.2. Oft wird der Kranke unerwartet (ohne Hilfe) gesund Nord. 64 Margr lifnar ór lítlum vánum Mancher wird gesund, nachdem nur geringe Hoffnung bestanden hat VÖLSUNGA SAGA 12, 9 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 108. JÓNSSON 106).
→ ARZT 48. Vgl. KRANK 6.6.2.

FSN I. 15. 146.  Ok er hann bar ór aflinum, sýndist smiðjusveininum sem eldar brynni ór eggjunum.
15.
60.  And when he brought it out of the forge, it seemed to the apprentices as if flames were leaping from its edges.

FSN I. 17. 147.  " . . . ok vilda ek, at þeir vissi, at Völsungar væri eigi allir dauðir."
16.
61.  "I want them to know that the Volsungs are not all dead."

FSN I. 17. 148.  Ok er fá dægr váru liðin, þá kom á veðr mikit með stormi, en svá var sjárinn sem í roðru sæi.
16.
61.  And when a few days had passed, the weather grew foul and a great storm arose, churning the sea as if it were foaming with blood.

FSN I.   17. 148. “Allir segja þar eitt frá honum, at eigi megi konungasynir jafnast við hann.”
17. Óðinn disguised, asking to be taken on Sigurd’s ship.
61.  “Everyone says one thing about him, that no king’s son can equal him.”

FSN I. 17. 149.  Hann höggr bæði menn ok hesta ok gengr í gegnum fylkingar ok hefir báðar hendr blóðgar til axlar . . ."
17.
62.  He hewed both men and horses and went through the ranks, so that both his arms were bloody to the shoulder.

FSN I. 18. 151. "Eigi má þér ráð ráða, er þú ert við hvatvetna hræddr. Ok ertu ólíkr þínum frændum at hughreysti."
18.
63.
"No one can advise you, if you are afraid of everything. You are not like your kin in courage," replied Regin.

FSN I. 18. 151. Þá hleypr Sigurðr upp ór gröfinni ok kippir at sér sverðinum ok hefir allar hendr blóðgar up til axlar.
18.
63.  His arms were all bloody to the shoulder.

FSN I. 18. 152. "Til þessa hvatti mik inn harði hugr, ok stoðaði til, at gert yrði, þessi in sterka hönd ok þetta it snarpa sverð, er nú kenndir þú, ok fár er gamall harðr, ef hann er í bernsku blautr."
18.
64.  Sigurd said: "A hard mind whetted me for this deed and I was supported in it by this strong hand and this sharp sword, which you are now familiar with."
TPMA 6. 68.   HERZ/cœur/heart  1. Das Herz ist das Wichtigste 1.2. Das Herz ist das Wertvollste  Nord. 21 Þá er menn koma til vígs, þá er manni betra gott hjarta, en hvast sverþ Wenn die Männer zum Kampf kommen, ist für den Mann ein gutes Herz besser als ein scharfes Schwert VÖLSUNGA SAGA 19, 17.   
67.  also 1.2.
Mlat. 15 Framea quid prodest, ubi languet debile pectus? Was nützt ein Speer, wo ein schwaches Herz verzagt? SAXO GRAMM. 44, 29.

FSN I. 18. 152. "Til þessa hvatti mik inn harði hugr, ok stoðaði til, at gert yrði, þessi in sterka hönd ok þetta it snarpa sverð, er nú kenndir þú, ok fár er gamall harðr, ef hann er í bernsku blautr."
18.
64.  Sigurd said: "A hard mind whetted me for this deed and I was supported in it by this strong hand and this sharp sword, which you are now familiar with."
TPMA 6. 68.   HERZ/cœur/heart  1. Das Herz ist das Wichtigste 1.2. Das Herz ist das Wertvollste  Nord. 21 Þá er menn koma til vígs, þá er manni betra gott hjarta, en hvast sverþ Wenn die Männer zum Kampf kommen, ist für den Mann ein gutes Herz besser als ein scharfes Schwert VÖLSUNGA SAGA 19, 17.   
67.  also 1.2.
Mlat. 15 Framea quid prodest, ubi languet debile pectus? Was nützt ein Speer, wo ein schwaches Herz verzagt? SAXO GRAMM. 44, 29.

FSN I.  18. 152. “Til þessa hvatti mik inn harði hugr, ok stoðaði til, at gert yrði, þessi in sterka hönd ok þetta it snarpa sverð, er nú kenndir þú, ok fár er gamall harðr, ef hann er í bernska blautr.”
18. Sigurd in conversation with the dying Fáfnir, who has asked (formulaically) who urged him to the deed.
64. “A hard mind whetted me for this deed and I was supported in it by this strong hand and this sharp sword, which you are now familiar with. Few are bold in old age who are cowardly in childhood.”

