From: IN%"Michalchik@aol.com" 2-APR-2005 19:57:42.85 To: IN%"applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: Animals enjoy good laugh too, scientists say _http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0504010071apr01,1,7168657. story?coll=chi-newsnationworld-hed&ctrack=2&cset=true_ (http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0504010071apr01,1,7168657.story?coll=chi-newsnati onworld-hed&ctrack=2&cset=true) Animals enjoy good laugh too, scientists say By Peter Gorner Tribune science reporter Published April 1, 2005 Tickling rats to make them chirp with joy may seem frivolous as a scientific pursuit, yet understanding laughter in animals may lead to revolutionary treatments for emotional illness, researchers suggest. Joy and laughter, they say, are proving not to be uniquely human traits. Roughhousing chimpanzees emit characteristic pants of excitement, their version of "ha-ha-ha" limited only by their anatomy and lack of breath control, researchers contend. Dogs have their own sound to spur other dogs to play, and recordings of the sound can dramatically reduce stress levels in shelters and kennels, according to the scientist who discovered it. Even laboratory rats have been shown to chirp delightedly above the range of human hearing when wrestling with each other or being tickled by a keeper--the same vocalizations they make before receiving morphine or having sex. Studying sounds of joy may help us understand the evolution of human emotions and the brain chemistry underlying such emotional problems as autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, said Jaak Panksepp, a pioneering neuroscientist who discovered rat laughter. Panksepp, of Bowling Green State University in Ohio, sums up the latest studies in this week's edition of the journal Science in hopes of alerting colleagues to results that he terms "spectacular." The research suggests that studying animal emotions, once a scientific taboo, seems to be moving rapidly into the mainstream. "It's very, very difficult to find skeptics these days. The study of animal emotions has really matured. Things have changed completely from as recently as five years ago," said Mark Bekoff, an expert in canine play behavior and professor of biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Biologists suggest that nature apparently considers sounds of joy important enough to have conserved them during the evolutionary process. "Neural circuits for laughter exist in very ancient regions of the brain," Panksepp said, "and ancestral forms of play and laughter existed in other animals eons before we humans came along." Research in this area "is just the beginning wave of the future," said comparative ethologist Gordon Burghardt, of the University of Tennessee, who studies the evolution of play. "It will allow us to bridge the gap with other species." New investigative techniques often rely on super high-tech scanning wizardry, but the most important tool for scientists in this field is much more simple. "Tickles are the key," Panksepp said. "They open up a previously hidden world." Panksepp had studied play vocalizations in animals for years before it occurred to him that they might be an ancestral form of laughter. "Then I went to the lab and tickled some rats. Tickled them gently around the nape of their necks. Wow!" The tickling made the rats chirp happily--"as long as the animal's friendly toward you," he said. "If not, you won't get a single chirp, just like a child that might be suspicious of an adult." Rats that were repeatedly tickled became socially bonded to the researchers and would seek out tickles. The researchers also found that rats would rather spend time with animals that chirp a lot than with those that don't. During human laughter, the dopamine reward circuits in the brain light up. When researchers neurochemically tickled those same areas in rat brains, the rats chirped. Rat humor remains to be investigated, but if it exists, a prime component will be slapstick, Panksepp speculated. "Young rats, in particular, have a marvelous sense of fun." Panksepp said that laughter, at least in response to a direct physical stimulus such as tickling, may be a common trait shared by all mammals. Psychologist and neuroscientist Robert Provine, author of "Laughter: A Scientific Investigation," tickled and played with chimpanzees at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center in Atlanta while researching the origins of the human laugh. Laughter in chimps, our closest genetic relatives, is associated with rough-and-tumble play and tickling, Provine found. That came as no surprise. "It's like the behavior of young children," said Provine, of the University of Maryland Baltimore County. "A tickle and laughter are the first means of communication between a mother and her baby, so laughter appears by about four months after birth." The importance of such an early behavior is apparent. "We're talking about a life-and-death deal here--the bonding and survival of babies," Provine said. When chimps laugh, they make unique panting sounds, ranging from barely audible to hard grunting, with each inward