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Aboriginal Health &
Cultural Diversity Glossary

Aboriginal Glossary
T
tamananawas
target group
taxation
terra nullius
The North
theory
theory “biological”
theory “Commonsense" models of illness and health
theory “cultural”
theory “harm reduction model”
theory “health belief model (HBM)”
theory “health model” “Frameworking: The matrix”
theory “historical”
theory “illness”
theory “psycho-social/economic”
theory “traditional wellness”
theory “transcultural nursing”
theory “western”
Thirst Dance (Cree)
tobacco (offering of)
tobacco (semma)
tobacco smoking
Toronto
trader
traditional beliefs
Traditional Elders Circle of Indigenous Nations of North America
traditional healing
traditional knowledge
Traditional Wellness Theory
transcultural
transcultural care
transcultural nursing theory
translator (hospital)
transmittal
treaty
Treaty Indian "registered", "status"
treaties, numbered
Treaty Five
Treaty Six
Treaty Seven
Treaty Eight
Treaty Eleven
treaty right(s)
Tribal Council
tuberculosis
Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy
Turtle Island
Type I diabetes
Type II diabetes
typhoid fever
typhus
 

 

T– Definitions

talking circle:
“One of the alternatives to the Canadian justice system suggested by Aboriginal people is the Talking Circle. For many Aboriginal peoples, the circle is a powerful symbol of connectivity and completeness. The circle is the earth, the sky, the sun, the moon, the tipi, the seasons, the cycle of life” (Industry Canada, 2003).

talking circle:
“The Talking Circle has long been a place where everyone is equal, where all can have a say. It is a healing circle where the heart can be unburdened, and words of consolation can be freely spoken. In many First Nations contexts, the Talking Circle concept is used mainly for emotional healing purposes, although the Circle is not exclusively for this purpose” (Industry Canada, 2003).

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tamananawas:
“An Indian dance. Unlike the ‘potlatch’, the ‘tamananawas’ had more direct relevance to aboriginal medicine. The term ‘tamananawas’ referred to shamanistic acts, including healing, and ritual cannibalism (Cole & Chaikin, 1990). It was ritual cannibalism (involving dogs, corpses, and living individuals), including ritual biting, which was offensive to some non Aboriginal peoples. Both the Indian agents and the missionaries sought to have this ceremony eliminated” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 118).

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target group:
“includes those individuals who would benefit from an intervention program and at whom the program is aimed. The population at risk becomes the target group for any intervention designed to prevent or control the problem in question” (Clark, 1996, p. 102).

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taxation:
“Contrary to popular belief, Aboriginal peoples are not generally exempt from taxation. The exemptions which do exist extend only to Indians, and then only in relation to reserve lands and to personal property of Indians situated on reserve. The relevant statutory exemptions are found in the Indian Act” (Henderson, 2001).
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terra nullius:
“A concept in international law meaning 'a territory belonging to no-one' or 'over which no-one claims ownership'. The concept is related to the legal acceptance of occupation as a means of peacefully acquiring territory. However, a fundamental condition of a valid occupation is that the territory should belong to no-one. The concept has been used to justify the colonization of Australia. The High Court decision of 1992 rejected terra nullius and recognizes Indigenous native title” (NSWALC, 2002).

terra nullius:
“The legal concept of terra nullius (i.e. that Australia was empty before European colonization) prevailed until 1990” (Stanley & Wilkes, 1998).

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“The North”:
“Land in Canada located north of the 60th parallel. DIAND’s responsibilities for land and resources in the Canadian North relate only to Nunavut, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon” (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2000).

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theory:
"Consists of a systematically related set of statements including some law-like generalizations that are empirically testable ...furthermore all theories are models" (Rudner, 1966; Mason & Chandley, 1990, Kent-Wilkinson, 2003).

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theory “commonsense" models of illness and health:
“Commonly reported ideas or theories about the causes of health alterations were named "commonsense" models in that as manifestations of the Ojibwe health-world view, the ideas are thought by Ojibwe people to be "just common sense." These ideas were not described as holding special spiritual significance but rather were described as "something every Ojibwe person knows"” (Reynolds Turton, 1997).
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theory “cultural”:
“Culturally specific ways of knowing about health described by Ojibwe people in this study included the following: stories from the oral tradition, authoritative knowledge of elders, spiritual knowledge, "commonsense" models of illness and health, and knowing oneself” (Reynolds Turton, 1997).

theory “cultural”:
“Cultural theories of Aboriginal substance abuse allege transitional or bicultural stress and cultural loss precipitates abuse to the more exotic cultural predisposition to seek "visions" in altered states of consciousness” (Scott, 1994).

theory “cultural”:
“Cultural arguments suggests that Aboriginal peoples drink as a result of the pressures of cultural contact or acculturation” (Waldrum, Herring & Young, 1995, p. 267).