FSN I.  18. 152. “Veit ek ef þú vex upp með frændum þínum, at þú mundir kunna at vega reiðr, en þetta er meiri furða, er einn bandingi hertekinn ska þorat hafa at vega at mér, því at fár hernuminn er frækn til vígs.”
18. Conversation continued. Fáfnir remarks that if Sigurd had grown up among his kinsman he’d have expected him to know how to fight.
64. “But it is yet stranger that a prisoner taken in war should have dared to fight me, because few captives are valiant in a fight.”
FJ Proverb word 174. Page 95. hernuminn – fár hernuminn er frœkn til vígs Völs 43 jfr Fáfn 7. ‘Få hærtagne (fanger) er (siden) kække til kamp’.
TPMA 3. 157.  FANGEN/capturer/to catch  6. Gefangenschaft und Gefängnis  6.3. Gefangene sind nicht mutig (zittern)  Nord. 12 Æ kveða bandingia bifaz Immer sagt man, dass Gefangene sittern FÁFNISMÁL 7, 6 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 26. JÓNSSON 9).  13 Þvíat fár hernuminn er frøkn til vígs Denn kaum ein Gefangener ist mutig zum Kampf VÖLSUNGA SAGA 18, 49 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 174. JÓNSSON 70).
Ed. note.   See Heiðarvíga saga,  ÍF III. 16. 266. "Nú er óglíkt hvárt er, at hafa með sér góða drengi ok hvata eða einhleypinga óreynda, þá er sér eigu ein[skis] góðs kosti, ef nökkut hendir til vandræða."    CSI 16. PP ADVICE    99.There’s a great difference between having decent and courageous followers along with you or untried men of no family who have few resources if difficulties arise.”    SL II.   16. 201. "Now it is quite another thing to have with one good men and brave, rather than runagates untried, men of nought, to fall back upon, if any trouble happen."

FSN I. 18. 152.  Sigurðr svarar: "Hverr vill fé hafa til ins eina dags, en eitt sinn skal hverr deyja."
18. Continued:
64.  "Everyone wants to have wealth until that one day, but everyone must die sometime."                                                                            

FSN I. 18. 152.  Sigurðr svarar: "Hverr vill fé hafa til ins eina dags, en eitt sinn skal hverr deyja."
18. Continued:
64.  "Everyone wants to have wealth until that one day, but everyone must die sometime.”
FJ Proverb word 67. Pages 74-5. deyja, dauði – eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Völs 9, Þórir (Sturl3 I 532). ‘En gang skal enhver dø’. Aasen: “Eingong döya skal alle mann”. Andre former er: deyja verðr (skal) hverr um sinn Örv (Boer) 110 (sål.også GJ), hverr deyr seggr eitt sinn Gisl Illugas. (lausav.) Nærbeslægtet hermed er: dauðr verðr hverr Hallfr. lausav. 28. þá mun hverr deyja er feigr er Reykd 31. ´Da vil enhver dø når hans dødstime kommer´. Jfr Aasen: “Han døyr som er feig (og liver some er seig)”.
TPMA 11. 327-8. 1. Tod als allbekannte und unausweichliche Realität  1.2 Der tod ereilt jeden ohne Ausnahme und Unterschied 1.2.1.2. Einmal (Schliesslich) muss jeder (alles) sterben3  Nord. 86 Þvíat eino sinni skal alda hverr Fara til heliar heðan Denn einmal muss jeder Mensch sterben (wörtl.: von hier ins Totenreich fahren) FÁFNISMÁL 10, 4. 87 Dœgr eitt er þér dauði ætlaðr! Eines Tages ist dir der Tod bestimmt GRÍPISSPÁ 25, 7 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 67. JÓNSSON 28). 88 Eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Jeder muss einmal sterben JÓMSVÍKINGA SAGA 47 (→FMS XI, 148). 89 Skal ok eitt sinn hverr deyja Jeder muss doch einmal sterben ÓLÁFR ÞÓRÐARSON (?), KNÝTLINGA SAGA 96 (→FMS XI, 339). 90 Þvíatt eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Dann jeder muss einmal sterben VÖLSUNGA SAGA5, 20 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 67. JÓNSSON 28). 91 En eitt sinn skal hverr deyja Aber jeder muss einmal sterben VÖLSUNGA SAGA 18, 56 (= GERING S. 7). 92 Deyja verðr hverr um sinn sakir Sterben muss jeder einmal ÖRVAR-ODDS SAGA 30, 5. 93. 94 Deyja skal hverr um sinn Übers. wie 88 ÖRVAR-ODDS SAGA 14. 16 (→ FAS II, 216. II, 225). 95 Ok skal um sinn hverr deyja Übers. vie 89 ISL. ÆV. 17, 206 (= Gering S. 7).      3Vgl. Hassell M 225; Whiting D 243.
Ed. note.  See Deskis, p. 83, fn 77.