and outward breath. "We humans laugh on outward breaths. When we say `ha-ha-ha,' we're chopping an outward breath," Provine said. "Chimps can't do that. They make one sound per inward and outward breath. They don't have the breath control to ... make the traditional human laugh." The breakthrough in dog laughter was accomplished by University of Nevada, Reno, researcher Patricia Simonet while working with undergraduates at Sierra Nevada College in Lake Tahoe. With extensive chimp research behind her, Simonet was open to the idea of animal emotions, but the laughing sound she discovered in dogs was unexpected: a "breathy, pronounced, forced exhalation" that sounds to the untrained ear like a normal dog pant. But a spectrograph showed a burst of frequencies, some beyond human hearing. A plain pant is simpler, limited to just a few frequencies. Hearing a tape of the dog laugh made single animals take up toys and play by themselves, Simonet said. It never initiated aggressive responses. "If you want to invite your dog to play using the dog laugh, say `hee, hee, hee' without pronouncing the `ee,'" Simonet said. "Force out the air in a burst, as if you're receiving the Heimlich maneuver." When she played a recording of a laughing dog at an animal shelter, Simonet found that even 8-week-old puppies reacted by starting to play, something they hadn't done when exposed to other dog sounds. "Some sounds, like growls, confused the puppies. But the dog laugh caused sheer joy and brought down the stress levels in the shelter immediately." From: IN%"gooddog@dodo.com.au" "Geiger" 3-APR-2005 19:48:25.21 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: Articles to submit for publication in ISAE journal Who do I communicate with to submit an article for publication, plus CD of yawning on cue? Regards, Jackie Perkins From: IN%"soft_angels@hotmail.com" "Liz Michelle Arizmendi" 4-APR-2005 20:50:23.51 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: New to the Forum

Hi everyone,

I am glad to have found you.

I am Michelle Arizmendi from Miami, Florida.  I have a B.S. in Zoology from the University of Wisconsin- Madison.  Currently, I work as a professional dog trainer. 

I am interested in going to graduate school and through reasearch contribute to  what we know today regarding the relationship/communication between humans and dogs.  I've thought of studying social interaction among canines or maybe communication in primates.  As a side note, I enjoy learning about conciuosness and the mind.

It would be of great help if you can send suggestions of hot topics to study(subjects in need of more research)  concerning dogs, and professors that I could do research with while in Graduate School.   Any suggestions on reading material regarding research on dog behavior/training/behavior modification/ social interaction, etc?   

 I look forward to interacting with you and hopefully adding  to your forum.

Thanks for having me in your forum, this is great.

Michelle




**********************************
 
Liz Michelle Arizmendi    

***********************************

From: IN%"LNVreeland@aol.com" 5-APR-2005 13:30:41.80 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: "Snake proofing" a dog? A query Hello, Everyone -- I am new to the forum. My name is Leslie Vreeland, and I'm a freelance magazine writer (my principle interest is science and women's health, though I've also written about animals). I'd really appreciate some advice. I'm about to move to the high desert, where rattlesnakes live. My three-year-old male West Highland Terrier will, of course, be joining me. I spend a lot of time outdoors and, well, you can probably imagine my question: how do I protect my terrier from snakes? (This is the sort of breed that will try to find one by snooping in small holes, and then challenge anything that rattles or strikes by biting back.) I've heard of an aversion-therapy technique called "snake proofing," where over successive sessions (about six in all, from what I understand) the dog is trained to avoid: a) the sight of snakes; b) the smell of snakes, and c) the sound of snakes. I've been told that "snake-proofing" "can" involve using a shock collar, something which I have never subjected my dog to and ordinarily wouldn't, but if I was persuaded using one to train him to keep away from rattlers would save his life in the field, I suppose I could accept it. What are the alternatives, though? Has anyone here even heard of snake-proofing? Can anyone recommend an ethical behaviorist in Utah (where I am now) or Colorado (where I will soon be living) who can tell me more about how to train my dog away from rattlers? Obviously, I would prefer my dog learn to avoid snakes as humanely as possible. Thanks for your thoughts. --Leslie From: IN%"margory@rcn.com" "margory cohen" 6-APR-2005 06:47:41.59 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: RE: "Snake proofing" a dog? A query You confuse shock collars with electric collars, which is a common confusion in this forum. Enough already with this. Your concern for your Westie is real and good and good luck finding a real trainer who can help you, because