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Aboriginal Health &
Cultural Diversity Glossary

H – Definitions

harm reduction:
“Canadian definition based on Australian definition, harm reduction refers to measures aimed at reducing the harm associated with drug use without necessarily requiring a reduction in consumption” (Wodak, 1994, Australia; cited in Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, 1995).

harm reduction:
“A set of strategies that encourage substance users and service providers to reduce the harm done by licit and illicit drug use. In supporting substance users in gaining access to the tools to improve their health and lifestyles, we recognize their competency to protect and help themselves, their loved ones and their communitiesm” (Harm Reduction Coalition, 1994).

harm reduction model:
"prevention model adopted in Canada in the late 1980-1990's for addiction prevention and intervention" (Kent-Wilkinson, 1996).

harm reduction model:
“The harm reduction model, as applied to substance use issues, is a more recent elaboration of these general public health model principles that have been prompted, in part, by the AIDS epidemic among injection drug users in several countries. Several key concepts relevant to policy development have emerged as these approaches have been extended to other forms of individual and social harm related to drug use” (Erickson, 1992).

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harvesting rights:
“In the U.S., Treaty rights in Michigan, Wisconsin and Washington were held by the courts to entitle the Indian tribes to one-half of the fishery in those states, commercial and non-commercial. In the exercise of their "domestic dependent sovereignty", the tribes there either exercise these rights or rent them out to non-Indians. They regulate their part of the fisheries with their own enforcement authorities and tribal courts. In Canada, First Nations are not considered in law to have the same kind of tribal sovereignty and their rights are not given such broad scope” (Henderson, 2001).

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healer:
“One that heals or attempts to heal, especially a faith healer” (Dictionary.com online, 2003).

healer:
Before the arrival and contact of European settlers the health care of the Aboriginal people was entrusted to the healer of the band. “The healer is one who held the keys to the natural and supernatural worlds and who interpreted signs, diagnosed disease, and provided medicines from grassland, parkland, and woodland pharmacopoeia" (Lux, 2001, p. 18).

healer:
“Restorer to health, to make someone well, curer” (Thesaurus, 2003)

healer:
“Three types of healers are suggested to exist: herbalists, 'medicine men', and shamans. The differences between the healers is thought to be dependent on the degree to which spiritual assistance is required in the healing" (Waldrum, Herring & Young, 1995, p. 103).

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healing:
“True healing occurs when an individual is in harmony with his or her environment. Healing must occur on a physical, mental, emotional and spiritual level. Problems must be understood within the context of community setting, personal experience, culture and the social institutions that have been influential on the individual” (Nechi Training, Research & Health Promotion, 2002).

healing:
“Aboriginal peoples see healing as a necessary first step to their personal empowerment. They speak about healing the spirit, the mind, the emotions and the body” (Voices of Women, Indian and Northern Affairs, 2003).

healing circles:
“Throughout Canada, and especially in the west, ‘healing circles are becoming common. These are therapeutic sessions organized by Aboriginal peoples to deal with such problems as the effects of residential schools, sexual abuse and alcoholism” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 207).

healing lodge:
"Healing lodges" offer services and programs that reflect Aboriginal culture in a space that incorporates Aboriginal peoples' tradition and beliefs. In the healing lodge, the needs of Aboriginal offenders serving federal sentences are addressed through Aboriginal teachings and ceremonies, contact with Elders and children, and interaction with nature. A holistic philosophy governs the approach, whereby individualized programming is delivered within a context of community interaction, with a focus on preparing for release. In the healing lodges, an emphasis is placed on spiritual leadership and on the value of the life experience of staff members, who act as role models” (CSC, 2002b).

healing lodge:
“Aboriginal healing lodges (special institutions for lower-security Aboriginal offenders), based in Aboriginal values and principles have already been built and conversions of existing federal institution are underway under Sections 81 and 84 of the Corrections and Conditional Release Act” (Issues & Challenges Facing CSC, Correctional Service Canada, 2003d).