FSN I. 18. 153. Sigurðr mælti: "Sá ægishjálmr, er þú sagðir frá, gefr fám sigr, því at hverr sá, er með mörgum kemr, má þat finna eitthvert sinn, at engi er einna hvatastr."
18. Sigurðr on the helm of terror:
64. “This helm of terror you speak of gives victory to few, because each man who finds himself in company with many others must at one time discover that no one is the boldest of all.”
TPMA 12. 326. WAGEN (Vb.) /oser/to dare 5. Verschiedenes Nord. 190, 191 Þá hann þat (FÁFNISMÁL: Þá þat) finnr, er með frœknom (FÁFNISMÁL: fleirom) kømr, At engi er einna hvatastr Dann merkt er, wenn er auf kühne (andere) Männer trifft, dass keiner der Allertapferste ist8 HÁVAMÁL 64,4 (=JÓNSSON, ARKIV 192. JÓNSSON 80). FÁFNISMÁL 17, 4 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 192).  192 Hyggz vætr hvatr fyrir! Der Kühne sorgt sich nicht um sich LOKASENNA 15,6 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 192. JÓNSSON 80).
Ed. note.    Alludes to Hávamál 64. “ Ríki sitt/ scyli ráðsnotra hverr/ í hófi hafa;/ þá hann þat finnr,/ er með frœcnom kømr,/ at engi er einna hvatastr.” Larrington, 64. “Every man wise in counsel/ should use his power in moderation;/ for when he mingles with warriors he finds out/ that no one is boldest of all.”  For an indirectly related text see Morkinskinna, FJ 64.  396.  [Haralldr s.1 qvaþ ecki sva eiNa agett. at eigi metti verþa aNat slict.    1Utydel.    A-G 79.  Men in the court ask Haraldr gillicrist if he knows of any horse as swift as the one sent by Magnús Sigurðarson.    356.  Haraldr answered, saying that nothing was so remarkable that it could not be matched.
ÍM 6. ÁGÆTI Fátt er svo ágætt, að eigi finnast annað slíkt. Mágus s. 1. kap.

FSN I.  18. 153. “Þat ræð ek þér, at þú takir hest þinn ok ríðir á brott sem skjótast, því at þat hendir oft, at sá, er banasár fær, hefnir sín sjálfr.”
18. Conversation continued. Fáfnir advises Sigurd to leave.
64-5. “I suggest you take your horse and ride away as fast as you can, because it often happens that he who receives a mortal wound avenges himself.”

FSN I. 18. 154. "Heim munda ek ríða, þótt ek missta þessa ins mikla fjár, ef ek vissa, at ek skylda aldri deyja, en hverr frækn maðr will fé ráða allt til ins eina dags."
18.
Sigurð´s comments to Fáfnir on the dangers of the treasure:
65. “I would ride home, even though it would mean losing this great treasure, if I knew that I would never die. But every brave man wants to be wealthy until that one day.”

FSN I. 18. 154. "Heim munda ek ríða, þótt ek missta þessa ins mikla fjár, ef ek vissa, at ek skylda aldri deyja, en hverr frækn maðr will fé ráða allt til ins eina dags."
18.
Sigurð´s comments to Fáfnir on the dangers of the treasure:
65. “I would ride home, even though it would mean losing this great treasure, if I knew that I would never die. But every brave man wants to be wealthy until that one day.”

FSN I. 19. 154. "Fjarri gekk þú þá, er ek vann þetta verk ok ek reynda þetta snarpa sverð með minni hendi, ok mínu afli átta ek við orms megin, meðan þú látt í einum lyngrunni, ok vissir þú eigi, hvárt er var himinn eða jörð."
19. Sigurðr responds when Reginn remarks on his having killed Regin's brother.
65.  "You went quite far away when I performed this deed. I tested this sharp sword with my own hand, pitting my strength against the serpent's might, while you lay in a heather bush confused, not knowing whether it was heaven or earth."
Ed. note. See Morkinskinna, FJ 65.  398.   En sva hefir S. fra sagt er siþan var byscop, at eigi þotti honom meiri himinn en kalfsciN sva þotti honom konvngreN ogorligr. 

