DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

 

hd24a.jpg (52783 bytes)

hd54.jpg (23800 bytes)
Heartwater is diagnosed by making brain smears and finding the causative agent in capillary endothelial cells.

The differential diagnosis in the early stages when pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, and petechial hemorrhages are prominent includes heartwater (at least in white-tailed deer), anthrax, sepsis, pasteurellosis, clostridial enterotoxemia, primarily in captive animals, and adenovirus infection in deer.

 

hd37a.jpg (53663 bytes)

When erosions and ulcers are present HD must be differentiated from vesicular stomatitis, bovine virus diarrhea, malignant catarrhal fever, foot and mouth disease, riderpest and peste des petits.

 

hd37a.jpg (53663 bytes)

Severe ruminal ulceration could be confused with severe lactic acidosis.

 

hd34a.jpg (46008 bytes)

Severe gastrointestinal hemorrahge could be confused with heavy metal toxisos.

 

hd48a.jpg (40171 bytes)

Secondary bacterial pneumonia can make the diagnosis of HD difficult.

 

hd12b.jpg (29871 bytes)

In pronghorn where CNS signs may be prominent, polioencephalomalacia and other diseases of the nervous system would need to be included in the differential diagnosis.

Go to Quiz
Back to HD Menu