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Cross, K.P. & T. Angelo. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for faculty (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Doyle, M. (1995). "Scholarship Reconsidered": Inherent dangers in its applications. Online symposium proceedings.
Felder, R. (1994). The myth of the superhuman professor. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 82, No, 2.
Glassick, C. & Huber, M. T. (1997). Scholarship assessed: Evaluation of the professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Legg, J. & Frielich, M. (1995). Integration of the scholarship of teaching into faculty roles and rewards: Implementing a task force recommendation. Online symposium proceedings.
O'Neil, C. & Wright, A. (1995). Recording teaching accomplishment: A Dalhousie guide to the teaching dossier. Halifax: Dalhousie University Office of instructional Development and Technology.
Park, S. (January, 1996). Research, teaching, and service: Why shouldn't women's work count? Journal of Higher Education.
Rice, E. (1990). Rethinking what it means to be a scholar. Teaching Excellence, Vol. 1, No. 8.
Richlin, L. (1993). To hear all the voices: A broader view of faculty scholarship. In L. Richlin (ed.) Preparing Faculty for the New Conceptions of Scholarship. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Shore, B. M., Foster, S. F., Knapper, C.K., Nadeau, G., Neill, N., & Sim, V.W. (1986). The teaching dossier: A guide to its preparation and use. Ottawa: The Canadian Association of University Teachers.
Shulman, Lee. Taking learning seriously. Change, July/August 1999, Vol. 31, No 4.
Way, David. Evaluating Teaching Portfolios: Moving from a Competitive to a Collaborative Culture. USA: Cornell University. [PDF: available with the author's permission]
Zubizarreta, J. (December, 1994). Teaching portfolios and the beginning teacher. Phi Delta Kappan.
A Supporting Statement by Dr. Trevor Crowe
How could anyone within the first few months of his academic career understand the concepts of tenure, promotion, special increments and travel grants, while simultaneously preparing research grants and course notes, fighting with the moving company over damaged articles and looking for a house? I'm sure my initiation was similar to other new faculty members, climbing a steep learning curve with endless opportunities to evolve as an instructor and researcher.
During this time, I quickly recognized the importance of being able to document achievements for tenure and promotion considerations. Quantifying research accomplishments appeared simple, but a technique for gauging performance in the classroom was less obvious. I was left with the impression that teaching at the university level was not important until presenters at the 1996 Orientation session for new faculty encouraged us to take teaching responsibilities seriously and suggested that pedagogical accomplishments could be documented with a teaching portfolio.
Although I didn't really understand the need, I did as I was told and diligently collected information that could be included in a teaching portfolio. It took an instructional development seminar presented two years later to force me to take the next step and compile the accumulated information into a cohesive package. After completing the portfolio, I was generally surprised by the large volume of material that I had collected and disappointed that I had procrastinated so long. Perhaps the most taxing activity was defining and articulating my philosophy of teaching, something I had never done before.
Creating the portfolio was a rewarding and worthwhile experience. Although I had reflected upon my performance on a course-by-course basis, the portfolio forced me to reflect upon general teaching strategies that I employed and the relevance of course content for different audiences. I deliver courses in three different programs, each with separate and different learning objectives. Developing the teaching portfolio has reminded me of the importance of constantly being aware of the different program objectives. I try to adjust course material to include current technologies and useful information, but all course improvements require an understanding of the learning objectives. Faculty must be careful when implementing changes in course content to ensure that learning objectives continue to be met.
The portfolio has provided an avenue to illustrate my activities in the classroom and show that I take my teaching responsibilities seriously. In combination, a curriculum vitae and teaching portfolio can clearly document a faculty member's achievements in all of the four independent scholarly activities (teaching, discovery, integration of knowledge, application of knowledge). Through my teaching portfolio, I have been able to show how research projects have allowed my teaching strategies and course content to evolve. I am proud that I can show how my research projects and teaching activities are not entirely divorced, and I am convinced that the synergy developed by integrating teaching and research has given me enthusiasm and confidence as an instructor and researcher.
I believe that good teaching is highly regarded at the University of Saskatchewan and, particularly, in the College of Engineering. But aside from listing teaching awards, how can one enumerate good teaching performance or document effort directed toward becoming a better instructor? Generally, the structure of annual activity reports forces faculty to concentrate on research activities and does not provide an opportunity for faculty to showcase efforts in teaching. In contrast, a teaching portfolio helps to celebrate accomplishments in teaching and document performance in the classroom, with little emphasis on research.
Aside from assembling documentation to overcome career hurdles (promotion in rank or tenure), faculty may require the prospect of special salary increases to entice action. Indeed, one presenter at the new faculty orientation (1996) indicated that simply preparing a teaching portfolio resulted in a special merit increment. However, a more worthwhile result from preparing a teaching portfolio would be a thorough self-evaluation and a plan to become a better instructor. Imagine the learning environment we could create at the U of S if everyone improved a single aspect of his/her teaching each year!
