The Canadian Journal of History publishes articles by scholarly specialists in their fields of research, intended for the specialist historian of any field. Because scholars have bemoaned the "fragmentation" of academic understanding today, the Canadian Journal of History presents new research in a form accessible to all historians, providing a means to keep up with the fast pace of historical research by publishing in every field of history except for the history of Canada itself, which we leave to other specialized journals.
The Canadian Journal of History publishes three issues every year (Spring/Summer, Autumn, and Winter), with each usually containing four articles, plus one to three essay reviews, and about fifty book reviews. It is a bilingual publication which encourages submissions in either English or French.
Authors submitting article manuscripts are to keep in mind the Journal's criteria for publication outlined above. Review essays, except in very rare circumstances, are considered only upon invitation from the Editor. All submissions should be addressed to:
Canadian Journal of History/ Annales canadiennes d'histoire
Department of History
University of Saskatchewan
9 Campus Drive
Canada S7N 5A5
Telephone: 306-966-5794 Fax: 306-966-5799
The Editor welcomes electronic submission in either Word Perfect or Microsoft Word formats. If choosing to submit by mail, the Editor requires three hard copies of the manuscript. Authors should include their full postal address, phone number, and e-mail address upon initial submission. In considering an article for publication, the Journal requires the author's confirmation of the condition that it has not been published nor submitted elsewhere for consideration. Articles and review essays are sent out for anonymous peer review, and the Editor generally includes copies of these reports along with any editorial decision. If an article is accepted, authors will be expected to sign a form assigning copyright to the Canadian Journal of History, although the Journal under most circumstances will waive copyright for authors who, giving appropriate acknowledgement, want to reprint their work in a monograph or essay collection.
Articles should generally not be more than 30-35 pages (12,000-14,000 words) inclusive of notes. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, and have margins of at least four centimetres (an inch and a quarter) all around. The preference is for the use of footnotes, but endnotes are also acceptable. Any tables and figures should be included on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. If an article is accepted, these will be placed in appropriate positions within the piece during the editing process before publication. Authors should obtain permission, and include proper acknowledgement, for any illustrations accompanying their article.
Before publication, the Journal will require a 100-150 word abstract for the article from the author. Abstracts are included in both English and French for every article published. The editorial office will provide the translation.
The Editor expects contributors to prepare their manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines included below, and ensure that the copy submitted is as free from error as possible. Articles which do not closely conform to the Journal's style and format may be returned to authors, delaying the assessment and, possibly, the publication process.
Sections: If an article is subdivided, sections should be numbered and titled, and the start of each should be indicated by a bold, capitalized Roman numeral placed centrally. If sectional divisions are used, each section should be fairly self-contained, of substantial length, and substantive in material.
Indentation: The first lines of paragraphs should have a five space tabulation. Indentation for extracts is a five space tabulation from both the left and right margins, with a further five-space tabulation for the first lines of paragraphs within the extracts. Please note, however, that the first paragraph of the article or of any section should not be indented.
Italics: The main use of italics are for foreign words not yet naturalized, for emphasis, and for certain classes of names and titles. Please note the following distinctions -- in italics: titles of books, pamphlets, plays, operas, long poems, published treatises, printed documents, names of newspapers, periodicals, aircraft types, ships; in Roman type with quotation-marks: chapters or essays in books, unpublished theses and other works, articles in periodicals, short poems and songs, lectures, sermons, mottoes, pictures, sculptures. Books of the Bible need not be italicized -- thus, Genesis 1: 1.
Contributors should refer to the Concise Oxford Dictionary and follow the spelling usage therein. Where variations in spelling exist:
-our: rather than -or, in words like colour, honourable, behaviour (except in some derived forms, such as vigour, vigorous).
-re: rather than -er in words like centre, fibre, manoeuvre, theatre, metre
-ize: in most verbs and words from them, like civilize, civilization, agonize, agonizing, standardize, standardization
-ise: only in certain verbs of different derivation. These include: advertise, compromise, demise, despise, devise, excise, improvise, supervise.