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health:
“The health of any human population, is the product of a complex web of physiological, psychological, spiritual, historical, sociological, cultural, economic, and environment factors” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995).

health:
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1948). The following statement was added in 1986 by WHO, at the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion: “Health is not possible without peace, shelter, education, food, income and a healthy and sustainable physical environment, social justice and equity ….A medical health care system alone cannot maintain health” (World Health Organization, 1986).

health:
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1948). This definition has not been amended since 1948” (World Health Organization, 2003).

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health “Aboriginal”:
“Aboriginal health is the rich diversity of social, economical and political circumstances that give rise to a variation of health problems and healing strategies in Aboriginal communities” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 258-259).

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Health Belief Model (HBM):
“The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been used to explain change and maintenance of health – related behaviors, and as a framework for health behavior interventions (Moscato & Smith, 2003).

Health Belief Model (HBM):
“The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the most widely used conceptual frameworks for understanding health behavior. The HBM was first developed in the 1950s by social psychologists Godfrey Hochbaum, Irwin Rosenstock, and Stephen Kegels working in the U.S. Public Health Services. The model was developed in response to the failure of a free tuberculosis (TB) health screening program” (Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, 2002).

Health Belief Model (HBM):
“The Health Belief Model was first presented with only four key concepts: Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits, and Perceived Barriers. The concept of Cues for Action was added later to "stimulate behavior." Finally, in 1988, the concept of self-efficacy was added to address the challenges of habitual unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and overeating” (Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, 2002).

Health Belief Model (HBM):
“The model was introduced in the 1950s by psychologists working in the U.S. Public Health Service (Hochbaum, Rosenstock, Leventhal, and Kegeles). Their focus was on increasing the use of preventive services such as screening and immunizations. They assumed that people feared diseases, and that health actions were motivated in relation to the degree of fear (perceived threat) and expected fear-reduction potential of actions, as long as that potential outweighed practical and psychological obstacles to taking action (net benefits)” (Rutter, 2003).

Health Belief Model (HBM):
“Originally, the health belief model was developed to help explain related behaviours; it can also work as a useful framework for designing change strategies. The most promising application of the health belief model is for helping to develop messages that are likely to persuade individuals to make healthy decisions” (Rutter, 2003).

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Health beliefs:
“The beliefs thought to regulate health behavior include those regarding the perceived threat of the illness, the perceived susceptibility of the person to the disease and the perceived benefits of performing the behavior. It is not the actual threat of, susceptibility to, or severity of the disease or its outcomes that guide behavior, but one’s perception of the threat and possible outcomes of the disease”

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Health Canada:
“Health Canada's role (1996) is to foster good health by promoting health and protecting Canadians from harmful products, practices and disease. A number of services and programs are focused to decrease health status disparities between Aboriginal people and other Canadians” (Health Canada, 2003).

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health culture:
“Within every society and culture, a health culture exists and is used to define the phenomena associated with health, wellness, illness and death. Members of different cultures draw upon their own particular health world view in situation of health and illness (Reynolds Turton, 1997, as cited in Lowe & Struthers, 2001, p. 279).

health culture:
“Health culture is defined as "all of the phenomena associated with the
maintenance of well-being and problems of sickness with which people cope in traditional ways within their own social networks and institutional structures. Every culture has within it a health culture. Health culture is portrayed as functioning as "an integral and essential part of the cultural tradition of an ethnic group” (Weidman, 1982, p. 208; as cited in Reynolds Turton, 1997, p. 29).

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health determinants:
“All the elements that identifies or determines the nature of health or that fixes or conditions the health outcome” (Merriam Webster Dictionary, 2003).

health determinants:
“Health determinants are those basic factors that shape or determine the health of individual or communities. The determinants of health identify areas where action could improve health. The principle determinants of health are: income and social status; social support networks, education; employment and working conditions; physical environment; biology and genetic endowment; personal health practices and coping skills; health child development; and health services” (Woods, 2003).