Dr. Trever G. Crowe, P.Eng.
Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering
University of Saskatchewan
A Supporting Statement by Dr. Len Gusthart, 3M Fellow
I had the opportunity to put my first teaching portfolio together after teaching at the University of Saskatchewan for twenty years. As a tenured professor, I was very much interested in finding a vehicle to document my teaching. I was also interested in developing a process for reflection on a rather continuous basis. The primary motivation, then, was ultimately the improvement of my teaching. The teaching portfolio concept interested me as it offered the opportunity to provide a portrait of myself as a teacher or, to put it a little differently, it provided an opportunity to portray one's teaching self.
An interesting aspect of the project was gathering the various material into a single document. It was relatively easy to find the required materials. Putting them together and ferreting out my teaching beliefs was more intensive. Most rewarding - and eye-opening - was reflecting on the information I had gathered and checking the congruence between my learning objectives and actual student learning. In fact, I was able to identify some discrepancies in terms of what students were actually learning and what I had perceived them to learn. Through the work and reflection needed to continually refine my original portfolio, I have been able to narrow the gap between expected and actual student learning outcomes.
The process of putting together the teaching portfolio was a learning experience. I believe this process has indeed helped to improve my teaching effectiveness. Collecting and sifting through various documents and materials has helped me to re-evaluate my instructional strategies, reflect on my personal teaching activities, and reorganize my teaching priorities. It has also provided me with a baseline to facilitate planning for the future. As such the teaching portfolio has been a valuable aid in my professional development.
I would encourage faculty (neophyte and more seasoned) to embark on the development of a teaching portfolio. Although I began to develop my portfolio on my own, I found that a critical friend was most helpful in the process. A collaborative approach involving a colleague or someone from the Teaching & Learning Centre can support and aid your analysis of material related to the teaching/learning process.
The teaching portfolio should be a careful, thoughtful drawing together of documents and materials that portray the teaching self. A shared experience is often very meaningful in this venture.
Len Gusthart, 3M Fellow
College of Kinesiology
University of Saskatchewan
Teaching Perspectives Inventory
The Teaching Perspectives Inventory was created by Dan Pratt and John B. Collins from the University of British Columbia. It will help you to clarify your dominant teaching behaviours, values and beliefs.
Take the Inventory.
After you print your individual results from the site, read the Summary of the Five Teaching Perspectives
Interpret your TPI profile.
And to learn more about your individual perspective and the five different perspectives on teaching, learning and knowledge, read Daniel Pratt's article, "Good Teaching: One size fits all?"
By John Collins and Dan Pratt
Used with permission from the authors
Ten Simple Steps For Interpreting Your TPI Profile
1. Review the Summary Paragraphs: Remind yourself what philosophical viewpoint each of the five perspectives represents: Transmission, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing, and Social Reform. Remember, these are Teaching Perspectives; not "styles" or "methods".
2. Examine Your Profile Sheet: The height of each of the five vertical bars on your profile represents how strongly you hold each of the Five Perspectives outlined on the Summary Sheet: Transmission, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing, and Social Reform. Remember that all teachers embody all five views, but in varying degrees. (Note: Depending on the version you're using, the order of the paragraphs may not be quite the same as the bars on your profile sheet. Not to worry!)
3. Note the Height and Range of Your Overall Scores: Scores on the profile sheet can range from a minimum of 9 to a maximum of 45. Do your scores overall generally fall in the 40s? 30s? 20s? Are your overall perspectives strongly held? Moderately held? Weakly held?
4. Check the Differentiation among Your Perspectives: On which perspective is your score the highest? Lowest? Are there marked (step-like) differences among your scores, some high and others low? Or is your profile somewhat 'flat', with less sharp differences between your highs and lows? As you were completing the TPI, did you keep in mind that to agree with some items meant that you must logically disagree with others. You cannot agree with everything. Did you keep a single, specific educational context in mind?
5. Identify Your Dominant, Back-Up, and Recessive Perspectives: Do one or two of your perspective scores fall at or above the upper line labeled 'Dominant'? Which one? Most people have one (and sometimes two) dominant perspectives that represent strongly held views on their roles and functions as educators. Similarly, most people have one or two 'Back-up' perspectives that are also high, but somewhat less than their dominant perspective. Do any of your scores fall at or below the lower line labeled 'Recessive'? Which one? These dominant and recessive thresholds are keyed to your profile individually (+/- 1 SD around the mean of your own five scores). They are not influenced by how other people score on their profiles. For you, which are Dominant? Back-up? Recessive?
6. Check for Internal Consistency: Examine the sub-scores labeled B, I, and A (near the top of each bar). Your score on each of your five perspectives is comprised of three sub-scores: a Belief sub-score, an Intention sub-score, and an Action sub-score. These sub-scores are indicators of how much agreement exists between what you do (Actions), what you want to accomplish (Intentions), and why you feel that is important or justified (Beliefs). High internal consistency (sub-scores within one or two points of each other) means that your Beliefs, Intentions, and Actions all corroborate each other.