-yse: for analyse, paralyse
To indicate omissions: '39 for 1939 (but the apostrophe is not used with the words "in thirty- nine").
In forming certain plurals: single letters, figures, symbols, initials, and longer abbreviations: 3's, &'s, p's and q's, the three R's, MP's. ICBM's. Note that numerals used to indicate decades require no apostrophe: 1930s, 1770s.
In forming the possessive case: For names as for other nouns add 's to the nominative singular to form the genitive singular, and also to the nominative plural when (as in "men") that plural does not end in s, to form the genitive plural. To the nominative plural ending in s add an apostrophe only: In good King James's golden reign . . .; The administrative continuity of the Charleses' reigns . . . [the latter is obviously awkward and is best avoided by using another construction].
There are no absolute rules for when to write compounds open (no hyphen, a space between the words), hyphenated, or closed (no hyphen, no space). In general, we ask you to avoid hyphens where possible, and to observe the following general rules: When the elements of a compound are so fused in meaning that they convey together a meaning other than that which would be conveyed by their juxtaposition, they should be written as one word, as in chairman, commonwealth, freeman, grandmother, troubleshooter. Also, when a prefix (pre-, over-, inter-, re-, un-, etc.) is attached to a noun, the resulting word should usually be written as a single, solid form (no hyphen), as in interrelated, overreach. (There is an exception when the second element is capitalized, a figure, or an open phrase, such as un-American, pre- 1914, pre-Civil War. Additionally, we prefer to hyphenate certain forms to avoid doubling vowels: co-operate, co-ordinate, re-evaluate).
Always use hyphens in the following instances:
(1) in noun forms: for some titles (vice-president, president-elect); for some relatives (brother-in- law, great-grandmother); for co-functions (scholar-poet); and for fractions (one-half).
(2) in adjective forms:
(a) where an object is combined with a present participle (interest-bearing notes, decision- making power, thought-provoking subjects).
(b) where an adjective is combined with a past participle (able-bodied, pink-faced).
(c) for constructions with numbers (a ten-foot pole, a first-place finish).
(d) for constructions with well-, ill-, better-, best-, little-, lesser- (well-known, well- intentioned); with half-, quasi-, cross-, or all- (all-powerful); or with self- (self- interested).
(e) where necessary to show which in a series of words modifies which (a fast-sailing ship, a free-form sculpture).
Please note the distinction above between noun and adjective forms. Thus: her decision making was sound, but her decision-making authority was limited; the seventeenth century saw the continuation of sixteenth-century practices.
The Journal uses terminal commas in lists (x, y, and z). Otherwise we recommend that commas be restricted to cases where they are necessary for the meaning of the sentence or for good grammar. In the latter connection please note that a single comma should not divide a subject from its verb. A parenthetical phrase inserted in a sentence, if set off by a comma at one end, must also be set off by a comma at the other.
Frequent use of capital letters is unnecessary and anachronistic. This is particularly true where capitals are used only to add emphasis or mystique to otherwise perfectly adequate and ordinary words. Capitalization is to be avoided wherever possible except at the start of sentences and in the following instances:
(1) use capitals for proper names of individuals, countries, peoples, cities, and recognized historical regions: the Holy Roman Empire; the Soviet Union; Zulus; the Plains Cree; the Middle East; the Great Plains; the South [US]; the Mid West -- but southern Zimbabwe; the north German plain; the western Mediterranean; and similarly for other descriptive constructions.
(2) use capitals for words derived from proper names, especially adjectives indicating nationality, culture, language, or statehood: English customs; the French language; Soviet citizens; a Southern accent; East African socialism; Benedictine monks; Lutheranism; Marxism; anti- Semitism.
(3) use capitals for the formal names of institutions, but use lower case where the name is shortened: the Government of Canada, the Ministry of Defence, the University of Oxford, the Society of Jesus, the Hudson's Bay Company, the Diet of the Germanic Confederation, the Church of England. Note, however: the government; the British government; the cabinet; the defence ministry or the ministry; the university; the chancellor of the university; the Jesuit order or the society; the company; the diet; the lay leaders of the church.
