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Aboriginal Health &
Cultural Diversity Glossary

P– Definitions

participation:
“Participation is the cornerstone of primary health care, health promotion and participatory action research (PAR). The premise is that community members must be active participants in the processes that are intended to improve their lives” (Bopp, 1994). “This includes initiatives that aimed at the individual, and the setting upon which their health and well-being depend” (Dickson, 1995, p. 645).

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participatory action research (PAR):
“Participatory action research (PAR) is evolving as a new paradigm approach to research. Its earlier development paved the way for Primary Health Care by giving renewed importance to the principles of community participation and control, equity, intersectoral collaboration, and use of indigenous knowledge. Explicitly PAR challenges power inequities, which result in gaps and social and health status. PAR creates opportunities for oppressed people t critically analyze their own reality” (Dickson, 1995, p. 640).

participatory action research (PAR):
“Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that blends scientific inquiry with education and political action. It aims to democratize knowledge and power through the research process (Hall, 1981). It aims also to reorient participants’ perceptions of issues in ways that influence their attitudes and behaviors (Brown & Tandon, 1978, cited in Lather, 1986). These aims parallel two foci in health promotion - setting and person. It is the continuous interaction between them that is central to effecting changes to promote health. Described another way, PAR is the inquiry component of community development, when those involved decide that research is to be a part their collective initiative” (Dickson, 1995, p. 640).

participatory action research (PAR):
“Key concepts associated with both health promotion and participatory action research (PAR) are: control, powerlessness and participation” (Dickson, 1995, p. 644).

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pay equity (PE):
“Pay Equity (PE) refers to the concept of equal pay for work of equal value, that is where jobs are similar in terms of such criteria as skill, effort, working conditions, and responsibility, the job should be similar” (University of Saskatchewan, Faculty Association, 2003).
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peace pipes:
“Peace pipes were used in Indian councils and for other special occasions. Native American tradition held that smoking a peace pipe was a sign that the smoker gave his pledge of honor. All attending smoked...to think with a clear head...before any important business was discussed” (Native American Art, History & Culture Tour, 1998).

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peer institutions (to University of Saskatchewan)
“Peer institutions: University of British Columbia, University of Northern British Columbia, University of Manitoba, University of Northern Arizona, University of Regina, University of Alberta, University of Waikato, New Zealand, and Lakehead University. These institutions are identified through research as they each focused on a unique aspect of the Aboriginal student experience.” (University of Saskatchewan, 2003).

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Penner Committee: See Special Committee of Indian Self Governance >>
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peoples: see Aboriginal >>
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philosophy:
“Philosophy is an active partner of science, both are necessary and contribute to the quality of life. Science and technology provide necessary problem-solving tools. Philosophy guides people in their use of these tools. Science analyzes the process and examines the facts, whereas philosophy seeks the meaning and the values of the process and attempts to interpret the facts. Science reduces the whole into parts, while philosophy reconstructs the parts in new and more meaningful ways” (Landrum, 1988).
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phthisis: See tuberculosis >>
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pipe carrier:
“A true pipe carrier can only receive a pipe from a medicine man or an elder. It is passed on from medicine man or elder to another medicine man/elder after they have passed on. The spirits will guide the medicine man or elder on who is to receive a pipe. The medicine man or elder will receive the name of who is to carry the pipe through a vision quest or other spiritual journey. The pipe carries the requests of the medicine man on the smoke to the creator and it is a powerful way to communicate to the creator and the spirit guides” (personal communication, D.C /Molnar, May, 2003 ).
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pipe ceremony (peace):
“To smoke from the same pipe in token of amity or preparatory to making a treaty of peace, a custom of the American Indians” (Dictionary.com, 2003).
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pleurisy:
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pneumonia: see also respiratory infections >>
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Policy Directive for the Provision of Uninsured Medical and Dental Benefits:
(Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 184).
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population at risk:
“Populations at risk” are groups of people who have the greatest potential to develop a particular health or social problem because of the presence or absence of certain contributing factors. The concept originated in epidemiology” (Clark, 1996).
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population health:
“Hamilton & Bhatti (1996) define population health as “an approach that addresses the entire range of factors that determine health and, by doing so, affects the health of the entire population” (as cited in Saskatchewan Health, 1999, p. 25).
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population health approach:
“It is now widely recognized that a state of best health is not merely a function of physical capacity, but is also closely related to a whole set of personal and social resources (Standing Committee on Health 1995). The Honourable Marc Lalonde's (1974) landmark document called A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians: A Working Document, this `population health' approach has been taken up by subsequent federal, provincial and territorial governments, as a way of considering the "range of factors that determine health and affect entire populations, not just individuals one at a time" (Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women 1995, p. 11, as cited in Stout, 1996).
population health approach:
“The Population Health Approach considers the total environment within which Aboriginal health is realized. Income and social status, social support networks, education, physical surroundings, biological and genetic makeup, child development and health services are key elements in this approach” (Stout, 1996).
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potlatch:
”In 1884, the Northwest Coast feasting ceremonial system known as the potlatch was banned, largely at the insistence of the missionaries” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 16).