7. Examine any Internal Discrepancies: If your B, I, A sub-scores differ by three or more points, inconsistencies may exist that you should consider. Where your sub-scores differ by 3, 4, 5 or more points, look to see where the differences occur. Within which Perspective? Between which sub-scores: Beliefs and Actions? Between Intentions and Actions? Between Actions and Intentions? What might explain these differences? Job constraints? Philosophical inconsistencies? Non-clarity about departmental expectations?
8. Look for Consistency Across Perspectives: Examine the Intentions sub-score for all five perspectives. Does the highest Intention sub-score occur within your dominant perspective? If not, where does it occur and what might that indicate? Similarly, look across your Beliefs sub-scores; in which perspectives are your Beliefs expressed most strongly? Within which perspective do your Actions predominate?
9. Self-Corroboration: Are the scores on your profile sheet consistent with how you see yourself? Do they make overall sense to you? Are there any unexpected insights? Does your profile reflect your personal philosophy? Do your scores help you clarify how you see yourself as a professional educator? Does it help draft a written Philosophy Statement?
10. Peer/Profession Validation: Have you exchanged profile sheets with your peers? Have you shared and discussed your results with each other? Do they see you in the same manner as the profile suggests? Have you compared your profile with norms for other people in your department? In your same professional sector? With others who have a similar educational background?
Reconfirm or Check for Change: Remember, you can always take the TPI a second and a third time!
Following are examples teaching portfolio tables of contents:
- A generic sample
- An annotated sample
- Trever Crowe's contents
- Silke Falkner's contents
- Sharon Tokar's contents
Statement of Teaching Responsibilities
- Courses taught
- Honors theses supervised
- Graduate students supervised
- Academic advising
My Approach to Teaching: Philosophy and Goals
- Accounting Theory
- Introductory Financial Management
Service to Teaching
- Curriculum Committee
- Faculty Development presentations
- Peer consultation
Student & Peer Evaluations of Teaching
1. Teaching Interests
- Topics and courses that I am qualified and interested in teaching
- What I find exciting about my discipline
2. Teaching Philosophy and Goals
- My views on teaching and research
- My objectives as a teacher
- How I motivate students
- Rules that I follow when teaching students
3. Description of Courses Taught
- A list and 1-paragraph description of all courses taught
- Differences in my teaching style and role of students in introductory and advanced courses
4. Preparation of Textbooks and Review Articles
- A list of book chapters and review articles
My goal is to produce books and references written in non-technical terms that are easily understood by a wide range of readers, from naturalists to researchers used as a teaching tool/reference guide for students in colleges and universities.
5. Commitment to Teaching
- How I express my interest in teaching and concern for students
For example, student advising, attending workshops for improving teaching skills
6. Teaching Appraisal and Student Evaluations
- Student evaluations of my teaching for one or two different courses
- Handouts I've developed to help students learn
Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering
University of Saskatchewan (1999)
Table of Contents
|Teaching Philosophy, Practices and Goals||3|
|Students and Courses that I Teach at the University of Saskatchewan|
|AE 313.3 Instrumentation and Microprocessors||3|
|AE 450.3 Agricultural Machinery Design||3|
|AE 495.6 Design Project||4|
|AE 807.3 Advanced Measurements||4|
|Agric 492.3 Term Paper and Technical Writing||4|
|MecAg 14.5 Farm Machinery II||4|
|Commitment to Teaching|
|Electricity, Electronics and Instrumentation in Engineering||5|
|Engineering Curriculum Sub-committee||5|
|Other Teaching Opportunities||7|
|Assessment of Recent Teaching Activities|
|Evidence From Colleagues||9|
German, Department of Languages and Linguistics
University of Saskatchewan (2001)
|II.||Teaching: The Classroom and Beyond||2|
|III.||Promoting Quality Teaching in Myself and Others||2|
|IV.||Teaching Philosophy and Objectives||3|
|A. Content-Based Language Acquisition||3|
|B. What is Intercultural Communicative Language Teaching?||3|
|C. Teaching Materials and Strategies||3|
|D. Attempting Instructional Innovation and Evaluating its Effectiveness||4|
|E. An Opportunity for Adjustment||5|
|F. Assessment of Students||5|
|A. Curriculum Vitae|
|B. Overview of Teaching Responsibilities and Selected Course Materials|
|i. Elementary German|
|ii. German Culture and Thought|
|iii. Intermediate German|
|iv. Advanced German|
|v. Gender and Identity in 20th Century German Literature|
|vi. Journal Writing|
|C. Student-to-Student Advice|
|D. Peer Evaluations|
|E. Student Evaluations and Testimonials|
Former Graduate Student Teacher (Archeology)
|Table of Contents|
|I.||My Teaching Philosophy||2|
|III.||Future Teaching Goals||4|
|1) Curriculum Vitae||5|
|2) Information from Students||9|
|3) Information from Peers||13|
|4) Instructional Development Activities||14|