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theory “harm reduction model”:
“The harm reduction model, as applied to substance use issues, is a more recent elaboration of these general public health model principles that have been prompted, in part, by the AIDS epidemic among injection drug users in several countries. Several key concepts relevant to policy development have emerged as these approaches have been extended to other forms of individual and social harm related to drug use” (Erickson, 1992).

theory “harm reduction model”:
"Prevention model adopted in Canada in the late 1980-1990's for addiction prevention and intervention" (Kent-Wilkinson, 1996).

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theory “health belief model” (HBM):
“The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been used to explain change and maintenance of health – related behaviors, and as a framework for health behavior interventions (Moscato & Smith, 2003).

theory “health belief model” (HBM):
“The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the most widely used conceptual frameworks for understanding health behavior. The HBM was first developed in the 1950s by social psychologists Godfrey Hochbaum, Irwin Rosenstock, and Stephen Kegels working in the U.S. Public Health Services. The model was developed in response to the failure of a free tuberculosis (TB) health screening program” (Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, 2002).

theory “health belief model” (HBM):
“The Health Belief Model was first presented with only four key concepts: Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits, and Perceived Barriers. The concept of Cues for Action was added later to "stimulate behavior." Finally, in 1988, the concept of self-efficacy was added to address the challenges of habitual unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and overeating” (Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, 2002).

theory “health belief model” (HBM):
“The model was introduced in the 1950s by psychologists working in the U.S. Public Health Service (Hochbaum, Rosenstock, Leventhal, and Kegeles). Their focus was on increasing the use of preventive services such as screening and immunizations. They assumed that people feared diseases, and that health actions were motivated in relation to the degree of fear (perceived threat) and expected fear-reduction potential of actions, as long as that potential outweighed practical and psychological obstacles to taking action (net benefits)” (Rutter, 2003).

theory “health belief model” (HBM):
“Originally, the health belief model was developed to help explain related behaviours; it can also work as a useful framework for designing change strategies. The most promising application of the health belief model is for helping to develop messages that are likely to persuade individuals to make healthy decisions” (Rutter, 2003).

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theory “health model”, “Frameworking: The matrix”:
“The traditional beliefs about health and healing, spirituality and healing, family and the environment, are embodied in the health model called Frameworking: The matrix. Frameworking has been identified by David McTimoney (Health Canada, Mental Health, 2003), as a spiritual model of recovery for Aboriginals consistent with Aboriginal values, principles and traditions. Frameworking provides a method of evaluating appropriateness of living by arranging thoughts, feelings and behavior together. This model was initially developed for victims and survivors of Aboriginal family violence but its basic underpinnings could apply to any healing required of an individual or community. This framework takes the four concepts of individual Aboriginal health: physical, mental, social and spiritual and places it alongside the aspects of home, work, and community; then evaluates the lot in terms of thinking, feeling and behaving” (Health Canada, Mental Health, 2003).
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theory “historical”:
“Historical theories of Aboriginal substance abuse claim Indigenous groups were not socially prepared for the potency of alcohol, without codes or patterns of moderate consumption and use was modeled primarily upon the aberrant, uncontrolled consumption of early frontiersmen” (Scott, 1994).
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theory “holistic health model”:
“Within a holistic health framework each individual is considered unique. The philosophy of holistic health care asserts that health and illness must be considered within the context of the individuals life situation. People, including their states of health and illness, do not exist in isolation. They function within many settings, such as familial, occupational, communal, social and cultural. The values beliefs, and behaviors that develop from these settings influence health and illness. When health care professionals are willing to view health and illness within the context of the individual’s life, they are better able to understand that person’s experience. Holistic health philosophy includes a primary focus on health promotion, or health as a positive process, rather than limiting itself to the elimination of illness” (Landrum, 1988).
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theory “illness”:
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theory “psycho-social/economic”:
“Psycho-social/economic theories of Aboriginal substance abuse purport substance abuse is a coping strategy for forced relocation, broken families, stress, unemployment, poverty, inadequate education, poor health and low self-esteem” (Scott, 1994).
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theory “transcultural nursing”:
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theory “traditional wellness”:
“Traditional Wellness Theory is an integrated, holistic approach to health: body, mind and spirit. The emphasis is on prevention of sickness. Traditional Wellness Theory advocates personal responsibility for health and sickness. Traditional medicine governed by the laws of creation: everything we need come from the Earth our food, medicine, water, education, religion and laws. Health and sickness understood in terms of the laws of nature. Man living in balance with nature, with natural law. The medicine man is accountable to the creator, to the people, to the elders, of his medicine society. Medicine is not for sale, not for profit, it is a gift to be shared. The land and the people support the medicine man and his practice. Traditional Wellness Theories encourage self sufficiency,
self care and responsibility and control by the People” (Woods, 2003).
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theory “western”:
Woods (2003) states that “The Western Theory uses an analytic approach: separation of body, mind and spirit….Emphasis on disease and treatment. Impersonal, scientific approach to health and sickness” (as cited in Kent-Wilkinson, 2003).