(4) use capitals for formal titles, only when given in full or when attached to a person's name: the President of the United States; President Roosevelt; the Duke of Normandy; Duke William; Pope Innocent. But note: the British prime minister; the prime minister said; the president was consulted; they addressed the duke; they told the king; the pope decreed; the kaiser; the tsar; the bishop.
(5) use capitals for political parties and religions: the Conservative government; the Liberal opposition; the Socialist party; National Socialism; Fascist ideas; Whigs; Tories; Catholics; Pietists. Note: use "the Left" and "the Right" to avoid ambiguity, but "left-wing" or "right-wing", "leftist" or "rightist", as adjectives.
(6) use capitals for historical systems, periods, events, and movements, only if needed to distinguish the name from common usage or if convention insists. Note that religious movements do not, then, usually take capitals; but Lutheranism and Calvinism do (see #2 above), as does Catholicism (see #7 below): the French Revolution [of 1789], the Enlightenment, the Renaissance, the Civil War, the First World War, the Seven Years' War, the Warsaw Pact countries, the Third Republic. But use: the 1848 revolution, the war, the battle of Waterloo, the British empire, home rule, the middle ages, the dark ages, expressionism, communism [if not a specific political party], the temperance movement, populism [if not the US Populist party].
(7) Use capitals where ambiguities may arise: the Church, the King's Bench, the Prussian Diet, the Speaker, the British Resident, Catholic beliefs as opposed to catholic ones, the Foreign Office.
Double quotation-marks are used for all quotations from other authors (except quotations to be set as extracts) and also for dialogue, for the titles of articles, essays, unpublished theses, and songs, as well as for words about which a special comment is being made or implied by the author.
Single quotation marks are only for quotations etc. within matter that is enclosed in double quotation-marks.
Punctuation with quotation-marks is as follows. Commas and periods (full stops) go inside the closing quotation-marks. Semi-colons and colons go outside. Question-marks and exclamation- marks go inside if they belong exclusively to the quoted matter, and outside if they are the author's marks.
For whole sentences or paragraphs within quotation-marks, the original punctuation should be reproduced, save that any double quotation-marks in it should be replaced with single quotation- marks. If the quotation includes more than one paragraph (as in a short dialogue), opening double quotation-marks are placed at the beginning of each paragraph and at the end of the last one. Such quotations, though, are probably better set as extracts (see below).
There is one exception to the rule that commas go inside closing quotation-marks. If there is a string of separately-quoted words or phrases, the commas go outside. Thus: "peaceful co- existence", "flexible containment", and "self-determination."
Prose quotations of more than six lines, or of more than one paragraph, are usually indented with a five space tabulation at the left and right margins. Quotations from poems, plays and letters should also be treated this way. The first words of paragraphs should indented a further five spaces. Opening and closing quotation marks should not be used.
Such extracts must reproduce the original exactly, unless the author explicitly assumes responsibility for modernizing the spelling or making some similar change. Omission of any part of the original, except at the beginning and end of the extract, must be shown by three points of ellipsis (dots). If the omission comes at the end of a sentence, the three points follow the full stop.
Unless the extract begins part-way through a sentence, points of ellipsis should not be used before the first word of the extract. Any words the original placed in parentheses (round brackets) must be kept that way. Any comments by the author of the article must be put within square brackets; any words of the article put into italics which were not so set in the original must be noted, preferably with [my italics] immediately after the alteration.
The full expression of a word or phrase is usually preferable unless the short form is the only one in general use. Shortened form may be used more freely in the notes, if there is no question about clarity.
In the text, please use the following contractions and abbreviations: Mr.; Messrs.; Mrs.; Ms.; Dr. (and in French: M.; MM.; MMe Mlle).
Other titles are usually written in full when they occur with surnames only, but when first names or initials are included the following forms may be used: Col.; Lt.; Lt.-Col.; Lt.-Gov.; Hon.; Rev.; Prof.
Abbreviations such as MP, JP, MA, FRSC use no periods or spaces between letters, and are placed after names, but when such designations stand alone they are usually written out: John Pym, MP; a member of parliament; a justice of the peace.