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health “good”:
“Good health is a balance of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual elements. All four interact for a strong healthy person. If we neglect one, we get out of balance and our health suffers in all areas. Good health is achieved when we live in a balanced relationship with the earth and the natural world. Everything we need is provided by our common mother, earth; whole foods, pure water and air, medicines, and the laws and teachings which show how to use things wisely. Combined with an active lifestyle, a positive attitude, and peaceful and harmonious relations with people and the spiritual world, good health will be ours” (Malloch, 1989, as cited as Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada and Planned Parenthood Federation of Canada, 2002).

health “good”:
“Health Canada's role (1996) is to foster good health by promoting health and protecting Canadians from harmful products, practices and disease. A number of services and programs are focused to decrease health status disparities between Aboriginal people and other Canadians” (Health Canada, 2003).

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health model “Frameworking: The matrix”
“The traditional beliefs about health and healing, spirituality and healing, family and the environment, are embodied in the health model called Frameworking: The matrix. Frameworking has been identified by David McTimoney (Health Canada, Mental Health, 2003), as a spiritual model of recovery for Aboriginals consistent with Aboriginal values, principles and traditions. Frameworking provides a method of evaluating appropriateness of living by arranging thoughts, feelings and behavior together. This model was initially developed for victims and survivors of Aboriginal family violence but its basic underpinnings could apply to any healing required of an individual or community. This framework takes the four concepts of individual Aboriginal health: physical, mental, social and spiritual and places it alongside the aspects of home, work, and community; then evaluates the lot in terms of thinking, feeling and behaving” (Health Canada, Mental Health, 2003).
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health “Ojibwe”:
“The Ojibwe consider health a gift of the manito (spirits, mysteries, or "other-than-human-persons"). Health is dependent entirely on one's relation to the supernatural (Vecsey, 1983; Hultkrantz, 1989; as cited in Reynolds Turton, 1997).
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health promotion:
“The WHO (1986) definition of health promotion shifted its emphasis from solely individual responsibility, to control over determinants of health. This emphasis on determinants speaks to “real control” and refers to “the extent to which individuals are able to make things happen the way they want” (Green, 1991, p. 1, as cited in Dickson, 1995, p. 644).

health promotion:
“The Ottawa Charter defined health promotion as ‘the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health” (World Health Organization, 2003).

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health status:
“Health status refers to the "state of health an individual, group, or population, measured against an accepted standard" (Health Canada, 2003, May).

health status indicators:
“A population health approach recognizes that any analysis of the health of the population must extend beyond an assessment of traditional health status indicators like death, disease and disability. A population health approach establishes indicators related to mental and social well-being, quality of life, life satisfaction, income, employment and working conditions, education and other factors known to influence health” (Health Canada, 2002).

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Health Transfer Policy, 1986:
“In 1986 the federal government introduced the Health Transfer Policy. This federal approach to Aboriginal self-determination, was to allow Indian bands to gain control over their health. The policy has met with both praise and criticism. The steps involved proved to be complicated and frustrating for some bands, giving only administrative control for federally funded programs, and not the control for the program planning, implementation and evaluation. It can be argued that this policy reinforces the medical model of health and does not factor in program enrichment, which would enable communities to meet changing needs. Thus the government continues to maintain power over Aboriginal peoples. Critics contend the Transfer Policy is another way for the federal government to off-load programs and reduce Indian health spending” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 237-239).
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health-world view:
“A health-world view is a cognitive orientation or overall way a culture looks at health and well-being, illness, and aspects of death. It is conceptualized as a subset of beliefs, images, assumptions, and ways of knowing of the broader cultural world view. Thus, drawing from the literature describing the world view, the health-world view is a set of logicostructurally integrated shared assumptions, presuppositions, images (Boulding, 1972; Kearney, 1984) concepts, premises, and schemata or theories [Werner, 1994] that are assumed true and have neither been questioned, reasoned, nor necessarily proved, and that permeate every aspect of life (Crow, 1993, p. 199). This culturally influenced view is widely shared among members of a cultural group and plays an enormous role in their understanding of that world and their behavior in it" (Quinn, 1987, p. 4, as cited in Reynolds Turton, 1997).

health-world view:
“The health-world view is a culturally influenced network of mostly tacit ideas, theories, and images about the nature of reality related to health matters” (Reynolds Turton, 1997).

