Botrychium campestre W.H. Wagner & Farrar
Species Image Gallery
(opens in a new window)
Family: Ophioglossaceae
Genus: Botrychium
Species Synonyms: none
Common Names: prairie dunewort
Iowa moonwort
plains grapefern
Canada: southern Alberta – southern Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan: southern Saskatchewan; Fox Valley – Beechy
Ecoregion: Mixed Grassland
Saskatchewan: stabilized sand dune meadows and above prairie sloughs
Associated Species: autumn dwarf gentian, blue-eyed grass, Dudley’s rush, june grass, mat muhly, saltgrass, small leaf everlasting, tufted hairgrass
Provincial Status According
to Harms (2003):
Nature Conservancy Status:
G3 N1 S1
Saskatchewan Species at
Risk Status:
Prairie dunewort is endangered in Saskatchewan because it is extremely rare and is limited to one region of the province. The populations are almost always locally sparse. Possible threats have been identified for this species.
Height: < 20 cm
Stalks: basal sheaths enclosing bud
Fronds: solitary, sterile and fertile blades arising from a common stalk; sterile blade sessile, to 4 cm long, to 1.3 cm wide, oblong, folded longitudinally, pinnate, fleshy, with a bluish tinge; pinnae of sterile blade in up to 5 pairs, spreading, remote, may be webbing on central axis, basal pinnae equal in size to second pair, at least proximal pair fan-shaped to spoon-shaped, venation fan-like, midrib absent, margins round or square-toothed; fertile blades 1 – 1.5 times longer than sterile blade, pinnate
Sporangia: borne laterally on branches, round
Spores: small, yellow
1 Sterile blades 5 – 25 cm long, triangular, 2 – 4 times pinnately compound; fertile blades may be absent; plants over 12 cm tall
1 Sterile blades 2 – 5 cm long or absent, oblong to linear or triangular, simple to pinnate or pinnatifed; fertile blades always present; plants less than 15 cm tall
2 Sterile blades thin; sheaths on common stalk open; fertile blades, when present, arising from high ;on common stalk; common stalk usually longer than 10 cm, hairless
B. virginianum
2 Sterile blades herbaceous or thick to leathery; sheaths on common stalk closed; fertile blades, when present, arising from the basal portion of the common stalk; common stalk less than 8 cm long, somewhat hairy
B. multifidum
3 Sterile blades linear to oblong, simple to lobed; plants in deep shade under shrubs and trees
B. simplex
3 Sterile blades linear to triangular, pinnate or absent; plants usually in exposed sites
4 Distance between first and second pinnae greater than that between second and third pairs
B. simplex
4 Distance between first and second pinnae equal to or slightly more than between second and third pairs or sterile blade absent
5 Sterile blades present, basal pinnae fan-shaped to spoon-shaped, midrib absent
5 Sterile may be replaced by fertile blade, basal pinnae inversely lanceolate to linear to oval, midrib present
6 Sterile blades oval to triangular
B. simplex
6 Sterile blades oblong to lance-shaped
7 Sterile blades thick and leathery, dark greyish-green to yellowish; basal pinnae broadly fan-shaped
B. lunaria
7 Sterile blades thin (except B. campestre), dark to light green or yellowish; basal pinnae narrowly fan-shaped or wedge-shaped to linear
8 Sterile blades folded longitudinally, up to 5 pairs of pinnae; plants of prairies or meadows
B. campestre
8 Sterile blades flat or folded only at the base, up to 10 pairs of pinnae; plants of woodlands
B. minganense
9 Sterile blade replaced by fertile blade, resulting in two fertile blades
B. paradoxum
9 Sterile blade present, distinct from fertile blade
10 Sterile blades subsessile, blades triangular; fertile blades divided equally several times, about equal to 2.5 times longer than sterile blades
B. lanceolatum
10 Sterile blades oval to oblong or triangular; fertile blades with one main axis, 2 - 4 times longer than sterile blades
11 Sterile blade long-stalked, stalk equal to length of blade; few spore sacs may be present on the basal pinnae of sterile blade
B. pedunculosum
11 Sterile blade sessile to short-stalked, stalk less than ¼ length of blade; spore sacs never present on basal pinnae of sterile blade
B. hesperium