In geographical names, the short form of "Saint" is used, as in: St. Albans; St. Omer; Ste-Anne-de-Beaupré. On the other hand, Fort, Mount, Point, Port, and Island are spelled out.
Abbreviations of Latin words and phrases (e.g., i.e., etc., et al.) should be avoided in the text; there is usually a simple English alternative. "Chapter"; "page"; "figure"; and "manuscript" are usually to be written in full and in lower case when used in the text.
When long names are abbreviated to capital letters, these should be given with no periods. Thus: ICBM; RAF; USSR; NATO; NORAD.
In an ordinary prose passage, words are to be preferred to figures. In certain paragraphs, especially where statistical evidence is discussed, there may be so many numbers that it would be better to set them all with figures. Please be guided by the following principles:
Numbers under 100 are usually expressed in words unless they are rather complicated or cumbersome: ninety-one years old; a 91-year old man.
Large numbers should be expressed in figures, except for round numbers that can easily be spelled out: 9,970 spectators (or votes); ten thousand spectators (or votes).
Percentages should be expressed with numerals plus the word "per cent." The symbol for "per cent" (%) is not normally used in the text: 1 per cent; 1.1 per cent; 40 per cent; 273 per cent.
An isolated sum of money that can be expressed in one or two words should be spelled out, otherwise it is given in figures: eighty-five cents; $2.85; two hundred dollars; $250. If several sums of money (or quantities such as bushels and acres, or any other quantities all with comparable measurements) are mentioned in a short space, all should be in figures. If any of these sums includes cents (or equivalent), ciphers should be added to the others: 220,250, and 450; $25.75, $35.00, and $50.00.
Degrees of temperature and of latitude and longitude are usually set in figures with the word "degrees." The symbol for "degrees" is not usually used. Please make clear which scale is used.
Elision of numbers (as in page references) should be as follows: 2-7; 101-3; 1,001-8; 11-19; 111- 13; 1,123-99; 20-22; 120-42; 1,476-1,543; 100-102; 195-203. Note: there should be two digits given on the right-hand side of the hyphen unless more are needed (in which case, provide the second number in full) or unless the first digit would be a cipher (in which case, drop the zero).
In connecting two year-numbers, the hundreds should be omitted from the second number unless the first ends in two ciphers; in that case the hundreds are repeated. If the third digit in both years is a cipher the cipher is not repeated. In all other cases, two digits are needed after the dash: 1610-11; 1600-1601; 1621-22; 1600-1621; 1641-60; 1601-2.
The following forms of expression are recommended for dates and times; where alternatives exist, authors are asked to keep the same form throughout:
- The seventeenth century; a seventeenth-century statesman; the 1660s; the sixties.
- 30 January 1649; or January 30, 1649; or the thirtieth of January. Where many dates are cited in the text, and always in the notes, the first of these forms should be used. In addition, in the notes the longer names of months should be abbreviated, thus: 30 Jan. 1649.
Where the time is approximate, it should be given in words; where it is exact and of significance, figures are more appropriate: around two o'clock; at 2 p.m.; at half past two; at 2:30 p.m.
The Journal uses footnotes in publication and prefers that authors do the same in manuscripts. When the name of the author and title of the book or essay have been given in full in the first reference, the author's surname, and an abridged title will usually suffice thereafter. Where there is no risk of confusion, you may use ibid., op. cit. or loco cit. if they save space. If a work has more than three authors or editors, it is acceptable to use "et al" to truncate that list of names.
Titles of works should have the first word and all other words, except articles, conjunctions and prepositions, capitalized.
When using an acronym or abbreviation for an oft-cited source, the abbreviation should be explained parenthetically in the first full reference. For example: Public Record Office, Kew (hereafter cited as PRO).
Of course there is not space to cover all of the varied citation possibilities. Where variations or alternative forms occur, authors should use their best judgement while maintaining the basic footnoting format suggested in the examples below.