they exist. I would recommend you see the website for the International Association of Canine Professionals for a name in one of the states where you will be. www.dogpro.org. -margory cohen San Francisco, CA, US ----- Original Message ----- From: LNVreeland@aol.com To: Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Sent: Tuesday, April 05, 2005 12:30 PM Subject: "Snake proofing" a dog? A query I've been told that "snake-proofing" "can" involve using a shock collar, something which I have never subjected my dog to and ordinarily wouldn't, but if I was persuaded using one to train him to keep away from rattlers would save his life in the field, I suppose I could accept it. What are the alternatives, though? Has anyone here even heard of snake-proofing? Can anyone recommend an ethical behaviorist in Utah (where I am now) or Colorado (where I will soon be living) who can tell me more about how to train my dog away from rattlers? Obviously, I would prefer my dog learn to avoid snakes as humanely as possible. From: IN%"Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no" "Nicholas Tyler" 6-APR-2005 06:53:25.01 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: Predator avoidance Good afternoon. Is there any convincing evidence that predator avoidance is (has been) an important factor in structuring daily patterns of activity in ungulates? May we consider it, for example, a factor contributing to the evolution of crepuscular behaviour? What is the evidence - either way? Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"Karen.Thodberg@agrsci.dk" "Karen Thodberg" 11-APR-2005 02:54:27.86 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: Question regarding loose housed lactating sows > Dear Colleagues > > From 2002 to 2006, the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University and the National Committee for Pig Production collaborate in the research project > '> Farrowing and lactating sows - loose housing and improved animal welfare> '> . > > As part of the project we would like to exchange experiences and ideas with you and to learn about housing systems in your country. > > We will very much appreciate if you> '> ll take time to answer the questions below before May 1st 2005 and return your answers by email or letter to us (see adresses below) > > Questions regarding loose housed lactating sows (indoor) > > 1. Are you aware of previous research activities in your country regarding loose-housed lactating sows? > a. Email/addresses of research scientists involved (or references) > > 2. Are you aware of ongoing research activities in your country regarding loose-housed lactating sows? > a. Email-addresses of research scientists involved > > 3. What proportion of the farrowing sows is loose-housed in your country? > a. Less than 5% > b. 5-20% > c. More than 20% > > 4. What proportion of the lactating sows is loose-housed in your country? > a. Less than 5% > b. 5-20% > c. More than 20% > > 5. What is the expected development in this? Do you expect a significant increase within the next: > a. 5 years > b. 10 years > > > If possible, can you make a draft of a typical farrowing pen for loose-housed farrowing lactating sows in your country. > > > Yours sincerely > > Vivi Aarestrup Moustsen, PhD Animal Science > The Department of Pig Housing and Production Systems > DANISH BACON & MEAT COUNCIL > Vinkelvej 11, DK-8620 Kjellerup > Phone +45 8771 4036; fax +45 8771 4005; mobile 4062 3885 > Email vam@danishmeat.dk > > > Lene Juul Pedersen, Senior Scientist, PhD > Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences > Research Centre Foulum > Dept. of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition > Box 50 > DK- 8830 Tjele > Phone +45 89991364 (work), +45 86651027 (home), Fax +45 89991500 > www.agrsci.dk/hsv/ljp > > Karen Thodberg, Scientist, M.Sc., Ph.D. (biology) Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Dept. of Animal Health and Welfare P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark Phone +45 89 99 13 23 Fax +45 89 99 15 00 Homepage > > > > > From: IN%"bjarne.braastad@umb.no" 11-APR-2005 05:35:49.15 To: IN%"applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca", IN%"ISAEnet-l@usask.ca" CC: Subj: PhD course on ontogeny of behaviour Dear ISAE members and subscribers to Applied Ethology, If you or some of your PhD students are interested in the development of behaviour, I hereby announce a PhD course in ethology called "The Ontogeny of Behaviour", to be held 15-19 November 2005 at a conference centre near our university. The aim of this PhD course is to give insight into the developmental processes of behaviour, from expression of the genotype through prenatal and postnatal experience to later developmental changes. Per Jensen, Jerry A. Hogan and Stefania Maccari are among the teachers of the course. More information is found on this website: http://kurs.umb.no/HET400 Application deadline is 1st July 2005. The course is primarily for Nordic PhD students, but PhD students outside the Nordic region are welcome untill a maximum of 30 participants are reached. Please be aware that, although the course is sponsored by NOVA University Network (the network of Nordic agricultural and veterinary universities), we have to take a course fee that covers accommodation and meals, and an excursion to our research facilities. Please give this information to anyone you might think may be interested. May I also take this opportunity to inform everybody that our university has changed name this year (and new e-mail addresses and phone/fax numbers) to Norwegian University of Life Sciences (formerly The Agricultural University of Norway). Bjarne O. Braastad course leader ********************************************************** Bjarne O. Braastad (Dr.Philos.) Professor of Ethology Dept. of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas, Norway e-mail: bjarne.braastad@umb.no NB! New phone no.: + 47 64 96 51 62 NB! New fax no.: + 47 64 96 51 01 cell phone: +47 419 086 93 http://www.umb.no/iha ********************************************************** From: IN%"Rexxie1@aol.com" 11-APR-2005 11:08:40.35 To: IN%"applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: milking parlor design with welfare in mind Hello, There are a number of milking parlor designs available in various publications and they seem to function pretty well, but I'm wondering if there are any that have incorporated specific knowledge about dairy cow behavior and welfare. Any help on available designs or on welfare parameters that should be particularly considered in milking parlor design will be appreciated. Marlene Halverson Animal Welfare Institute From: IN%"Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no" "Nicholas Tyler" 12-APR-2005 04:06:33.84 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: Nighttime feeding Good afternoon. Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no" "Nicholas Tyler" 12-APR-2005 05:04:18.04 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: Nighttime feeding Good afternoon. Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"wrstrick@umd.edu" "Ray Stricklin" 12-APR-2005 07:04:28.95 To: IN%"Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no" "Nicholas Tyler", IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: RE: Nighttime feeding Nighttime feedingDomestic cattle eat during the night - both on pasture and in the feedlot. Cattle of course do show the traditional and strong tendency of most (all?) ungulates toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior . But in cattle, there is an additional third and smaller spike in eating activity that occurs at solar midnight. The longer the night (darkness) period, which of course is max at winter solstice, the greater the solar midnight eating activity. This greater eating activity during longer periods of darkness most likely is due to the greater times elapsed between the two major periods of eating that occur at dusk and dawn. And this greater increase in eating during the night seems to be true even at the "extreme" low temperatures observed in Saskatchewan, which can reach below -40 degrees. Some references on cattle eating patterns: Stricklin, W.R., L.L. Wilson and H.B. Graves. 1976. Feeding behavior of Angus and Charolais-Angus cows during summer and winter. Journal of Animal Science. 43:721-732. Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1981. Eating behavior of beef cattle groups fed from a single stall or trough. Applied Animal Ethology. 7:123-133 Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1984. Diurnal behavior patterns of feedlot bulls during winter and spring in northern latitudes. Journal of Animal Science. 58:1075-1083. Regards to all, Ray Stricklin -----Original Message----- From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] Sent: Tuesday, April 12, 2005 7:04 AM To: Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: Nighttime feeding Good afternoon. Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"vbowen@bowenconsulting.net" 12-APR-2005 11:02:11.98 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: RE: Nighttime feeding I can only speak to what I know, which is captive, domestic donkeys. Mine do indeed forage all night long. Maybe a bit less than during the day, but not a significant amount less. At "bed check" some time between 10 pm and midnight, I often find them foraging, provided I'm toward the later end of that time scale, as closer to 10 is a nap time for them. Ray, your information is fascinating. I wonder if there has been any similar studies done on horses and/or donkeys? Virginia Murrieta, CA "My treasures do not clink together, nor glitter. They gleam in the sun and bray in the night." _____ From: Ray Stricklin [mailto:wrstrick@umd.edu] Sent: Tuesday, April 12, 2005 6:04 AM To: Nicholas Tyler; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding Domestic cattle eat during the night - both on pasture and in the feedlot. Cattle of course do show the traditional and strong tendency of most (all?) ungulates toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior . But in cattle, there is an additional third and smaller spike in eating activity that occurs at solar midnight. The longer the night (darkness) period, which of course is max at winter solstice, the greater the solar midnight eating activity. This greater eating activity during longer periods of darkness most likely is due to the greater times elapsed between the two major periods of eating that occur at dusk and dawn. And this greater increase in eating during the night seems to be true even at the "extreme" low temperatures observed in Saskatchewan, which can reach below -40 degrees. Some references on cattle eating patterns: Stricklin, W.R., L.L. Wilson and H.B. Graves. 