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hepatitis:
“Hepatitis is an inflammation of liver cells resulting in necrosis and bile stasis. The five causes are five distinct viruses: hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus (not seen in Canada). The five types of hepatitis are similar in clinical presentation and therefore cannot be readily distinguished by clinical features. Serologic testing is needed for accurate diagnosis. The severity of symptoms depends on the infective agent, and many of those infected are asymptomatic” (Health Canada, 2003).
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hepatitis C:
"Hepatitis C (formally known as non-A, non-B hepatitis) is a liver disease caused by a recently identified foodborne virus. Hepatitis C is an incurable illness, which can lead to full blown hepatitis C disease, cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Symptoms which include chronic fatique, can take up to 30 years to develop" (Kent-Wilkinson, 2003).
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herbalists:
“The Herbalists employ various botanical substances, often in combination with which they treat a wide variety of disorders, including dressing wounds. Their knowledge is gained largely through experience and traditions handed down to them by older herbalists” (Hultkrantz, 1992:17-18, as cited in Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 103).
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historical theories:
“Historical theories of Aboriginal substance abuse claim Indigenous groups were not socially prepared for the potency of alcohol, without codes or patterns of moderate consumption and use was modeled primarily upon the aberrant, uncontrolled consumption of early frontiersmen” (Scott, 1994).
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HIV (human immunodeficiency virus):
“HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is any group of retroviruses and, especially HIV +1, that infect and destroy helper T-cells of the immune system causing the marked reduction in their numbers that is diagnostic of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)" (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1996, cited in Kent-Wilkinson, 2003).
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holism:
“The dimension of holism includes the components of balance, culture, and relationships. Silence, male, female, noncompartmentalization, flowing with harmony, and pursuing peace are components of the characteristic of balance” (Lowe & Struthers, 2001, p. 281).
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holistic health model:
“Within a holistic health framework each individual is considered unique. The philosophy of holistic health care asserts that health and illness must be considered within the context of the individuals life situation. People, including their states of health and illness, do not exist in isolation. They function within many settings, such as familial, occupational, communal, social and cultural. The values beliefs, and behaviors that develop from these settings influence health and illness. When health care professionals are willing to view health and illness within the context of the individual’s life, they are better able to understand that person’s experience. Holistic health philosophy includes a primary focus on health promotion, or health as a positive process, rather than limiting itself to the elimination of illness” (Landrum, 1988).
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homicide:
"The general term applied to all situations in which one person causes the death of another. Justifiable or accidental homicide is not a crime. Culpable homicide is a crime. It can be either first or second degree murder, or manslaughter. First degree murder includes all planned and deliberate murders, as well as the murder of a police officer, prison employee, or any other person authorized to work in a prison while on duty. Murders that are committed while someone is attempting to commit certain other offences are also classified as first-degree murder. Second degree murder is any murder that is not first degree murder" (Correctional Service Canada, 1993, as cited in Kent-Wilkinson, 2003).

homicide:
"Homicide is a violent and preventable death, no matter the issue(s) surrounding the cause of death" (Gyulay, 1989, p. 119, cited in Kent-Wilkinson, 2003).

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host:
“a susceptible individual, family, community or a segment of the population. It answers the question “who?" (Harkness, 1995). The client system affected by the particular condition under investigation” (Clark, 1996, p. 109).
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Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC), 1670:
“In 1670, the 'Company of Adventurers Trading into Hudson Bay,' or 'Hudson's Bay Company' (HBC), was formed. Under a charter granted to the company by King Charles II of England, the HBC was granted a monopoly to trade in all the territory drained by the rivers” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 13, 56).
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human science perspective:
“Human science perspective that emphasizes "whole beings, a gestalt of mind, body, and spirit" (Lindsey & Hartrick, 1996, p. 108, as cited in Reynolds Turton, 1997).
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For the full references of works cited above, please see the Glossary References page >>

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