The first reference to a book should begin with the name of the author -- first name where known, or initial, followed by surname (or names of the authors, linked by "and") -- followed in parentheses by the names of editors or translators where applicable. After a comma, there follows the full title of the book in italics, followed immediately in parentheses by the place of publication, a comma, the year of publication, a comma outside the closing parenthesis, and then the page reference. The page reference should start with p. or pp. (with a single space after the period).
If the work is part of a multi-volume collection, give the volume number in Roman or Arabic numerals, without "Vol.", and follow it with a comma and the page number. If the book is a modern reprint, or an edition other than the first, give the information immediately before the place and date.
Reports of parliamentary debates are treated as periodicals, and are discussed in the next section, as are other government publications.
1. Richard Abels, Alfred the Great: War, Kingship and Culture in Anglo-Saxon England (London, 1998), p. 7. Subsequent reference: Abels, Alfred the Great, p. 21.
2. H.H. Lamb, Climate: Present, Past and Future (London, 1977), II, p. 97. Subsequent reference: Lamb, Climate, II, p. 98.
3. Edmund Spenser (ed. W.L. Renwick), A View of the Present State of Ireland (Oxford, 1970), pp. 4-5. Subsequent reference: Spenser, View of the Present State, p. 8.
4. Benjamin Furly to Locke, 9/19 August 1693, in E.S. de Beer (ed.), The Correspondence of John Locke (Oxford, 1967-89), IV, pp. 704-705. Subsequent reference: Furly to Locke, 9/19 August 1693, Correspondence of John Locke, IV, p. 705.
5. Phillippe Ariès (trans. Helen Weaver), The Hour of Our Death (New York, 1981), p. 75. Subsequent reference: Ariès, Hour of our Death, p.98.
6. Christopher Hill, Antichrist in Seventeenth-Century England (Revised edn., London, 1990), p. 89. Subsequent reference: Hill, Antichrist, p. 97.
7.Jonathan Rose, "The History of Books: Revised and Enlarged," in Haydn T. Mason (ed.), The Darnton Debate: Books and Revolution in the Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 1998), pp. 98-99. Subsequent reference: Rose, "History of Books," p. 101
8. Klaus-Michael Mallman and Gerhard Paul, "Omniscient, Omnipotent, Omnipresent? Gestapo, Society and Resistance," in D. Crew (ed.), Nazism and German Society 1933-1945 (London, 1994), pp. 168-71. Subsequent reference: Mallman and Paul, "Omniscient, Omnipotent, Omnipresent?", p. 170.
9. W.H. Sewell, "Le citoyen/la citoyenne: Activity, Passivity, and the Revolutionary Concept of Citizenship," in C. Lucas (ed.), The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, volume 2: The Political Culture of the French Revolution (New York, 1987), p. 108. Subsequent reference: Sewell, "Le citoyen/la citoyenne," p. 109.
The titles of reference or other works which are frequently cited can be abbreviated so long as the abbreviated form is noted in the initial citation.
10. Richard Greaves and Robert Zaller (eds.), Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century [hereafter cited as BDBR] (Brighton, 1982), I, pp. 103-4. Subsequent reference: BDBR, II, p. 209.
11. Calendar of State Papers, Domestic [hereafter cited as CSPD] 1663-1664, p. 596 Subsequent reference: CSPD 1667-1668, p. 14.
The general rules of first and subsequent citations listed above should again be adhered to, accounting for the following specific details. Titles of articles should be enclosed in double quotation marks. The title of the periodical or newspaper should be in italics. The volume number, set in Roman or in Arabic numbers according to the form used by the periodical cited, should come after the title. When a periodical has been published in several series, the number of the series (after the first) should be cited before the volume number. The year of publication, in parentheses, should follow the volume number, and is followed then by a comma and the page number.
12. Mark Liddle, "State, Masculinities and Law: Some Comments on Gender and English State- Formation," British Journal of Criminology, 36 (1996), p. 362. Subsequent reference: Liddle, "State, Masculinities and Law," p. 363. 13. T. Cogswell, "A Low Road to Extinction? Supply and the Redress of Grievances in the Parliaments of the 1620s," Historical Journal, XXXIII (1990), pp. 283-303. Subsequent reference: Cogswell, "Low Road to Extinction?", p. 300.