1976. Feeding behavior of Angus and Charolais-Angus cows during summer and winter. Journal of Animal Science. 43:721-732. Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1981. Eating behavior of beef cattle groups fed from a single stall or trough. Applied Animal Ethology. 7:123-133 Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1984. Diurnal behavior patterns of feedlot bulls during winter and spring in northern latitudes. Journal of Animal Science. 58:1075-1083. Regards to all, Ray Stricklin -----Original Message----- From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] Sent: Tuesday, April 12, 2005 7:04 AM To: Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: Nighttime feeding Good afternoon. Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"rachele.fuzzati@epfl.ch" "Rachele Fuzzati" 13-APR-2005 03:09:34.59 To: IN%"applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: Distance learning B.C.? Hello! I would like to get a B.C. in Ethology / Animal Behaviour, with particular interest on dogs, wolves and coyotes. Since I have a job in Switzerland and (as far as I know) there are no univeristies here where I can learn these subjects, I would be glad if you could suggest me universities where it is possible to arrange for distance learning or something similar. This has been my dream for a long time and I'm very motivated to pursue it. Thank you all for the information, Rachele From: IN%"Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no" "Nicholas Tyler" 14-APR-2005 04:22:30.11 To: IN%"wrstrick@umd.edu" "Ray Stricklin", IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: RE: Nighttime feeding Dear Ray, Thank you for your message. Your observation that cattle display a bout of eating activity around solar midnight, the duration of which is proportional to the duration of darkness, perfectly matches our observations in free-living reindeer at 70 deg. N, at least during the nine months of the year when the animals experience dark nights. Do you know of any review which substantiates your remark that most (all?) ungulates display a strong tendency toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior ? I don't doubt it: I would just like to have a reference to cite. Yours sincerely, Nicholas Tyler -----Original Message----- From: Ray Stricklin [mailto:wrstrick@umd.edu] Sent: 12. april 2005 15:04 To: Nicholas Tyler; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding Domestic cattle eat during the night - both on pasture and in the feedlot. Cattle of course do show the traditional and strong tendency of most (all?) ungulates toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior . But in cattle, there is an additional third and smaller spike in eating activity that occurs at solar midnight. The longer the night (darkness) period, which of course is max at winter solstice, the greater the solar midnight eating activity. This greater eating activity during longer periods of darkness most likely is due to the greater times elapsed between the two major periods of eating that occur at dusk and dawn. And this greater increase in eating during the night seems to be true even at the "extreme" low temperatures observed in Saskatchewan, which can reach below -40 degrees. Some references on cattle eating patterns: Stricklin, W.R., L.L. Wilson and H.B. Graves. 1976. Feeding behavior of Angus and Charolais-Angus cows during summer and winter. Journal of Animal Science. 43:721-732. Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1981. Eating behavior of beef cattle groups fed from a single stall or trough. Applied Animal Ethology. 7:123-133 Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1984. Diurnal behavior patterns of feedlot bulls during winter and spring in northern latitudes. Journal of Animal Science. 58:1075-1083. Regards to all, Ray Stricklin -----Original Message----- From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] Sent: Tuesday, April 12, 2005 7:04 AM To: Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: Nighttime feeding Good afternoon. Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"pdezabu1@dancris.com" "pduezabou" 14-APR-2005 07:13:11.48 To: IN%"Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no" "Nicholas Tyler", IN%"wrstrick@umd.edu" "Ray Stricklin", IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: RE: Nighttime feeding MessageHere's a brief hypothesis from human psychology text: "Generally, predators and others that are safe when they sleep tend to sleep a great deal; animals in danger of being attacked while they sleep spend less time asleep" (p. 359). Kalat, J. W. (1992). Biological Psychology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Kalat references supporting papers from the 70s and 80s. I can send these along if you think they'd be helpful. Margaret A. (Peggy) Shunick (Duezabou) BA, BA, MS (Tufts Center for Animals & Public Policy), ABD ----- Original Message ----- From: Nicholas Tyler To: Ray Stricklin ; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Sent: Thursday, April 14, 2005 4:22 AM Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding Dear Ray, Thank you for your message. Your observation that cattle display a bout of eating activity around solar midnight, the duration of which is proportional to the duration of darkness, perfectly matches our observations in free-living reindeer at 70 deg. N, at least during the nine months of the year when the animals experience dark nights. Do you know of any review which substantiates your remark that most (all?) ungulates display a strong tendency toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior ? I don't doubt it: I would just like to have a reference to cite. Yours sincerely, Nicholas Tyler -----Original Message----- From: Ray Stricklin [mailto:wrstrick@umd.edu] Sent: 12. april 2005 15:04 To: Nicholas Tyler; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding Domestic cattle eat during the night - both on pasture and in the feedlot. Cattle of course do show the traditional and strong tendency of most (all?) ungulates toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior . But in cattle, there is an additional third and smaller spike in eating activity that occurs at solar midnight. The longer the night (darkness) period, which of course is max at winter solstice, the greater the solar midnight eating activity. This greater eating activity during longer periods of darkness most likely is due to the greater times elapsed between the two major periods of eating that occur at dusk and dawn. And this greater increase in eating during the night seems to be true even at the "extreme" low temperatures observed in Saskatchewan, which can reach below -40 degrees. Some references on cattle eating patterns: Stricklin, W.R., L.L. Wilson and H.B. Graves. 1976. Feeding behavior of Angus and Charolais-Angus cows during summer and winter. Journal of Animal Science. 43:721-732. Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1981. Eating behavior of beef cattle groups fed from a single stall or trough. Applied Animal Ethology. 7:123-133 Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1984. Diurnal behavior patterns of feedlot bulls during winter and spring in northern latitudes. Journal of Animal Science. 58:1075-1083. Regards to all, Ray Stricklin -----Original Message----- From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] Sent: Tuesday, April 12, 2005 7:04 AM To: Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: Nighttime feeding Good afternoon. Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"wrstrick@umd.edu" "Ray Stricklin" 14-APR-2005 09:40:43.81 To: IN%"Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no" "Nicholas Tyler", IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" CC: Subj: RE: Nighttime feeding MessageNicholas, My comment suggesting that possibly all ungulates are crepuscular dates back to discussion in my PhD defense of 1975 - and my dissertation included the paper listed below on feeding behavior of beef cows during winter and summer. One member of my defense committee was a wildlife researcher who asked questions related to the possibility that the crepuscular pattern of intake in domestic cattle and other ruminants (and maybe most other ungulates) evolved as a strategy wherein the prey species could forage at the time of day that is most difficult for eye adaptation to have occurred for the predator species. Because the amount of light is changing more dramatically (quickly) at dusk and dawn than at any other time of the day, especially when the variation across days is considered because of fog, clouds, etc., the evolution of the predators' eyes could possibly never reach a combination of rods and cones, etc. that was optimized for vision under these conditions. Thus, it should be advantageous for a prey species to evolve a foraging strategy that includes the greatest amount of activity at the times of dusk and dawn. This of course should be true for all prey animals - not just ungulates. But maybe more of the ungulate species evolved foraging and digestive systems "designed" to gather large quantities of food under twilight conditions and then move to a more protected location and digest the food; and this type of rapid ingestion at dusk and dawn followed by mastication, etc. seems to especially fit the ruminant species. And I do not know of a reference to the effect that "most, or all, ungulates are crepuscular," but if one exists you may possibly increase your chances of finding it by searching with "predation" or related words. Incidentally, in the summer of 2000, I was on Norway's remarkably beautiful Lofton Islands which of course are above the Artic Circle and just south of Tromso. While traveling there, I thought that it would be rather interesting to have year-round data on the foraging patterns