Polygonum punctatum var. confertiflorum (Meisn.) Fassett
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Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Polygonum
Species Synonyms: Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small
Persicaria punctata var. leptostachya (Meisn.) Small
Polygonum punctatum var. leptostachyum (Meisn.) Small
Polygonum punctatum var. parvum Victorin & Rouss.
Common Names: dotted smartweed
Canada: southern British Columbia, central Saskatchewan – Manitoba – Ontario – Quebec – New Brunswick – Nova Scotia
Saskatchewan: central Saskatchewan; Buffalo Narrows – Ile-a-la-Crosse – Lac la Ronge – Jan Lake – Amisk Lake
Ecoregion: Mid-Boreal Upland, Churchill River Upland
Saskatchewan: wet, marshy or gravelly shores, forests, bogs or wet fens
Associated Species: Pinus banksiana, Picea glauca
Provincial Status According
to Harms (2003):
Nature Conservancy Status:
G5T5 S1
Saskatchewan Species at
Risk Status:
Polygonum polygaloides ssp. confertiflorum is threatened because of rarity in Saskatchewan. Possible threats have been identified for this species.
Height: 15 – 120 cm
Roots: often arising from proximal nodes; rhizomes often present
Stem: annual or perennial, ascending to erect, simple or branched, glabrous, punctate-glandular
Leaves: petiole 0.1 – 1 cm long, punctate-glandular; blade 4 – 10 cm long, 6 – 24 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, face glabrous or scabrous, punctate-glandular, margin strigose; ocrea 9 – 18 mm long, chartaceous, base inflated, brown, punctate-glandular
Inflorescence: usually terminal, erect, interrupted, to 10 cm long, flowers 2 – 6 per ocreole; peduncle 3 – 6 cm long, glabrous, punctate-glandular; ocreoleae not usually overlapping
Flowers: tepals 5, 3.5 – 5 mm long, connate, greenish proximally, whitish distally, punctate-glandular; stamens 6 – 8, included, anthers pink or red
Fruits: achene brownish-black
1 Flowers solitary or in small axillary clusters or open racemes; leaves jointed at the base with the petiole, small; outer tepals may be keeled; ocrea often hyaline, 2-lobed
1 Flowers in spicate racemes; leaves not jointed at the base with the petiole, large; outer tepals may be winged or unwinged, but not keeled (except in P. cilinode and P. convolvulus); ocrea chartaceous
2 Inflorescence compact
2 Inflorescence a slender, open raceme
3 Achenes black, smooth and shiny; tepals rounded
P. spergulariiforme
3 Achenes yellowish to dark brown, not shiny; tepals pointed
4 Bracts definitely white-margined; stems to 20 cm tall
P. polygaloides var. confertiflorum
4 Bracts only slightly white-margined, if at all; stems less than 20 cm
P. polygaloides var. kelloggii
5 Flowers on reflexed pedicels
P. douglasii ssp. douglasii
5 Flowers ascending or spreading
6 Achenes shiny; leaves linear to lanceolate
P. ramosissimum
6 Achenes dull; leaves oval
7 Perianth bottle-shaped, outer tepal hooded
P. achoreum
7 Perianth not constricted below the apex, outer tepal not hooded
8 Leaves on the branches the same size as the ones attached directly to the stem; calyx with greenish-white or pink margins
P. arenastrum (= P. aviculare ssp. depressum)
8 Leaves on the branches much smaller than the ones attached directly to the stem; calyx with white, pink or purple margins
P. aviculare
9 Stems slender and twining; leaves broad, base hastate
9 Stems not twining; leaves linear to lanceolate, base not hastate
10 Ocrea with a ring of bristles
P. cilinode (= Fallopia cilinodes)
10 Ocrea lacking bristles
11 Fruiting calyx to 5 mm long, wings small; plants annual
P. convolvulus var. convolvulus (= Fallopia convolvulus)
11 Fruiting calyx to 1.5 cm long, wings broad; plants perennial
P. scandens var. scandens (= Fallopia scandens)
12 Leaves mainly basal, cauline leaves few and reduced
P. viviparum (= Bistorta vivipara)
12 Leaves mainly cauline, well-developed
13 Ocrea with bristles at the summit
13 Ocrea without bristles
14 Rhizomes forking; perennials; ocrea expanded at the top to create a flange; spikes to 2 cm thick; perianth not glandular
P. amphibium var. stipulaceum (= Persicaria amphibia)
14 Roots fibrous; ocrea not expanded at the top; spikes slender, less than 2 cm thick; perianth glandular
P. punctatum var. confertiflorum (= Persicaria punctata)
15 Annuals, terrestrial; roots fibrous; spikes terminal and axillary, numerous
P. lapathifolium var. lapathifolium (= Persicaria lapathifolia)
15 Perennials, often aquatic; rhizomes forking; spikes terminal, solitary or paired
16 Petioles attached near base of ocrea; leaves and upper stems glabrous to sparsely strigose
P. coccineum var. coccineum (= Persicaria amphibia)
16 Petioles attached midway on ocrea; leaves and upper stems densely ashy-gray pubescent
P. coccineum var. pratincola (= Persicaria amphibia)