14. Anthony Fletcher, "Men's Dilemma: the Future of Patriarchy in England 1560-1660," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, IV (1994), pp. 61-81. Subsequent reference: Fletcher, "Men's Dilemma," p. 70.
15. Times (London), 19 May 1946, p. 4.
16. New York Times, 1 January 1948, Sec. 2, p. E4.
17. Hansard, 23 May 1980, cots. 945-51
18. Hansard (Lords), 23 July 1980, cols 420-23.
19. Canadian Commons Debates, 11 June 1976, pp.14419-22.
20. Canadian Senate Debates, 30 October 1979, p. 203
21. Congressional Records, 7 February 1973, p. 3831
22. US Congress, Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, 79th Cong., 1st and 2nd sess. (Washington, DC, 1946), I, p. 25.
While the Journal's editors have some chance of noticing and correcting other errors in the typescripts submitted, they have none at all of amending a careless manuscript reference, and therefore respectfully urge contributors to take the utmost care to be accurate and complete. It is essential that the reference to a document be exactly as it is catalogued in the repository, following in all details the style used for upper and lower case letters, Arabic or Roman numbers, large or small Roman numbers, and Roman or italic type, and in the punctuation between the elements in the reference number.
Moreover, it seems desirable to state the location of the document's repository, since many archives have holdings in widely separated locations.
The order in the first reference to a document should be first the full name of the repository and its location, then the general class title, the specific number, the title or the date, as appropriate. Subsequent references to documents in the same repository should use a much-abbreviated name without the city, in a simple form with the abbreviation explained parenthetically in the first full reference as explained previously. Reference to other documents under the same general title may abbreviate it provided that the abbreviation is explained to prevent the possibility of confusion. In separating the particular elements of each source, commas are usually adequate.
23. Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa [hereafter cited as PAC], Macdonald papers, Letter Books (Cartier), Cartier to Macdonald, 16 Oct. 1868. Subsequent reference: PAC , Bulger papers, 2, Hackett to Provencher, 30 Aug. 1822.
24. Public Record Office, Kew [hereafter cited as PRO], W 01/65, pp. 397-98, Simcoe to Dundas, 16 Nov. 1796. Subsequent reference: PRO, W 01/65, p. 398.
25. East Sussex Record Office, Lewes [hereafter cited as ESRO], Gage MSS 44/10. Subsequent reference: ESRO, Gage MSS 44/10
26. Hertfordshire Record Office, Hertford [hereafter cited as HRO], D/ELw M148. Subsequent reference: HRO, D/ELw M148
27. Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Victoria [hereafter cited as PABC], McBride papers, Mann to McBride, 18 Sept. 1914. Subsequent reference: PABC, McBride papers, McBride to Mann, 29 Oct. 1909.
A reference to an unpublished dissertation or thesis should start with the name of the writer, as described above, followed by a comma, and then the title of the thesis in double quotation-marks (not in italics). Then there should follow immediately in parentheses the type of degree followed by thesis or the abbreviation "diss.," the name of the university -- and also, if there is any uncertainty, that of the location of the deposited thesis -- as well as the date of completion. Page references should then follow in the usual manner.
28. Katherine Stern Brennan, "Culture and Dependencies: The Society of the Men of Letters of Caen from 1652-1705" (PhD diss. Johns Hopkins University, 1981), p. 48. Subsequent reference: Stern Brennan, "Culture and Dependencies," p. 5.
29. Daniel Stolzenberg, "The Sympathetic Cure of Wounds: A Study of Magic, Nature, and Experience in Seventeenth-Century Science" (MA thesis, Indiana University, 1998), pp. 8-9. Subsequent reference: Stolzenberg, "Sympathetic Cure of Wounds," pp. 11-12.
In general, review essays should follow the stylistic rules for articles indicated below. Note, however, that review essays do not require an abstract. Review essays should use footnotes where appropriate. In addition, review essays should include a list of books under review in the essay after the title and before the main text of the essay.
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