of the sheep and cattle that live in this somewhat temperate climate that also has such dramatic differences in the amount of light per day. And I would expect that their foraging patterns - under "free living" conditions - would be very similar to the patterns of your reindeer. Best regards, Ray Stricklin University of Maryland -----Original Message----- From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] Sent: Thursday, April 14, 2005 6:22 AM To: Ray Stricklin; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding Dear Ray, Thank you for your message. Your observation that cattle display a bout of eating activity around solar midnight, the duration of which is proportional to the duration of darkness, perfectly matches our observations in free-living reindeer at 70 deg. N, at least during the nine months of the year when the animals experience dark nights. Do you know of any review which substantiates your remark that most (all?) ungulates display a strong tendency toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior ? I don't doubt it: I would just like to have a reference to cite. Yours sincerely, Nicholas Tyler -----Original Message----- From: Ray Stricklin [mailto:wrstrick@umd.edu] Sent: 12. april 2005 15:04 To: Nicholas Tyler; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding Domestic cattle eat during the night - both on pasture and in the feedlot. Cattle of course do show the traditional and strong tendency of most (all?) ungulates toward a crepuscular pattern of foraging behavior . But in cattle, there is an additional third and smaller spike in eating activity that occurs at solar midnight. The longer the night (darkness) period, which of course is max at winter solstice, the greater the solar midnight eating activity. This greater eating activity during longer periods of darkness most likely is due to the greater times elapsed between the two major periods of eating that occur at dusk and dawn. And this greater increase in eating during the night seems to be true even at the "extreme" low temperatures observed in Saskatchewan, which can reach below -40 degrees. Some references on cattle eating patterns: Stricklin, W.R., L.L. Wilson and H.B. Graves. 1976. Feeding behavior of Angus and Charolais-Angus cows during summer and winter. Journal of Animal Science. 43:721-732. Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1981. Eating behavior of beef cattle groups fed from a single stall or trough. Applied Animal Ethology. 7:123-133 Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1984. Diurnal behavior patterns of feedlot bulls during winter and spring in northern latitudes. Journal of Animal Science. 58:1075-1083. Regards to all, Ray Stricklin -----Original Message----- From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] Sent: Tuesday, April 12, 2005 7:04 AM To: Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca Subject: Nighttime feeding Good afternoon. Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) Nicholas Tyler Dr. Nicholas Tyler c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 fax + 47 77 64 63 33 mobile phone + 47 90 57 72 98 web http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/ From: IN%"simon@gadbois.org" "Simon Gadbois" 14-APR-2005 10:24:19.55 To: IN%"Applied-ethology@sask.usask.ca" "Applied Ethology List" CC: Subj: RE: Nighttime feeding Hi, What is interesting about this, is that all three carnivore species I=20 study or studied (wolves, coyotes and red foxes) are considered=20 crepuscular. Here in Canada, dusk and dawn are clearly the high points=20= of activity for both captive and wild canids. S. Gadbois --- Simon Gadbois, Ph.D. Psychology / Neuroscience Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Comparative ethology and behavioural ecotoxicology. Wolves, coyotes, red foxes and Fundulids (killifish). http://www.gadbois.org/ Office: Life Sciences Centre #5219; 494-6809. Office hours: Monday 3 to 5 or by appointment. --- On 14-Apr-05, at 12:40 PM, Ray Stricklin wrote: > Nicholas, > =A0 > My comment suggesting that possibly all ungulates are crepuscular=20 > dates back to discussion in=A0my PhD defense of 1975 - and my=20 > dissertation included the paper listed below on feeding behavior of=20 > beef cows during winter and summer.=A0 One member of=A0my=20 > defense=A0committee was a wildlife researcher who asked questions=20 > related to the possibility that the crepuscular pattern of intake in=20= > domestic cattle and other ruminants (and maybe most other ungulates)=20= > evolved as a strategy wherein the prey species could=A0forage at=A0the=20= > time=A0of day that is most difficult for eye=A0adaptation to have = occurred=20 > for=A0the=A0predator species.=A0 Because the amount of light is = changing=20 > more dramatically (quickly) at dusk and dawn than at any other time of=20= > the day, especially when the variation across days is considered=20 > because of fog, clouds, etc., the evolution of the predators' eyes=20 > could possibly never reach a combination of rods=A0and cones, etc. = that=20 > was=A0optimized for vision under these conditions.