theory “western”:
“The Western Theory uses an analytic approach: separation of body, mind and spirit (total split between medicine and religion). Emphasis on disease and treatment. Impersonal, scientific approach to health and sickness. Western medicine governed by laws of the state: man made laws which grow out of political-economic system. Health and sickness are understood in terms of quantifiable, scientific data. Man controlling nature, manipulating natural variables. Doctor is accountable to the government and to his professional association. Medicine is a business, the patient is the consumer, the doctor and the medical industry profit. The government, the taxpayer and the consumer support the doctor and the practice of medicine. Encourages dependency and abdication of self government by the people” (Woods, 2003).

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Thirst Dance: [Cree] “Sun Dance” [Dakota])
“The Sun Dancing of the Plains Indians was also subjected to the both legislative and formal discouragements by government and by the churches. This dance also known as the ‘Thirst Dance’ was a multi-day ceremony held in the summer to honour the sun and other spirits” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 119).
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tobacco (offering of):
”Fasting and offerings of tobacco are ways to solicit blessings. Often blessings are revealed in dreams. Contact with manitos also often occurs in dreams” (Reynolds Turton, 1997).
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tobacco “semma”:  see also semma >>
“Semma (tobacco) is used to offer prayers at the Sacred Fire where you burn your Semma and tobacco ties. The Semma is also smoked in Sacred Pipes" (Canadian Health Network, 2000).
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tobacco smoking:
(Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 84, 86).
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Toronto:
“Iroquois name for meeting place”.
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trader:  see fur trader >>
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traditional beliefs:
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Traditional Elders Circle of Indigenous Nations of North America:
(Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 219).
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traditional healing:
See aboriginal concepts of health and traditional healing practices >>
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traditional knowledge:
“Traditional knowledge’ …refers to tradition-based literary, artistic or scientific works; performances; inventions; scientific discoveries designs; marks, names and symbols; undisclosed information; and all other tradition-based innovations and creations resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary or artistic fields. Categories of traditional knowledge could include: agricultural knowledge; scientific knowledge; technical knowledge; ecological knowledge; medicinal knowledge, including related medicines and remedies; biodiversity-related knowledge; “expressions of folklore” in the form of music, dance, song, handicrafts designs, stories and artwork; elements of languages, such as names geographical indications and symbols; and movable cultural properties” (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2002).
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Traditional Wellness Theory:
“Traditional Wellness Theory is an integrated, holistic approach to health: body, mind and spirit. The emphasis is on prevention of sickness. Traditional Wellness Theory advocates personal responsibility for health and sickness. Traditional medicine governed by the laws of creation: everything we need come from the Earth our food, medicine, water, education, religion and laws. Health and sickness understood in terms of the laws of nature. Man living in balance with nature, with natural law. The medicine man is accountable to the creator, to the people, to the elders, of his medicine society. Medicine is not for sale, not for profit, it is a gift to be shared. The land and the people support the medicine man and his practice. Traditional Wellness Theories encourage self sufficiency,
self care and responsibility and control by the People” (Woods, 2003).

