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Normal Hematology and Serum Chemistry Values for White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)


Murray Woodbury DVM, MSc.

Specialized Livestock Research and Development Program
Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences
Western College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Saskatchewn
Saskatoon,Saskatchewan    S7N 5B4

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ISIS Values


The values reported below are International Species Inventory System (ISIS) Data Reference values. ISIS information can be viewed at: http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/Endangered/esII.html

Up to 84 samples, taken from 59 individuals at 15 zoos were used for the WTD blood values. Values reported are the mean + one standard deviation. It is widely accepted that cervid hematological values can vary according to sex, age, time of year, geographic location, nutritional status and method of restraint used to obtain the sample. Some of these factors no doubt interact to give highly variable results.

 

WBC (x 109/L)

3.64 + 1.68

Total Protein (g/L)

57 + 11

Differential

 

Albumin (g/L)

31 +4

segs (x 109/L)

2.14 + 1.58

Globulins (g/L)

31 + 8

bands (x 109/L)

0.06 + 0.05

A/G ratio

 

eosinophils (x 109/L)

.24 + 0.26

Fibrinogen (g/L)

1.5 + 2.12

basophils (x 109/L)

0.05 + 0.03

Prot./Fibrinogen ratio

 

lymphocytes (x 109/L)

1.14 + 0.66

Sodium (mmol/L)

145 + 4.0

monocytes (x 109/L)

0.16 + 0.16

Potassium (mmol/L)

4.4 + 1.2

 

 

Chloride (mmol/L)

100 + 7.0

RBC (x 1012/L)

11.20 + 4.39

Bicarbonate (mmol/L)

17.0 + 0 (n=1)

Hemoglobin (g/L)

189 +201

Copper (µmol/L)

 

Hematocrit (L/L)

38.8 + 9.1

Calcium (mmol/L)

2.23 + 0.35

MCV (fL)

41.8 + 15.2

Phosphorus (mmol/L)

2.84 + 1.0

MCH (pg)

19.2 + 20.4

Magnesium (mmol/L)

1.02 + 0.40

MCHC (g/L)

452 + 435

Urea (mmol/L)

10.71 + 14.28

 

 

Creatinine (µmol/L)

141 + 53

Platelets (x 109/L)

319 + 112

Glucose (mmol/L)

7.65 + 3.14

 

 

Total Bilirubin (µmol/L)

17 + 10

 

 

GGT (U/L)

104 + 60

 

 

CK (U/L)

954 + 1369

 

 

AST (U/L)

195 + 147

 

 

LDH

853 + 443

 

 

ALT

50 + 32

 

 

Alkaline phosphatase (U/L)

266 + 460



       Values from Seal et al. (1981)

Seal US, Verme LJ, Ozoga JJ. 1981. Physiologic Values In: Diseases and Parasites of White-tailed Deer. William Davidson ed. Misc. Publication No. 7, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Fla. Pp 19-34.


Values for deer 1 year and older

Presented in Table 3.3 are general range values for numerous blood assays in white-tailed deer. These values are provided by the authors from their clinical experience and/or overview of the literature. Because of the many sources of variation in blood studies, the information in Table 3.3 can serve only as a guideline and the reader is again forewarned that reference values from the deer population in question are needed before valid conclusions can be made. Seal et al 1981


Table 3.3  Ranges for reference values of blood assays for undrugged white-tailed deer one year and older.


WBC (x 109/L)

1.0 - 4.2

Total Protein (g/dL)

5.0 - 7.8

Differential

 

Albumin (g/dL)

2.5 - 4.2

segs (x 109/L)

0.6 - 2.8

Gamma globulins (g/dL)

4.0 - 1.0

bands (x 109/L)

 

A/G ratio

 

eosinophils (x 109/L)

<0.1

Fibrinogen (mg/dL)

170 - 300

basophils (x 109/L)

<0.01

Prot./Fibrinogen ratio

 

lymphocytes (x 109/L)

0.6 - 1.8

Sodium (meql/L)

132 - 156

monocytes (x 109/L)

<0.01

Potassium (meql/L)

3.4 - 5.0

 

 

Chloride (meql/L)

100 - 110

RBC (x 106/µl)

10.0 - 16.7

Bicarbonate (meql/L)

12 - 24

Hemoglobin (g/dL)

14.5 - 22.5

Copper (µmol/L)

 

Hematocrit (vol%)

39 - 58

Calcium (mg/dL)

8.8 - 10.8

MCV (fL)

28 - 38

Phosphorus (mg/dL)

4.5 - 8.5

MCH (pg)

7 - 15

Magnesium

 

MCHC (g/dL)

34 - 40

Urea (mg/dL)

15 - 45

 

 

Creatinine (mg/dL)

0.4 - 2.0

Platelets (x 109/L)

 

Glucose (mg/dL)

60 - 320

 

 

Total Bilirubin (mg/dL)

0.1 - 1.0

 

 

GGT (IU)

40 - 100

 

 

CK (IU)

20 - 400

 

 

AST (SGOT) (IU)

40 - 150

 

 

LDH (IU)

100 - 300

 

 

ALT (SGPT) (IU)

20 - 150

 


Values for deer 6 mos and younger


Table 3.2  Hematology and serum protein data on captive 6 month old white tailed deer fawns from Missouri and Michigan.Considering that these studies span more than 10 years and three laboratories, there is remarkably close agreement of the values. Seal et al 1981


 

Tumbleson et al1

Mean + S.D.

Johnson et al2

Mean + S.D.

Seal et al3

Mean + S.D.

RBC (x 106/µl)

19.0 + 1.8

19.1 + 0.4

18.9 + 0.1

Hematocrit (vol%)

52.5 + 3.1

51.1 + 0.6

52.6 + 0.6

Hemoglobin (g/dL)

18.5 + 1.2

19.4 + 0.2

18.8 + 0.5

MCV (fL)

27.6 + 2.6

27.3 + 0.5

28.4 + 4.6

MCHC (g/dL)

35.2 + 2.8

37.9 + 0.2

35.4 + 0.7

MCH (pg)

9.8 + 1.3

10.3 + 0.2

10.0 + 0.3

WBC (x 103/µL)

4.1 + 1.3

 

3.2 + 0.2

Total Protein (g/dL)

7.8 + 0.4

 

5.7 + 0.1

Albumin (g/dL)

2.7 + 0.3

 

3.7 + 0.1

 

1. Tumbleson ME, Cuneio JD, Murphy DA. 1970 Serum biochemical and hematological parameters of captive white-tailed deer fawns. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 24: 66-71.

 2. Johnson HE, Youatt WG, Fay LD, Harte HD, Ullrey DE. 1968. Hematological values of Michigan white-tailed deer. Journal of Mammology 49: 749-754.

 3. Seal US, Verme LJ, Ozoga JJ. 1978. Dietary protein and energy effects on deer fawn metabolic patterns. Journal of Wildlife Management 42: 776-790.