Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus (Gillett & Senn) A. Löve
Species Image Gallery
(opens in a new window)
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Elymus
Species Synonyms: Agropyron psammophilum Gillett & Senn
Agropyron dasystachyum var. psammophilum (Gillett & Senn) E.G. Voss
Agropyron dasystachyum ssp. psammophilum (Gillett & Senn) D.R. Dewey
Common Names: sand-dune wheatgrass
streambank wheatgrass
Canada: central Saskatchewan – southwestern Manitoba, southern Ontario
Saskatchewan: southern Saskatchewan; Saskatoon – Elbow Sand Hills – Corning
Ecoregion: Moist Grassland, Moist Mixed Grassland, Aspen Parkland
Saskatchewan: active sand dune blowouts
Associated species: Achnatherum hymenoides, Calamovilfa longifolia, Psoralidium lanceolatum, Sporobolus cryptandrus
Provincial Status According
to Harms (2003):
Nature Conservancy Status:
G5T3 T2
Saskatchewan Species at
Risk Status:
Vulnerable (DD)
Elymus lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus is threatened because it is rare in Saskatchewan and is limited to sandy environments in the southern part of the province. Most local populations are small. Possible threats have been identified but more information is needed on this species.
Height: 40 – 110 cm
Roots: rhizomes long, creeping
Stems: perennial, erect, hollow, glaucous
Leaves: 5 – 25 cm long, 1 – 4 mm wide, scabrous or pilose to glabrous, usually involute; sheaths usually finely strigose; ligules 0.1 – 0.6 mm long; auricles often present and conspicuous
Inflorescence: spikes compact, 3 – 25 cm long; rachis pubescent below the spikelet
Spikelets: spikelets 1 per node, loosely to closely imbricate, 4 – 7-flowered
Florets: glumes 4 – 8 mm long, unequal, broadest above the middle, apex acute to acuminate, conspicuously 5-nerved, pubescent to glabrous, margin scarious; lemmas 6.5 – 10 mm long, densely villous, may be awned; palea to 11 mm long, as long as lemma
Fruits: caryopsis
1 Spikelets 2 or 3 at each rachis node, 1 – 6-flowered; lemmas obscurely 5-nerved
1 Spikelets solitary at each rachis node, each spikelet with at least 2 florets; lemmas 5 – 7-nerved
2 Glumes, if present, setaceous, divided to base into 2 divergent awns; spike rachis readily disarticulating; plants mostly 10 – 50 cm tall
E. elymoides ssp. elymoides
2 Glumes setaceous or not; spike rachis not readily disarticulating; plants mostly taller than 50 cm
3 Glume margins membranous, not nerved; lemmas glabrous to scabrous
E. glaucus ssp. glaucus
3 Glume margins thickened, hard, and nerved; lemmas densely pubescent
4 Glumes setaceous, reduced, or absent, usually < 6 mm long (excluding awn) and 0.5 mm wide
E. diversiglumis
4 Glumes linear, usually at least 1 cm long (excluding awn) and 1 – 2 mm wide
5 Glumes shorter than lemma body; lemma awns divergent at maturity; base of glume flattened
5 Glumes equal to or longer than lemma body; lemma awns straight at maturity; base of glume terete or bowed
6 Leaves firm, adaxially glabrous or scabrous; spikes arching; palea to 1.1 cm long
E. canadensis var. canadensis
6 Leaves thin, adaxially pilose; spike pendulous; palea to 1.5 cm long
E. canadensis var. wiegandii
7 Glumes and lemmas long-awned (to 1.5 cm)
E. virginicus var. virginicus
7 Glumes and lemmas mucronate to short-awned (< 2 mm)
E. virginicus var. submuticus
8 Rhizomes short or absent; florets disarticulating above the glumes; anthers 1.5 – 2 mm long
8 Rhizomes long and creeping; florets disarticulating below the glumes; anthers 3 – 7 mm long
9 Awns equal to or longer than lemma
E. trachycaulus ssp. subsecundus
9 Awns absent or much shorter than lemma
E. trachycaulus ssp. trachycaulus
10 Leaves flat, 4 – 8 mm wide, green; lemmas glabrous or nearly so
E. repens
10 Leaves involute, 1 – 3 mm wide, glaucous; lemmas usually pubescent
11 Glumes 2 – 3-nerved; lemmas long-awned
E. albicans
11 Glumes 3 – 5-nerved; lemmas awnless
12 Spikes to 25 cm long; rachis pubescent below spikelets; glumes conspicuously 5-nerved; lemmas densely villous
E. lanceolatus ssp. psammophilus
12 Spikes to 15 cm long; rachis glabrous below spikelets; glumes 3-nerved, only the midvein conspicuous; lemmas glabrous or villous
13 Lemmas glabrous or scabrous
E. lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus var. riparium
13 Lemmas villous
E. lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus var. lanceolatus
*Elymus hybrids occur naturally in Saskatchewan. E. X maltei (E. canadensis x E.virginicus ) and E. X pseudorepens (E. trachycaulus x E. lanceolatus) are examples.