University of Saskatchewan

Western College of Veterinary Medicine

Mutwiri, George

Adjunct Professor
Veterinary Microbiology
Office Location: Room A136, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO)
Phone: 306-966-1511 or 306-966-1527


Academic Credentials

Teaching and Clinical Areas

Research Interests


Booth J, Jimbo S, Mutwiri G. 2011. "Novel Bregs down-regulate TLR9-induced cytokine responses in sheep Peyer’s patches." Veterinary Immunology and Immunpathology. (in press).

Mutwiri GK. 2011. "Immune mechanisms and therapeutic potential of TLR agonists in domestic animals." Veterinary Immunology and Immunpathology. (in press).

Mutwiri G, Gerdts V, van Drunen Little-van den Hurk S, Auray G, Garlapati S, Babiuk LA, Potter A. 2011. "Combination adjuvants: The next generation of adjuvants?" Expert Review of Vaccine. 10: 95-107. 

Garlapati S, Eng N, Wilson H, Buchanan R, Mutwiri G, Babiuk LA, Gerdts V. 2011. "PCPP microparticles encapsulating ovalbumin and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are potent enhancers of antigen-specific Th1 immune responses in mice." Vaccine. 28(52): 8306-14.

Griebel P, Mutwiri G, Singh B. 2011. "Innate immunity: complex specificity." Cell and Tissue Research. 343: 1-4.

Booth J, Jimbo S, Mutwiri G. 2011. "Modulation of B cell responses by Toll-like receptors." Cell and Tissue Research. 343: 131-140.

Masic A, Lu X, Li J, Mutwiri G, Babiuk LA, Brown EG, Zhou Y. 2010. "Immunogenocity and protective efficiacy of an elastase-dependent live attenuated swine influenza virus vaccinated intranassaly in pigs." Vaccine. 28(43): 7098-108.

Nichani AK, Dar AM, Mirakhur KK, Krieg AM, Booth J, Townsend H, Potter A, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. 2010. "Subcutaneous, but not intratracheal administration of the TLR9 agonist, CpG DNA transiently reduces parainfluenza virus 3 shedding in newborn lambs." Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 33(6): 111-7.

Eng N, Garlapati S, Gerdts V, Mutwiri G. 2010. "PCEP enhances IgA mucosal responses in mice following different immunization routes with influenza antigens." J Immun Based Ther Vaccines. 8:4.

Booth J, Arsenault R, Napper S, Griebel P, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. 2010. "Inactivation of TLR9 pathway renders Peyer’s patch regulatory B cells unresponsive to TLR9 agonists CpG ODN." Journal of Innate Immunity. 2(5): 483-94.

Shim DH, Ko HJ, Gerdts V, Potter AA, Mutwiri G, Babiuk LA, Kweon MN. 2010. "Efficacy of poly[di(sodium carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] (PCPP) as mucosal adjuvant to induce protective immunity against respiratory pathogens." Vaccine. 28(11): 2311-17.

Booth J, Buza J, Potter A, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. 2010. "TLR7/8 agonists down-regulate CpG-induced responses in ovine B cells." Developmental and Comparative Immunology. 34(5): 572-8.

Dar A, Nichani A, Lai K, Potter A, Gerdts V, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. 2010. "All three classes of CpG ODNs up-regulate IP-10 gene in pigs." Research in Veterinary Science. 88(2): 242-50.

Eng N, Garlapati S, Gerdts V, Potter A, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. 2010. "The potential of polyphosphazenes for delivery of vaccine antigens and immunotherapeutic agents." Current Drug Delivery. 7: 13-20.

Andrianov A, Decollibus D, Gillis H, Kha H, Marin A, Prausnitz M, Babiuk L, Townsend H, Mutwiri GK. 2009. "Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] is a potent adjuvant for intradermal immunization." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, US. 106(45): 18936-41.

Eng N, Garlapati S, Lai K, Gerdts V, Mutwiri GK. 2009. "Polyphosphazenes enhance mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice immunized intranasally with influenza antigens." The Open Vaccine Journal. 2: 134-143.

Masic A, Zhou Y, Booth J, Mutwiri GK, Babiuk LA, Zhou Y. 2009. "Elastase-dependant live attenuated swine influenza A viruses are immunogenic and confer protection to swine influenza infection in pigs." Journal of Virology. 83: 10198-210.

Brownlie R, Zhu J, Allan B, Mutwiri GK, Babiuk LA, Potter A, Griebel P. 2009. "Chicken TLR21 acts as a functional homologue to mammalian TLR9 in the recognition of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides." Molecular Immunology. 46: 3163-70.

Dar A, Potter A, Tikoo S, Gerdts V, Lai K, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. 2009. "CpG-ODN activate innate immune responses that suppresses infectious bronchitis virus replication in chicken embryos." Avian Diseases. 53: 261-67.

Booth J, Griebel P, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. 2009. "A novel regulatory B cell population in sheep Peyer’s patches spontaneously secretes IL-10 and down-regulates TLR9-induced IFN-α responses." Mucosal Immunology 2: 265-76.

Dar A., Allan B, Gomis S, Potter A, Mutwiri GK. 2009. "Immunotherapeutic potential of CpG oligonucleotides in chickens." The Journal of Poultry Science. 46: 69-80.

Griebel P, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK, Armstrong J, Gaertner F. 2009. "Amended recombinant cells (ARCsTM) expressing bovine IFNγ: An economical and highly effective adjuvant system." Vaccine. 27: 1377-85.

Garlapati S, Facci M, Polewicz M, Strom S, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK, Hancock RE, Elliot M, Gerdts V. 2009. "Strategies to link innate and adaptive immunity when designing vaccine adjuvants." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 128: 184-91.

Mutwiri GK, van den Hurk S, Babiuk LA. 2009. "Approaches to enhancing the immune responses stimulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides." Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 61: 226-32.

Zhu J, Brownlie R, Liu Q, Babiuk LA, Potter A, Mutwiri GK. 2009. "Characterization of bovine Toll-like receptor 8: ligand specificity, signaling essential sites and dimerization." Molecular Immunology. 46: 978-90.

Zhu J, van den Hurk S, Brownlie R, Babiuk LA, Potter A, Mutwiri GK. 2009. "Multiple molecular regions confer intracellular ER localization of bovine Toll-like receptor 8." Molecular Immunology. 46: 884-92.

Taghavi A, Allan B, Mutwiri GK, Foldvari M, Van Kessel A, Willson P, Babiuk LA, Potter A, Gomis S. 2009. "Enhancement of immunoprotective effects of CpG-ODN by formulation with polyphosphazenes against E. coli septicaemia in neonatal chickens." Current Drug Delivery. 6: 76-82.