Raine, Jason

Senior Advisor-Aquatic Research Facilities, Research Scientist/Aquatic Toxicology Research Facility Manager

Jason Raine

Toxicology Centre
University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Dr
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
S7N 5B3

Phone: (306) 966-6287

Email: jason.raine@usask.ca

Academic Degrees

  • B.Sc. (Zoology), M.Sc., Ph.D. (University of Guelph) 

Current Teaching

Current and Recent Research Projects

  • Investigations into the potential effects of the Alberta oil sands on local fish populations
  • Effects of environmental contaminants on the endocrine system of teleost fishes
  • Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms involved in thyroid hormone-induced retinal cell degeneration and regeneration
  • Development of rearing and breeding conditions for non-traditional fish species
  • Maternal hormones and their role in growth and development of fish


Raine, J.C., Turcotte, D., Romanowski, L., Parrott, J.L. 2018. Oil sands tailings pond sediment toxicity to early life stages of northern pike (Esox lucius). Science of the Total Environment. 624: 567-575. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.163

Raine, J.C., Turcotte, D., Tumber, V., Peru K.M., Wang, Z., Yang, C., Headley, J.V., Parrott, J.L. 2017. Development of a bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments to embryo-larval walleye (Sander vitreus). Environmental Pollution. 229: 798-809. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.038.

Raine, J.C., Peitrock, M., Wilner, K., Chung, K., Turcotte, D., Parrott, J.L. 2017. Parasitological analysis and gill histopathology of pearl dace (Semotilus margarita) and brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) collected from the Athabasca oil sands area (Canada). Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol. 98: 733-739. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-017-2078-6

Raine, J.C., Lallemand, L., Janz, D.M. 2016. Effect of chronic dietary selenomethionine exposure on the visual system of adult and F1 generation zebrafish (Danio rerio). Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol. 97: 331-336.

Eisner B.K., Doering, J.A., Beitel, S.C., Wiseman, S., Raine, J.C., Hecker, M. 2015. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fish to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.

Driessnack, M.K., Matthews, A.L., Raine, J.C., Niyogi, S. 2015. Interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper and cadmium exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 179: 165-173.

Su, G., Zhang, X., Raine, J.C., Xing, L, Liu, H., Higley, E., Hecker, M., Giesy, J.P., Yu, H. 2013. Mechanisms of toxicity of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) determined by a live cell reporter array. Environ. Sci. Pollution Res. 20: 803-8

Coffin, A.B., Raine, J.C., Hawryshyn, C.W. 2012. Exposure to thyroid hormone in ovo affects otolith crystallization in rainbow troutOncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental Biology of Fishes. DOI 10.1007/s10641-012-0007-4.

Raine, J.C., Coffin, A.B. and Hawryshyn, C.W. 2011. In ovo thyroxine exposure alters later retinal remodeling in rainbow trout. J. Exp. Biol. 214: 2248-2257.

Wiseman, S., Tomas, J.K., McPhee, L., Hursky, O., Raine, J.C., Pietrock, M., Giesy, J.P., Hecker, M. and Janz, D.M. 2011. Attenuation of the Cortisol Response to Stress in Female Rainbow Trout Chronically Exposed to Dietary Selenomethionine.  Aquatic Toxicology. 105: 643-651.

Wiseman, S., Tomas, J.K., Higley, E., Hursky, O., Pietrock, M., Raine, J.C., Giesy, J.P., Janz, D.M. and Hecker, M. 2011. Chronic Exposure to Dietary Selenomethionine Increases Gonadal Steroidogenesis in Female Rainbow trout. Aquatic Toxicology 105: 218-226. 

Caruso, M.A., Blaufuss, P.C, Kittilson, J.D,  Raine, J.C., Sheridan, M.A.  2010.  Isolation and characterization of a mRNA encoding a novel insulin receptor (IR) subtype, IR2, from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and patterns of expression of the four IR subtypes, IR1-IR4, in tissues and during embryonic development. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 169: 258-268.

Raine, J.C. 2010. Chapter 5. Thyroid hormones and reproduction of fishes. In: Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates, Volume 1: Fishes. D.O. Norris and K.H. Lopez (eds). pp. 83 - 102. San Diego, Elsevier.

Raine, J.C., Coffin, A.B. and Hawryshyn, C.W. 2010. Systemic thyroid hormone is necessary and sufficient to induce ultraviolet-sensitive cone loss in the juvenile rainbow trout retina. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 493-501.

Raine, J.C. and Hawryshyn, C.W. 2009. Changes in thyroid hormone reception precede SWS1 opsin down-regulation in trout retina.  J. Exp.Biol.  212: 2781-2788.

Malkuch, H., Walock, C., Kittilson, J.D., Raine, J.C. and Sheridan M.A. 2008. Differential expression of preprosomatostatin- and somatostatin receptor-encoding mRNAs in association with the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system during embryonic development of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 159: 136-142.

Caruso, M., Kittilson, J., Raine, J.C. and Sheridan, M.A. 2008. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess two insulin-encoding mRNAs that are differentially expressed. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 155: 695-704.

Raine, J.C. and Leatherland, J.F. 2008. Investigation of the transformation of the endostyle to thyroid tissue in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, using T4-immunostaining.  J. Fish Biol.  72:1544-1552.

Alderman, S., Raine, J.C. and Bernier, N.J. 2008.  Distribution and regional stressor-induced regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  J. Neuroendocrinol. 20: 347-358.

Li, M., Raine, J.C. and Leatherland, J.F. 2007. Expression profiles of growth-related genes during the very early development of rainbow trout embryos reared at two incubation temperatures.  Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 153: 302-310. 

Raine, J.C., Hua, K., Bureau, D.P., Vijayan, M.M. and Leatherland, J.F. 2007.  Influence of ration level and rearing temperature on hepatic GHR1 and 2, and hepatic and intestinal TRα and TRβ gene expression in late stages of rainbow trout embryos. J. Fish Biol. 71: 148-162.

Li, M., Greenaway, J., Raine, J.C., Petrik, J., Hahnel, A., Leatherland, J.F. 2006.  Growth  hormone and insulin-like growth factor gene expression prior to the development of the pituitary gland in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos reared at two temperatures.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 143: 514-522.

Raine, J.C., Strelive, U. and Leatherland, J.F. 2005. The thyroid tissue of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss is tubular, not follicular. J. Fish Biol. 67: 823-833. 

Raine, J.C., Cameron, C., Vijayan, M.M., MacKenzie, D.S. and Leatherland, J.F. 2005. Effect of fasting on thyroid hormone levels, and TRα and TRβ mRNA accumulation in late-stage embryo and juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 140: 452-459.

Raine, J.C., Cameron, C., Vijayan M.M., LaMarre, J. and Leatherland, J.F. 2004. The effect of elevated oocyte triiodothyronine content on development of rainbow trout embryos and expression of mRNA encoding for thyroid hormone receptors. J. Fish Biol. 65: 206-226.

Raine, J.C. and Leatherland J.F. 2003. Trafficking of L-triiodothyronine between ovarian fluid and oocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 136: 267-274.

Raine, J.C., Takemura, A. and Leatherland, J.F. 2001. Assessment of thyroid function in adult medaka (Oryzias latipes) and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using immunostaining methods. J. Exp. Zool. 290: 366-378.

Raine, J.C. and. Leatherland, J.F. 2000. Morphological and functional development of the thyroid tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos. Cell Tiss. Res. 301: 235-234.

Raine, J.C. and Leatherland, J.F. 1999. Ontogeny of thyroid tissue and tissue thyroid hormone clearance in rainbow trout embryos reared at two temperatures. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 20: 209-217.