FSN I. 19. 155. Sigurðr svarar: “Þá er menn koma til vígs, þá er manni betra gott hjarta en hvasst sverð.”
19. In conversation with Regin, after Sigurðr has killed his brother Fáfnir, Regin says he could not have done it if Regin hadn’t fashioned the sword Gram.
65. Sigurd replied, “When men come to battle, a fearless heart serves a man better than a sharp sword.”
TPMA 6. 68.   HERZ/cœur/heart  1. Das Herz ist das Wichtigste 1.2. Das Herz ist das Wertvollste  Nord. 21 Þá er menn koma til vígs, þá er manni betra gott hjarta, en hvast sverþ Wenn die Männer zum Kampf kommen, ist für den Mann ein gutes Herz besser als ein scharfes Schwert VÖLSUNGA SAGA 19, 17.   
67.  also 1.2.
Mlat. 15 Framea quid prodest, ubi languet debile pectus? Was nützt ein Speer, wo ein schwaches Herz verzagt? SAXO GRAMM. 44, 29.

FSN I.  20. 155. “. . .ok þar er mér úlfsins ván, er ek eyrun sá.”
20. The conversation of the birds, after Fáfnir’s blood has touched Sigurð’s tongue.
66.I suspect a wolf where I see a wolf’s ears.”
Ed. note. See Kallstenius “Saxo” p. 17. Str. 35 Fáfnismál.
TPMA 13.   174. WOLF/loup/wolf   6. Die Nähe des Wolfs  6.5. Wenn man die Ohren (das Gesichet) des Wolfs sieht, dann glaubt man ihn (seinen Schwanz) nahe  Nord. 199 Þar er mér úlfs vón, er ek eyro sék Da erwarte ich den Wolf, wo ich (seine) Ohren bemerke FÁFNISMÁL 35, 7 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 418. JÓNSSON 170). 200 Ok þar er mér úlfsins ván, er ek eyrun sá Und da erwarte ich den Wolf, wo ich (seine) Ohren gesehen habe VÖLSUNGA SAGA 19, 40. 201 Þaðan er mer vlfs van er ek eyrun seg Von dort her erwarte ich den Wolf, wo ich (seine) Ohren sehe FINNBOGA SAGA 10 S. 23, 2.

FSN I. 19. 156. Þá mælti Sigurðr: "Eigi munu þau ósköp, at Reginn sé minn bani, ok heldr skulu þeir fara báðir bræðr einn veg."
20.
66.
 Then Sigurd said: "It will not be my ill fate that Regin shall be my death. Rather, both brothers should go the same way."
Ironic -- see Gísla saga.

FSN I. 20. 162. "Öll eru mál of metin."
21.
70.
 "All words are already decided."

FSN I. 21. 162.  "Ver vel við frændr þína ok hefn lítt mótgerða við þá ok ber við þol, ok tekr þú þar við langæligt lof."
22.  
71.  
"Do well by your kinsmen and take little revenge for their wrongdoings."

FSN I. 21. 162.  "Ver vel við frændr þína ok hefn lítt mótgerða við þá ok ber við þol, ok tekr þú þar við langæligt lof."
22.  
71.
 "Endure with patience and you will win long-lasting praise."

FSN I. 21. 162.  "Sé við illum hlutum, bæði við meyjar ást ok manns konu. Þar stendr oft illt af."
22.  
71.
 "Beware of ill dealings, both of a maid's love and a man's wife; ill often arises from these."

FSN I. 21. 162.  "Sé við illum hlutum, bæði við meyjar ást ok manns konu. Þar stendr oft illt af."
22.  
71.
 "Beware of ill dealings, both of a maid's love and a man's wife; ill often arises from these."

FSN I. 21. 162.  "Verð lítt mishugi við óvitra menn á fjölmennum mótum. Þeir mæla oft verra, en þeir viti, . . ."
22.  
71.
 "Control your temper with foolish men at crowded gatherings, for they frequently speak worse than they know."

FSN I. 21. 162.  "Verð lítt mishugi við óvitra menn á fjölmennum mótum. Þeir mæla oft verra, en þeir viti, . . ."
22.  
71.
 "Control your temper with foolish men at crowded gatherings, for they frequently speak worse than they know."

FSN I. 21. 162-3.  ". . . ok ertu þegar bleyðimaðr kallaðr, ok ætlar, at þú sér sönnu sagðr. Drep hann annars dags ok gjalt honum svá heiftyrði."
22.  
71.
 "When you are called a coward, people may think that you are rightfully named so. Kill the man another day, rewarding him for his malicious words."

FSN I. 21. 162-3.  ". . . ok ertu þegar bleyðimaðr kallaðr, ok ætlar, at þú sér sönnu sagðr. Drep hann annars dags ok gjalt honum svá heiftyrði."
22.  
71.
 "When you are called a coward, people may think that you are rightfully named so. Kill the man another day, rewarding him for his malicious words."

FSN I. 21. 163.  Ef þú ferr þann veg, er vándar vættir byggja, ver varr um þik. Tak þér ekki herbergi nær götu, þótt þik nátti, því at oft búa þar illar vættir, þær menn villa.
22.  
71.
 "If you travel a road where evil creatures dwell, be wary. Although caught by nightfall, do not take shelter near the road, for foul beings who bewilder men often live there."

