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Aboriginal Health &
Cultural Diversity Glossary

Aboriginal Glossary
rates of occurrence
registered Indian “Status Indian”
relative risk ratio
   ... "applied"
   ... "basic"
   ... "case study"
   ... "clinical"
   ... "correlation"
   ... "descriptive"
   ... "ethnographic"
   ... "evaluation"
   ... "field"
   ... "observational"
   ... “participatory action research” (PAR)
   ... “qualitative”
   ... “quantitative”
   ... “survey”
reserve lands
residential schools
restorative justice
rights “Aboriginal”
rights “harvesting”
rights “inherent”
rights “treaty”
Romanaw Report, November 28, 2002
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), 1996
Royal Proclamation, 1763
Rupert's Land


R– Definitions

racial discrimination:

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“Racial discrimination, discrimination, intolerance, prejudice, bigotry” (Thesaurus, 2003).

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rates of occurrence:
“statistical measures that indicate the extent of health problems in a group. Rates of occurrence also allow comparisons between groups of different sizes with respect to the extent of a particular condition” (Clark, 1996, p. 102).
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registered Indian “status Indian”:
“In Canada there are "Status Indians" which, more or less, corresponds to the U.S. definition of "Indian"; that is, they all carry a tribal identification. Other "Indians" in Canada who are Aboriginals without specific tribal membership are called "Non-status Indians" (Bellfy, 2001, p. 11).

registered Indian “status”, “treaty”:
“Some of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada signed treaties with the British and Canadian governments. These individuals are often referred to as ‘treaty Indians. A ‘treaty Indian’ is always a status or registered Indian. However, the converse is not always true: there are many registered Indians in Canada who are not ‘treaty’ (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 10).

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relative risk ratio:
“Members of a population at risk have a greater probability of developing a specific condition than those who are not affected by factors known to contribute to the condition. This difference in the probability of developing a given condition is known as the ‘relative risk ratio’” (Clark, 1996, p. 102).
relative risk ratio formula:
“This ratio is derived by comparing the frequency of occurrence of the condition in a group of people with known risk factors to that among individuals without these factors” (Clark, 1996, p. 102).
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"A systematic inquiry that uses orderly scientific methods to answer questions or solve problems" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "applied":
"Research that concentrates on finding a solution to an immediate practical problem" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "basic":
"Research designed to extend the base of knowledge in a discipline for the sake of knowledge production or theory construction, rather than for solving an immediate problem" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "case study":
"A research method that involves a thorough, in-depth analysis of an individual, group institution or other social unit" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "clinical":
"Research designed to generate knowledge to guide clinical practice" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "correlation":
"Investigations that explore the interrelationships among variables of interest without any active intervention on the part of the researcher" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "descriptive":
“Research studies that have as their main objective, the accurate portrayal of the characteristics of persons, situations or groups, and the frequency with which certain phenomena occur" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research “ethnographic”:
“The study and systematic recording of human cultures; a descriptive work produced from such research” (Merriam Webster Dictionary, 2003).
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research "evaluation":
"Research that investigates how well a program, practice or policy is working" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "field":
"A study in which the data are collected "in the field" from individuals in their normal roles, with the aim of understanding the practices, behaviours and beliefs of individuals or groups as they normally function in real life" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research "observational":
“Studies in which the data is collected by means of observing and recording behaviours or activities of interest" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research “participatory action research” (PAR):
“Participatory action research (PAR) is evolving as a new paradigm approach to research. Its earlier development paved the way for Primary health care by giving renewed importance to the principles of community participation and control, equity, intersectoral collaboration, and use of indigenous knowledge. Explicitly PAR challenges power inequities, which result in gaps and social and health status. PAR creates opportunities for oppressed people to critically analyze their own reality” (Dickson, 1995, p. 640).

research “participatory action research” (PAR):
“Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that blends scientific inquiry with education and political action. It aims to democratize knowledge and power through the research process (Hall, 1981). It aims also to reorient participants’ perceptions of issues in ways that influence their attitudes and behaviors (Brown & Tandon, 1978, cited in Lather, 1986). These aims parallel two foci in health promotion - setting and person. It is the continuous interaction between them that is central to effecting changes to promote health. Described another way, PAR is the inquiry component of community development, when those involved decide that research is to be a part their collective initiative” (Dickson, 1995, p. 640).

research “participatory action research” (PAR):
“Key concepts associated with both health promotion and participatory action research (PAR) are: control, powerlessness and participation” (Dickson, 1995, p. 644).