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transcultural:
”Involving, encompassing, or extending across two or more cultures; word origin 1951” (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 219).
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transcultural care:
“Transcultural care describes the skills of the health professional in providing care. Transcultural care includes cultural assessment, respect for the individual and incorporation of cultural values into care. To provide transcultural care, cultural awareness and sensitivity are essential” (Cooper, 1996; Canadian Nurses Association, 2000).
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transcultural nursing theory:
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translator “hospital”:
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treaty:
“A Treaty is a legal agreement that aims to resolve a dispute over an issue that concerns two or more nations. This can include deciding who owns territory. Treaties have been made between First Peoples, and the Crown or Government of Canada. The Treaty states that a nation can continue to occupy a territory, and sets out the terms the nation will have to follow. Some of these Treaties are hundreds of years old. They are seen as nation-to-nation agreements around the world” (Canadian Health Network, 2000).
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treaty Indian:
“A Status Indian who belongs to a First Nation that signed a treaty with the Crown” (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2000).
treaty Indians “registered”, “status”:
“Some of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada signed treaties with the British and Canadian governments. These individuals are often referred to as ‘treaty Indians. A ‘treaty Indian’ is always a status or registered Indian. However, the converse is not always true: there are many registered Indians in Canada who are not ‘treaty’ (Waldram, Herring, & Young, 1995, p. 10).
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treaties, numbered:
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Treaty Five:
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Treaty Six: See also medicine chest clause >>
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Treaty Seven:
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Treaty Eight:
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Treaty Eleven:
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treaty right(s) :
”When First Peoples speak of these, what they are talking about are the promises Canada has made to them. These promises allow Canadians to make use of a portion of Aboriginal territories and resources” (Canadian Health Network, 2000).
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Tribal Council:
“A regional group of First Nations members that delivers common services to a group of First Nations” (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2000).
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tuberculosis:
“Acute granulomatous infection with a mycobacterium. Organism is initially inhaled into the body through the pulmonary system. After pulmonary inoculation, the organism can spread to other areas of the body, including the middle ear, bones, joints, meninges, kidney and skin” (Health Canada, 2003).

tuberculosis:
”A disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB primarily infects the lungs, but it may attack almost any tissue or organ of the body. TB generally has a long latency period, and only about ten percent of infected people with normal immunity ever experience active TB. For people with immune deficiencies, however, active TB is much more common. TB is transmitted in close quarters when a person with active TB coughs the microbe into the environment" (Kent-Wilkinson, 2003).

tuberculosis:
“In 1992, the First Nations I Health Branch (FNIHB) released the Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy in partnership with the Assembly of First Nations. The emergence of drug resistance and HIV/AIDS, combined with consistently high TB rates in the First Nations population, necessitated the creation of a strong national program. The goal of the Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy is to eliminate the disease for Aboriginal people in Canada, by reducing incidence to below 1 per 100,000 people” (Health Canada, 2002).

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Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy:
“In 1992, the First Nations I Health Branch (FNIHB) released the Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy in partnership with the Assembly of First Nations. The emergence of drug resistance and HIV/AIDS, combined with consistently high TB rates in the First Nations population, necessitated the creation of a strong national program. The goal of the Tuberculosis Elimination Strategy is to eliminate the disease for aboriginal people in Canada, by reducing incidence to below 1 per 100,000 people” (Health Canada, 2002).
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Turtle Island:
“Turtle Island is the English translation of the name given to the American continent we stand on. It comes from the Creation story of the Algonkian and Iroquoian Peoples” (Canadian Health Network, 2000).
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Type I diabetes:
“In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin. People with Type 1 diabetes must inject insulin with a needle every day. This type usually occurs in children and young adults. It affects about one out of every ten people with diabetes” (Canadian Health Network, 2003)

Type I diabetes:
“Type I diabetes is insulin dependent diabetes mellitus” (National Human Research Genome Institute, 2003).

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Type II diabetes:
“Type II diabetes is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus” (National Human Research Genome Institute, 2003).

Type II diabetes
“In this type of diabetes, the pancreas may not be producing enough insulin. Or, it might not be using the available insulin very well. A variety of options can help control sugar levels for people with Type 2. These may include meal plans, pills or insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes affects about nine out of every ten people with diabetes. It usually occurs later in life (most who get it are over 45). However, a growing number of Aboriginal children as young as five to eight years old are developing it” (Canadian Health Network, 2003).

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typhoid fever:
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typhus:
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For the full references of works cited above, please see the Glossary References page >>

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