FSN I. 21. 163.  Ef þú ferr þann veg, er vándar vættir byggja, ver varr um þik. Tak þér ekki herbergi nær götu, þótt þik nátti, því at oft búa þar illar vættir, þær menn villa.
22.  
71.
 "If you travel a road where evil creatures dwell, be wary. Although caught by nightfall, do not take shelter near the road, for foul beings who bewilder men often live there."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Lát eigi tæla þik fagrar konur, þótt þú sjáir at veizlum, svá at þat standi þér fyrir svefni eða þú fáir af því hugarekka. Teyg þær ekki at þér með kossum eða annarri blíðu."
22.  
71.
 "Even if you see beautiful women at a feast, do not let them entice you so that they interfere with your sleep or distress your mind. Do not allure them with kisses and other tenderness."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Lát eigi tæla þik fagrar konur, þótt þú sjáir at veizlum, svá at þat standi þér fyrir svefni eða þú fáir af því hugarekka. Teyg þær ekki at þér með kossum eða annarri blíðu."
22.  
71.
 "Even if you see beautiful women at a feast, do not let them entice you so that they interfere with your sleep or distress your mind. Do not allure them with kisses and other tenderness."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Ok ef þú heyrir heimslig orð drukkinna manna, deil eigi við þá, er víndukknir eru ok tapa viti sínu."
22.  
71.
 "If you hear foolish words from drunken men, do not dispute with those who are drunk on wine and have lost their wits."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Ok ef þú heyrir heimslig orð drukkinna manna, deil eigi við þá, er víndukknir eru ok tapa viti sínu."
22.  
71.
 "If you hear foolish words from drunken men, do not dispute with those who are drunk on wine and have lost their wits."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Berst heldr við óvini þína en þú sér brenndr."
22.  
71.
 'It is better to fight with your enemies than to be burned at home."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Ok sver eigi rangan eið, því at grimm hefnd fylgir griðrofi."
22.  
71.
 And do not swear a false other, because hard vengeance follows the breaking of a truce."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Ok sver eigi rangan eið, því at grimm hefnd fylgir griðrofi."
22.  
71.
 And do not swear a false other, because hard vengeance follows the breaking of a truce."

FSN I. 21. 163.  "Ger rækiliga við dauða menn, sóttdauða eða sædauða, eða vápndauða. Búðu vandlinga um lík þeira."
22.  
71.
 "Do the right thing by dead men, be they dead from disease, by drowning, or by a weapon. Prepare their bodies with care."

FSN I.   21. 163. Ok trú ekki þeim, er þá hefir felldan fyrir föður eða bróður eða annan náfrænda, þótt ungr sé. Oft er úlfr í ungum syni.”
22. Brynhild’s wise advice to Sigurd.
71. And do not trust any man, even though he is young, whose father or brother or close kinsman has been killed by you; often a wolf lies in a young son.”

FSN I.   21. 163. “Ok trú ekki þeim, er þá hefir felldan fyrir föður eða bróður eða annan náfrænda, þótt ungr sé. Oft er úlfr í ungum syni.”
22. Brynhild’s wise advice to Sigurd.
71. “And do not trust any man, even though he is young, whose father or brother or close kinsman has been killed by you; often a wolf lies in a young son.”

FSN I. 22. 165.  Ok þat er hans skemmtan at veita lið sínum mönnum ok reyna sjálfan sik í stórræðum ok taka fé af sínum óvinum ok gefa sínum vinum.
23.
73.
 It was his pleasure to support his men, to test himself in great deeds, and to take booty from his enemies and give it to his friends.

FSN I. 22. 165.  Ok þat er hans skemmtan at veita lið sínum mönnum ok reyna sjálfan sik í stórræðum ok taka fé af sínum óvinum ok gefa sínum vinum.
23.
73.
 It was his pleasure to support his men, to test himself in great deeds, and to take booty from his enemies and give it to his friends.

FSN I. 22. 165.  Ok þat er hans skemmtan at veita lið sínum mönnum ok reyna sjálfan sik í stórræðum ok taka fé af sínum óvinum ok gefa sínum vinum.
23.
73.
 It was his pleasure to support his men, to test himself in great deeds, and to take booty from his enemies and give it to his friends.

FSN I.   24. 167. “Gef ekki gaum at einni konu, þvílíkr maðr. Er þat illt at sýta, er maðr fær eigi.”
25. Alsvid comments on Sigurd’s infatuation with Brynhild.
74. “Such a man as you should not pay attention to a woman. It is bad to pine for what cannot be obtained.”