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research “qualitative”:
“The nonnumerical organization of and interpretation of observations for the purpose of discovering important underlying dimensions and patterns of relationships” (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research “quantitative”:
“The manipulation of numerical data through statistical procedures for the purpose of describing phenomena or assessing the magnitude and reliability of relationships among them” (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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research “survey”:
“A type of non-experimental research that focuses on obtaining information regarding the status quo of some situation, often via direct questioning of a sample of respondents" (Polit & Hungler, 1987).
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“Land reserved for the American Indian”

“Land set aside by the federal government for the use and occupancy of an Indian group or band” (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2000).

reserve “Six Nations”:
“The Six Nations Reserve in Brant County, Ontario, Canada which is located 30 km from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The Six Nations Reserve took its present form of 20,000 hectares in 1847, and is home to 10,000 Aboriginal people” (Anand, Yusuf, Jacobs, Davis, Yi, Gerstein, Montague, & Lonn, 2001).

“known as reserves in Canada, reservations in the US”.

reserve lands:
“There are nearly 2300 Indian reserves in Canada, approximately half of them in British Columbia. They are occupied and, to some extent, governed by over 600 First Nations or Bands. The largest reserve in area is the Blood Reserve in southern Alberta. The largest in population is the Six Nations Reserve near Brantford, Ontario. They are all governed by the Indian Act” (Henderson, 2001).

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residential schools:
The Residential Schools in Canada came about as a government policy whereby it was mandatory for Aboriginal children to attend. These church-run residential schools operated from the early 1800's to the late 1900's and in that period of time were attended by over 10,000 Aboriginal children.

residential schools:
"The goal of these schools included education and technical training,
but they were, in effect, instruments of assimilation" (Waldram, Herring,
& Young, 1995, p. 15).

residential schools:
"Before Confederation and up through the first half of the twentieth century, the policy of the Government of Canada towards the First Nations was assimilation. It was thought that the quickest route to 'civilizing' and 'converting' the indigenous population was to forcibly remove indigenous children from their homes and communities and place them in residential schools. There was considerable variation in how the schools operated, but in many cases the children were forbidden to speak their mother tongues, their cultures were condemned as barbaric and their spirituality as heathen” (National Day of Healing and Reconciliation Petition, 2001).

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“In the nursing literature, respect is discussed as an ethical concept that addresses the values of human dignity, inherent worth, and uniqueness of persons (Carper, 1979; Eliason, 1993; Gaut, 1983, 1986; Kelly, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1992; Leininger, 1989, 1990; Silva, 1983). The first two values for professional nursing identified in the Canadian Nursing Association Code of Ethics of Nursing (1991), are: respect for the needs and values of clients and respect for clients choice. Respect is also identified as a fundamental concept in theory development pertaining to caring” (Carper, 1979; Fenton, 1987; Forrest, 1989; Gardner & Wheeler, 1981; Gaut, 1983, 1986; Kelly, 1987). Respect is also defined, as an understanding and accepting of patients’ values, beliefs, and practices” (Browne, 1995, p. 102).

“Respect is defined, as an understanding and accepting of patients’ values, beliefs, and practices” (Browne, 1995, p. 102).

“According to Browne’s (1995) study on First Nations women on the meaning of respect, respect is demonstrated by: capacity to treat people as inherently worthy and equal in principle; acceptance of others; willingness to listen actively to patients; genuine attempts to understand patients and the unique situation of each; attempt to provide adequate explanations; sincerity during interactions” (Browne, 1995, p. 101-103). Respect was not demonstrated by: lack of respect stemming from discriminatory attitudes; failure to consider the patient perspectives; failure to provide privacy for patients; failure to provide adequate explanations; negative nonverbal behaviours” (Browne, 1995, p. 103-104).

“The dimension of respect includes characteristics of relationship, honor, identity, and strength. The characteristic of relationship refers to the components of presence and compassion. “Nursing is compassion and respect” is an account of by a participant that reflect relationship. Honor entails elders and stories and is exemplified in participant statements that “respect is never talking down” and “respect their stories” (Lowe & Struthers, 2001, p. 281).