=A0=A0Thus, it = should=A0be=20 > advantageous for a prey species to evolve a foraging strategy that=20 > includes the greatest amount of activity at the times of dusk and=20 > dawn. This of course should be true for all prey animals - not just=20 > ungulates.=A0 But maybe more of the ungulate species=A0evolved = foraging=20 > and digestive systems=A0"designed" to=A0gather large quantities of=20 > food=A0under twilight conditions=A0and then move to a more protected=20= > location and digest the food; and this type of rapid ingestion at dusk=20= > and dawn followed by mastication, etc. seems to=A0especially fit=20 > the=A0ruminant species. > =A0 > And I do not know of a reference=A0to the effect that=A0"most, or all,=20= > ungulates are crepuscular," but if one exists you may possibly=20 > increase your chances of finding it by searching with "predation" or=20= > related words. > =A0 > Incidentally,=A0in the summer of 2000, I=A0was on=A0Norway's = remarkably=20 > beautiful=A0Lofton Islands=A0which of course are above the Artic = Circle=20 > and just south of Tromso.=A0 While traveling there,=A0I thought = that=A0it=20 > would be rather interesting to have year-round=A0data on=A0the = foraging=20 > patterns of the sheep and cattle that live in this somewhat temperate=20= > climate=A0that also has=A0such dramatic differences=A0in the amount of=20= > light=A0per day.=A0 And I would expect that their foraging patterns -=20= > under "free living" conditions - would be very similar to the patterns=20= > of your reindeer. > =A0 > Best regards, > =A0 > Ray Stricklin > University of Maryland > -----Original Message----- > From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] > Sent: Thursday, April 14, 2005 6:22 AM > To: Ray Stricklin; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca > Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding > > Dear Ray, > =A0 > Thank you for your message.=A0 Your observation that=A0cattle display = a=20 > bout of eating activity=A0around solar midnight, the duration of which=20= > is proportional to the duration of darkness, perfectly matches our=20 > observations in free-living reindeer at 70 deg. N, at least during the=20= > nine months of the year when the animals experience dark nights.=A0=A0 > =A0 > Do you know of any review which substantiates your remark that=A0most=20= > (all?) ungulates=A0display a strong tendency toward a crepuscular=20 > pattern=A0of foraging behavior=A0?=A0=A0 I don't doubt it: I would = just like=20 > to have a reference to cite. > =A0 > Yours sincerely, > =A0 > Nicholas Tyler > =A0 > =A0 > =A0-----Original Message----- > From: Ray Stricklin [mailto:wrstrick@umd.edu] > Sent: 12. april 2005 15:04 > To: Nicholas Tyler; Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca > Subject: RE: Nighttime feeding > > > > Domestic cattle eat during the night -=A0both on pasture and in the=20 > feedlot.=A0 Cattle=A0of course do show the traditional=A0and strong = tendency=20 > of most (all?) ungulates toward a crepuscular pattern=A0of foraging=20 > behavior=A0. But in cattle, there is an additional=A0third and smaller=20= > spike in eating activity that=A0occurs at solar midnight.=A0 The = longer=20 > the night (darkness)=A0period, which of course is max at=A0winter=20 > solstice, the greater the solar midnight eating activity.=A0 This=20 > greater eating activity during longer periods of darkness most likely=20= > is due to the greater times elapsed between the two major periods of=20= > eating that occur at dusk and dawn.=A0 And this greater increase in=20 > eating during the night=A0seems to be true even at the "extreme" low=20= > temperatures observed in Saskatchewan, which can reach below -40=20 > degrees.=A0 Some references on cattle eating patterns: > > =A0 > > Stricklin, W.R., L.L. Wilson and H.B. Graves.=A0 1976.=A0 Feeding = behavior=20 > of Angus and Charolais-Angus cows during summer and winter.=A0 Journal=20= > of Animal Science. 43:721-732. > > Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin.=A0 1981.=A0 Eating behavior of beef=20= > cattle groups fed from a single stall or trough.=A0 Applied Animal=20 > Ethology. 7:123-133 > > > Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1984. Diurnal behavior patterns of=20 > feedlot bulls during winter and spring in northern latitudes.=A0 = Journal=20 > of Animal Science. 58:1075-1083. > > =A0 > > Regards to all, > > =A0 > > Ray Stricklin > =A0 > =A0 > =A0-----Original Message----- > From: Nicholas Tyler [mailto:Nicholas.Tyler@ib.uit.no] > Sent: Tuesday, April 12, 2005 7:04 AM > To: Applied-ethology@skyway.usask.ca > Subject: Nighttime feeding > > > > Good afternoon. > Can anyone tell me whether there grounds for a general statement that=20= > temperate species of ungulates usually forage little, if at all, at=20 > night? (And by 'night' I mean darkness) > > Nicholas Tyler > > Dr. Nicholas Tyler > c/o Department of Biology, University of Tromso, > N-9037 Tromso, Norway > > tel. (direct) + 47 77 64 47 88 > fax=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0 + 47 77 64 63 33 > mobile phone=A0 + 47 90 57 72 98 > web=A0=A0=A0=A0 =A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0=A0 http://www.ib.uit.no/~nicholas/