FSN I.   24. 167. “Vel megum vér, frændr lifa ok vinir, en háttung er í, hverja giftu menn bera til síns endadags.”
25. Brynhild’s response when Sigurd asks how she fares.
74. “I am faring well. My kin and friends are alive, but it is unknown what fortune men will have to their dying day.”

FSN I. 24. 168.  "Vitrligra ráð er þat at leggja eigi trúnað sinn á konu vald, því at þær rjúfa jafnan sín heit."
25.
75.
 "It is wiser counsel not to put your trust in a woman, because women always break their promises."

FSN I. 24. 168.  "Vitrligra ráð er þat at leggja eigi trúnað sinn á konu vald, því at þær rjúfa jafnan sín heit."
25.
75.
 "It is wiser counsel not to put your trust in a woman, because women always break their promises."

FSN I.   25. 169. “Seg mér ok lát þik eigi hryggja, því at jafnan dreymir fyrir veðrum.”
26. One of Gudrun’s maidens, responding when Gudrun wants to tell her about a bad dream.
76. “Tell me and do not be distressed,” the woman replied, “because always one dreams before storms.”

FSN I.
26.
76.
 "I cared for nothing more than for this hawk, and I would rather have lost all my wealth than him."

FSN I. 25. 171.  Brynhildr svarar: "Lát þik eigi slíkt angra. Ver með frændum þínum, er allir vilja þik gleðja."
26.
77.
 Brynhild replied: "Do not let such things vex you. Stay with your kinsmen, all of whom wish to make you happy."

FSN I. 25. 172.  "Síðan gaftu mér einn úlfhvelp. Sá dreifði mik blóði bræðra minna."
27.
77.
 "Then you gave me a wolf's cub. It spattered me with the blood of my brothers."

FSN I. 26. 174.  "Fátítt er þat at bjóða fram dætr sínar, en meiri vegr er at bjóða honum en aðrir biði."
28.
79.
 "It is a rare thing to offer one's daughter, but there is more honor in offering her to him than in having others propose marriage."
Note: Saxo . . .

FSN I. 26. 174.  "Fátítt er þat at bjóða fram dætr sínar, en meiri vegr er at bjóða honum en aðrir biði."
28.
79.
 "It is a rare thing to offer one's daughter, but there is more honor in offering her to him than in having others propose marriage."
Note: Saxo . . .

FSN I. 27. 176.  Login stóð við himin. Þetta þorði engi at gera fyrr, ok var sem hann riði i myrkva. Þá lægðist eldrinn, en hann gekk af hestinum in í salinn.
29.
80.
 The flames rose to the heavens. No one had dared to do this before. It was as if he rode into pitch-darkness. The fire subsided.

FSN I. 27. 177.  Hún svarar af áhyggju af sínu sæti sem álft af báru ok hefir sverð í hendi ok hjálm á höfði ok var í brynju. . .
29.
81.
 She answered gravely from her seat, like a swan on a wave, in her mail coat with her sword in her hand and her helmet on her head.

FSN I.   28. 179. Spyrr þess eina, at betr sé, attu vitir. Þat samir ríkum konum. Ok er gott góðu at una, er yðr gengr allt at óskum.”
30. Brynhild to Gudrun the day after the dispute of the queens. Gudrun has asked what prevents her happiness.
83.Only ask what is best for you to know. That is suitable for noble women. And it is easy to be satisfied, while everything happens according to your wishes.”

FSN I.   28. 179. “Spyrr þess eina, at betr sé, attu vitir. Þat samir ríkum konum. Ok er gott góðu at una, er yðr gengr allt at óskum.”
30. Brynhild to Gudrun the day after the dispute of the queens. Gudrun has asked what prevents her happiness.
83. “Only ask what is best for you to know. That is suitable for noble women. And it is easy to be satisfied, while everything happens according to your wishes.”

FSN I. 28. 181.  "Leggjum niðr ónýtt hjal," segir Brynhildr. "Ek þagða lengi yfir mínum harmi, þeim er mér bjó í brjósti, en ek ann þínum bróður at eins, ok tökum annat tal."
30. Brynhild calls a halt to the post-confrontation discussion with Gudrun:
84.  "Let us stop this useless chatter," said Brynhild. "I kept my silence for a long time about the sorrow in my breast, yet I love only your brother."
Ed. note. A proverbial allusion: See Gísla saga, ÍF VI. 9. 31. “Opt stendr illt af kvennahjali, ok má þat vera, at hér hljótisk af í verra lagi, ok leitom okkr ráðs.”  FJ Proverb word 217. Page 103. kona – . . . opt stendr ilt af kvenna hjali (tali kvenna) Gísl 15, Svarfd 86. ‘Ofte kommer ondt af kvinders snak’. opt verðr kvalræði af konum Sól 10. ‘Ofte volder kvinder fortræd’.   ÍM 183. KONA Oft stendur illt af kvenna hjali. Gísla s. 9. kap. o. v.    TPMA 3.   373.  FRAU/femme/woman 1. Wesen, Eigenschaften und Verhaltensweise der Frau  1.9. Geschwätzigkeit, Zungenfertigkeit und Unverschweigenheit der Frau  1.9.2. Spez.  1.9.2.8. Frauen bewirken Schlimmes mit ihrem Geschwätz  Nord. 611 Opt stendr illt af kvenna hjali Oft entsteht Schlimmes aus Weibergeschwätz GÍSLA SAGA 9, 11 (= JÓNSSON, ARKIV 217. JÓNSSON 94) (vgl. unten 3.2.7.1.2.).  612 Opt stendr ilt af tali kvenna SVARFDŒLA SAGA 86 (→JÓNSSON, ARKIV 217) (vgl. unten 3.2.7.1.2.).