potlatch:
“The potlatch was integral ceremony of the cultures of most Northwest Coast Indian societies. These societies were based on complex systems of status and rank, with chiefs and nobles holding titles to large tracks of land in the name of their ‘lineages’ or ‘houses’. The potlatch was a ceremony which was undertaken to signify ascension to a title by an individual or any other change in the status quo, which required witnesses (such as high status marriage, the raising of a carved pole). Potlatching was a way of validating individual status and responsibility. A key aspect of the potlatch was the distribution of wealth gathered by the potlatch sponsor and his supporters. Blankets and food items were popular ‘give-aways’ during the late nineteenth century. Another important aspect of the potlatch was that it enabled individuals and families to recount their histories and reaffirm their hereditary right, and reaffirm the oral tradition and history of the people. There was no specific medical function to the potlatch, but the attack on it by government and missionaries, had a diffuse effect of various aspects of North west coast healing” (McMillan, 1998, as cited in Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 117).

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poverty:
“Two basic approaches exist to defining and measuring poverty in Canada (An ‘absolute’ and a ‘ relative’ measure of poverty). When taken to their respective extremes, they establish the possible income bounds of poverty. Between these extremes lie numerous intermediate measures” (Child and Family Canada, 2003).

poverty:
“Poverty in the North America context is not having enough money to choose among alternatives. Poverty exacts its toll on people not always because a mere lack of material possessions, but often because of choicelessness” (LaRocque, 1990).

poverty:
“The state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2003).

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powerlessness:
“Powerlessness is defined as the lack of control of destiny” (Wallestein, 1992, p. 197), or “the expectancy held by the individual that his or her own behavior cannot determine the occurrence of the outcomes, he or she seeks” (Seeman, 1959, p, 784, as cited in Dickson, 1995, p. 644).

powerlessness:
“Powerlessness as a subjective or perceived phenomenon, is equated with external locus of control and learned helplessness. As an objective or actual phenomenon, it is a reality that peoples in some situations do lack power in political and economic terms. There is a strong relationship between powerlessness and social class; powerlessness is experience by those who are poor, low in hierarchy, and living in chronic hardship” (Dickson, 1995, p. 644).

powerlessness:
“Experiencing powerlessness is itself, a broad risk factor that increases susceptibility to higher morbidity and mortality rates” (Wallerstein, 1992, as cited in Dickson, 1995, p. 644-655).

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prairie turnip:
“The Prairie Turnip or ‘Indian breadroot’ (Psoralea esculenta) a taproot gathered in late spring and summer was probably the most important wild food gathered by the Prairie Aboriginal Groups. The Blackfoot used it raw or roasted; the Cree peeled, shredded and sun-dried it for use in a pudding mixed with Saskatoon berries” (Lux, 2001, p. 11).
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prejudice:
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prevalence:
“the total number of people affected by a specific condition at a specified point in time” (Clark, 1996, p. 103).
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primary care:
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primary care model:
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primary health care:
“Primary Health Care emphasizes social justice, equity, community participation and responsiveness to the needs of local populations. It emphasizes using approaches which are affordable and therefore sustainable. It emphasizes the need to work with people, in order to enable them to make decisions about which issues are most important to them and which responses are most useful, and to work with other sectors and groups to address the root causes if ill-health” (Wass, 2000).
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primitives:
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Prince Albert Grand Council (PAGC):
“The Prince Albert Grand Council (PAGC) is a First Nation tribal council in Northern Saskatchewan consisting of 12 member First Nations” (PAGC, n.d.).
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prohibition:
“The history of intoxicant control in Canada shows government legislation was motivated by the Temperance movement in the 1920s” (Kowalchuk, 1989, p. 12).
prohibition:
“The act of prohibiting by authority; an order to restrain or stop; the forbidding by law of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic liquors except for medicinal and sacramental purposes; word origin 14th century” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2003)
prohibition:
“Prohibition as a systemic approach to alcohol abuse has a long tradition in many societies. In Canada, various amendments to the Indian Act prohibited the possession and use of alcohol by Indians until 1963” (Price, 1975, cited in Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 94).
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psycho-social/economic theories:
“Psycho-social/economic theories of Aboriginal substance abuse purport substance abuse is a coping strategy for forced relocation, broken families, stress, unemployment, poverty, inadequate education, poor health and low self- esteem” (Scott, 1994).

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Public Health Model
“The public health perspective, rooted in a population-based approach, has been around for about 150 years. Society's principal goal in health care is to maximize the health and well-being of the populace. This is accomplished, in part, through the minimization or elimination of factors that adversely affect health, with a special emphasis on society's younger members _ its next generation” (Erickson, 1992).
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For the full references of works cited above, please see the Glossary References page >>

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