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restorative justice:
“Restorative justice is a systematic response to wrongdoing that emphasizes healing the wounds of victims, offenders and communities caused or revealed by the criminal behaviour” (International Centre for Justice and Reconciliation, 2002).

restorative justice:
“The primary focus is the healing and successful reintegration of Aboriginal offenders into society (Correctional Service Canada, 2003).

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rights “Aboriginal”:
“Aboriginal rights are rights for Aboriginal people, guaranteed by the Constitution. These are rights that usually have to do with hunting, fishing, or any activity that Aboriginal people have always maintained to survive. It is important to understand that Aboriginal rights are inherent rights. They are not given to Aboriginal people by the government, but are recognized. The government is saying that they know that those rights have always been there, because Aboriginal people have always hunted and fished and governed their own communities in their own ways” (Industry Canada, 2003).

rights “Aboriginal”:
"Rights that some Aboriginal peoples of Canada hold as a result of their ancestors' long-standing use and occupancy of the land, e.g., to hunt, trap and fish on ancestral lands. Legally, the existence of specific Aboriginal rights are determined on a case-by-case basis" (Government of Saskatchewan- Government Relations and Aboriginal Affairs [GS-GRAA], 2003, 3).

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rights “harvesting” “Aboriginal”:
“In the U.S., Treaty rights in Michigan, Wisconsin and Washington were held by the courts to entitle the Indian tribes to one-half of the fishery in those states, commercial and non-commercial. In the exercise of their "domestic dependent sovereignty", the tribes there either exercise these rights or rent them out to non-Indians. They regulate their part of the fisheries with their own enforcement authorities and tribal courts. In Canada, First Nations are not considered in law to have the same kind of tribal sovereignty and their rights are not given such broad scope” (Henderson, 2001).
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rights “inherent” “Aboriginal”:
“Inherent rights such as hunting and fishing, by the treaty agreement with the British Crown since 1874. Treaty rights are forever, as long as the sun shines, the grass grows and the rivers flow”
rights “inherent” “self-government” “Aboriginal”:
“Aboriginals believe that their right to self-government is an inherent right, a right which they have always possessed and that was given to them by the Creator. There are some important "signposts" since the arrival of European settlers which are suggested as confirmation of the Aboriginal right to self-government: the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the treaties, and the Constitution Act of 1982” (Industry Canada, 2003).
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rights “treaty” “Aboriginal”:
“Inherent rights such as hunting and fishing, by the treaty agreement with the British Crown since 1874. Treaty rights are forever, as long as the sun shines, the grass grows and the rivers flow”
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“The probability that a given individual will develop a specific condition. One's risk of developing a particular condition is affected by a variety of physical, emotional, environmental, lifestyle, and other factors” (Clark, 1996, p. 101).
risk “populations at risk”:
“Populations at risk” are groups of people who have the greatest potential to develop a particular health or social problem because of the presence or absence of certain contributing factors. The concept originated in epidemiology” (Clark, 1996).
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Romanaw Report, November 28, 2002
“The final report of the Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada, the 'Romanow Report', was released on Thursday, November 28, 2002. As an innovative approach to Aboriginal health services and delivery, the Romanow Report proposed a partnership approach” (Romanow, 2002).
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Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP):
(Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 149-168).
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Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), November, 1996
"In November, 1996, the Canadian government published the four-thousand-page, $58 million Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP 1996), a report that reviewed and made recommendations about a wide range of social and economic issues related to Canada's Aboriginal peoples ” (Kendall, 2001).
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP), 1996:
(Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 201, 220, 268-269).
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Royal Proclamation of 1763:
“The Royal Proclamation has been called the "Magna Carta of Indian Rights" and was intended to organize the governments of Britain's new acquisitions on the mainland of North America” (Henderson 2001).

Royal Proclamation of 1763:
“The Royal Proclamation of 1763, recognized Indians as rightful, occupiers of their hunting grounds until such a time as these were ceded to a government authority” (Treaty 7Tribal Council, 2003).

Royal Proclamation of 1763:
“The Royal Proclamation of 1763, a piece of British legislation, had referred to the 'Nations or Tribes of Indians,' and implied fairly clearly that they had some form of land title recognizable by British law” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 13-14).

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Rupert's Land:
“All land empting into Hudson’s Bay”
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For the full references of works cited above, please see the Glossary References page >>

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