FSN I. 30. 188.  Þá mælti Brynhildr: "Þú skalt láta bæði ríkit ok féit, lífit ok mik, ok skal ek fara heim til frænda minna ok sitja þar hrygg, nema þú drepir Sigurð ok son hans. Al eigi upp úlfhvelpinn."
32.
89.  
Then Brynhild said: "You shall lose both power and wealth, life and me, and I shall journey home to my kind and remain there in sorrow unless you kill Sigurd and his son. Do not raise the wolf cub."

FSN I. 30. 188.  Högni segir: "Ekki samir okkr særin at rjúfa með ófriði. Er oss ok mikit traust at honum."
32.
89.
 Hogni said: "It is not fitting for us to violate our oaths by breaching the peace. And we have much support form him."

FSN I.   30. 190. “Ok nú er þat fram komit, er fyrir löngu var spát ok vér höfum dulizt við, en engi má við sköpum vinna.”
32. Sigurd, stabbed by Guttorm, speaks to Gudrun before he dies.
90. “And now it has come to pass as has long been foretold. I refused to believe it, but no one can withstand his fate.”

FSN I. 30. 191.  ". . . ok allir bræðr drepnir, ok torveldra mundi þeim at drepa mik en inn mesta vísund eða villigölt."
32.
90.
 "All the brothers would have been slain. It would have been more difficult for them to kill me than the fiercest wild bison or boar."

FSN I. 31. 192.  Nú þóttist engi kunna at svara, at Brynhildr beiddi þess hlæjandi, er hún harmaði með gráti.
33.

FSN I.   33. 201. Nú var bæði, at Gunnarr var mjök drukkin, en boðit mikit ríki, mátti ok eigi við sköpum vinna, heitr nú ferðinni ok segir Högna, bróður sínum.
35. Gunnar, drunk, unwisely vows to make the journey to Atli, who has pretended he will give the brothers money and power.
97. It happened that Gunnar by this time was very drunk and was being offered much power. He also could not escape his destiny. He vowed to make the journey with his brother Hogni.

FSN I. 32. 198.  En aldri gerði hugr hennar við honum hlæja, ok með lítilli blíðu var þeira samvista.
34.
95-96.
But her thoughts never laughed with him, and their life together contained little affection.

FSN I. 33. 200.  ". . . ok má vera, at Guðrúnu þykki hann úlfshug við okkr hafa ok vili hún eigi, at vit farim."
35.
97.
 "It may be that Gudrun thinks he has the thoughts of a wolf toward us, and that she does not want us to go."

FSN I. 33. 201.  . . . mátti ok eigi við sköpum vinna, . . .
35.
97.
 He could also not escape his destiny.

FSN I.   35. 203. Hann svarar: “Vant gerist nú at ráða, ok má ekki forðast sitt aldrlag, en eigi ólíkt, at vér verðum skammæir.”
37. Gunnar’s wife, Glaumvor, tells him of her dreams which seem to portend his death.
99. He answered: “Things are becoming difficult to interpret, but no one can avoid death. It is not unlikely that I will be short-lived.”

FSN I. 35. 204.  Þar skiljast þau með sínum forlögum.
37.
99.
 They parted there, each with his own destiny.

FSN I. 35. 204.  Síðan reru þeir svá fast ok af miklu afli, at kjölrinn gekk undan skipinu mjök svá hálfr.
37.
99.
 They rowed so hard and wish so much strength that almost half the keel came loose from the ship.

FSN I. 35. 204.  Þeir knúðu fast árar með stórum bakföllum, svá at brotnuðu hlumir ok háir.
37.
99- 100.
 They hauled hard on the oars with long pulls, so that the handles and oar pins broke.

FSN I. 36. 205.  "Kann vera, at þú veitir þessa veizlu stórmannliga ok af lítilli eymd við örn ok úlf."
38.
100.
  "It may be that you will provide, with magnificence and with little stinginess, a feast for the eagle and the wolf."

FSN I. 36. 206. “Ek þóttumst ráð hafa við sett, at eigi kæmi þér, en engi má við sköpum vinna.”
38. Gudrun greets her brothers, who have come to Atli despite her warnings.
101. “I thought I had contrived a way to prevent your coming here. But no one can withstand his fate.”

FSN I. 38. 210. “Vel líkar þér nú, er þú lýsir vígum þessum fyrir mér, en vera má, at þú iðrast, þá er þú reynir þat, er eftir kemr, ok sú mun erfðin lengst eftir lifa at týna eigi grimmdinni, ok mun þér eigi vel ganga, meðan ek lifi.”
40. Gudrun responds when Atli tells her he has killed her brothers.
103. “You delight in announcing these killings to me, but you may regret what happened when you experience what follows. The legacy that will endure the longest is undying cruelty. Things will never go well for you while I live.”

FSN I. 38. 210.  ". . . en oft verðum vér konurnar ríki bornar af yðru valdi."
40. Gudrun responds when Atli tells her he has killed her brothers.
103.  
 "Yet we women are often forced to bow to your strength."

FSN I. 38. 210.  Þeir svöruðu: "Ráða muntu börnum þínum sem þú vilt. Þat mun engi banna þér. En þér er skömm í at gera þetta."
40.  The sons of Gudrun and Atli comment on her intention to kill them:
104.
"You may do with your children as you like," said the boys. "No one will hinder you, but there will be shame for you in this act."

FSN I. 39. 213.  Hún bar svá mjök af öðrum konum um vænleik sem sól af öðrum himintunglum.
41.
106.
 She transcended other women in her beauty as the sun does the other heavenly bodies.

FSN I.   40. 214.Valt er hamingjunni at treystast, at eigi bresti hún.”
42. Gudrun responds when Randver, son of Jormunrek, has come to the court of Jonakr to bid, for his father, the hand of Svanhild, daughter of Sigurd and Gudrun.
106.Fortune is too fragile a thing to trust that it not break.”

FSN I.   42. 217. Hann svarar: “Slíkt sem hönd hendi eða fótr fæti.”
44. Gudrun’s sons have met their brother Erp and ask him how he will help them take vengeance on Jormunrek for the killing of their half-sister, Svanhild.
108. He answered: “As the hand helps the hand, or the foot helps the foot.” They took his reply to mean that he would not help them at all, and so they killed him.
JRugman 25. [58r] Proverb 168. hond hond þuættar, steirn stein gletter. 68. Hand tvättar hand, sten glättar sten.   . . . >>þvætter>> . . .  St. 35 (och St. 44). Det ligger i öppen dag, att ordspråket icke kan vara inhemskt isländskt: JR:s verbform >>þuættar>> är dålig isländska – visserligen påbättrad av G. Ó. – och formen >>gletter>> existerar inte alls, i varje fall icke i den betydelse, som här är at förutsätta. Det är ett svenskt ordspråk, som JR myckedt ofullständigt översatt, och det träffas i STIERNHIELMS Parnassus Triumphans 3:dje Öpning 6:te Inträde i formen >>Hand Hand twättar: Steen Steen glättar>>. Måhända har JR hämtat det just därifrån.
GO 78. Proverb 77. Hönd Hönd þvætter; Steirn Stein gletter. [JR 168]
Snorra Edda, Skld. 7.
TPMA 5. 373. HAND/main/hand 2. Funktion und Aufgabe der Hände 2.4. Vereinzelt. 11 Nord. Hann (scil. Erpr) svarar, at hann myndi veita þvílíkt sem hǫnd fœti. Þeir segja, at þat var allz ekki, at fótr styddisk við hœnd . . . Lítlu síðarr, er Sǫrli gekk, skriðnaði hann ǫðrum fœti studdi sik með hendinni; þá mælti hann: "veitti nú hǫndin fœtinum; betr væri nú, at Erpr lifði." Er (Erpr) antwortet, dass er ihnen helfen werde, so wie die Hand dem Fuss. Sie sagen, dass das überhaupt nich so wäre, dass der Fuss sich auf die Hand stütze. Ein wenig später glitt Sorli beim Gehen (wörtl.: als Sorli ging) mit dem einen Fuss aus und stütze sich mit der Hand. Da sagte er: "Jetzt hat die Hand dem Fuss geholfen; jetzt wäre es besser, wenn Erpr (noch) lebte." SNORRA EDDA 190 (vgl. BRUDER 5, FUSS 1.1.1., HAUPT 87)
Ed. note. See Ursula Dronke, The Poetic Edda I. Heroic Poems Oxford 1969. ii. Folktale and Proverb. (b) 'How can foot help foot, or hand hand?' pp. 199-202.

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