Paul Whitfield
eMail: paul.whitfield/ec.gc.ca (mouseover to activate link)

  • Senior Research Fellow, University of Saskatchewan
  • Emeritus Scientist, Environment Canada (retired)
  • Adjunct Professor of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University
  • Research Fellow, Centre for Hydrology, University of Saskatchewan
  • Co-Chair, Canadian National Committee on Prediction in Ungauged Basins [PUB]
  • Co-Editor, Canadian Water Resources Journal

Past:

  • Visiting Scholar, Caribbean Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology
  • Board member, Western Canadian Cryospheric Network
  • Board member, School of Environment and Sustainability, Royal Roads University

Specific areas of expertise are climatology and hydrology, and particularly the applications of statistics and modelling to

  • The analysis of environmental data
  • Climate-change
  • Transient events
  • Design and implementation of environmental monitoring programs
  • Reference networks
  • Quality assurance and quality control
  • Water quality in relation to hydrological processes
  • Acidification of surface waters
  • Hydroclimatology of Canadian landscapes

Paul is the author or co-author of more than 100 peer-reviewed articles in science journals on these topics (see list below).

He is also a member of a number of national and international organisations dealing with environmental monitoring and environmental education including,

  • International Standards Organization
  • World Meteorological Organization Commissions on Climatology and Hydrology
  • Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
  • NATO Linkage Grant Committee on Design and Redesign of Environmental Monitoring Programs

Publications:

Dierauer, J., P.H. Whitfield, and D.M. Allen. 2017. Assessing the Suitability of Hydrometric Data for Trend Analysis: The 'FlowScreen' package for R Canadian Water Resources Journal doi:10.1080/07011784.2017.1290553

Burn, D.H., and P.H. Whitfield. 2017. Changes in cold region flood regimes inferred from long record reference gauging stations. Water Resources Research doi: 10.1002/2016WR020108

Stewart, R.E., D. Betancourt, J. Davies, D. Harford, E. Joakim, Y. Klein, R. Lannigan, L. Mortsch, K. Tang, and P.H. Whitfield. 2017. A Multi-Perspective Examination of Heat Waves Affecting Metro Vancouver: Now Into the Future. Natural Hazards. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2793-7

Whitfield, P.H. and J.W. Pomeroy. 2016. Changes to flood peaks of a mountain river: implications for analysis of the 2013 flood in the Upper Bow River, Canada. Hydrological Processes 30: 4657-4673 doi:10.1002/hyp.10957

Dierauer, J., and P. Whitfield. 2016. FlowScreen: Daily Streamflow Trend and Change Point Screening. R Package.

Burn, D.H., P.H. Whitfield, and M. Sharif. 2016. Identification of changes in floods and flood regimes in Canada using a peaks over threshold approach. Hydrological Processes 30: 3303-3314. doi: 10.1002/hyp.10861. 30: 3303-3314

Middleton, M.A., D.M. Allen and P.H. Whitfield. 2016. Comparing the Groundwater Contribution in Two Groundwater-Fed Streams, Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 41: 554-571.

Burn, D.H., D. Caissie, D.L. Peters, S. Renzetti, A. St-Hilaire, and P.H. Whitfield. 2016. Preface to the Special Issue on Floods in Canada Canadian Water Resources Journal. Special Issue on Floods in Canada.41(1-2): 2-6.

Buttle, J.M. D.M. Allen, D. Caissie, B. Davison, M. Hayashi, D.L. Peters, J.W. Pomeroy, S.P. Simonovic, A. St-Hilaire, and P.H. Whitfield 2016. Flood Processes in Canada: Regional and Special Aspects. Canadian Water Resources Journal. Special Issue on Floods in Canada. 41(1-2:) 7-30.

Middleton, M.A., P.H. Whitfield, and D.M. Allen. 2015. Independent component analysis of local-scale spatial in streambed temperature. Water Resources Research 51: 9679-9695.

Pomeroy, J.W., R. Stewart, and P.H. Whitfield. 2016. The 2013 flood event in the Bow River and Oldman River basins; causes, assessment, and damages. Canadian Water Resources Journal. Special Issue on Floods in Canada.41(1-2): 105-117.

Burn, D.H. and P.H. Whitfield. 2016. Changes in Floods and Flood Processes in Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal. Special Issue on Floods in Canada. 41(1-2): 139-150.

Whitfield, P.H. 2014. Climate Station Analysis and Fitness for Purpose Assessment of 3053600 Kananaskis, Alberta. Atmosphere Ocean 52: 363-383.

Mo, R., C. Ye, and P.H. Whitfield. 2014. Some Similarity Indices and Their Application Potential in Hydrometeorology. Journal of Hydrometeorology 15: 1862-1880.

Wheler, B.A., A.H. MacDougall, G.E. Flowers, E.I. Petersen, P.H. Whitfield, and K.E. Kohfeld. 2014. Effects of temperature forcing provenance and lapse rate on the performance of an empirical glacier-melt model. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 46: 379-393.

Allen, D.M., K. Stahl, P.H. Whitfield and R.D. Moore. 2014. Trends in Groundwater levels in British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 39: 15-31.

Mo, R., P.I. Joe, C. Doyle, and P.H. Whitfield. 2014. Verification of an ENSO-based long-range prediction of anomalous weather conditions during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. Pure and Applied Geophysics 171: 323–336. DOI: 10.1007/s00024-012-0523-3.

Pomeroy, J.W., C. Spence, and P.H. Whitfield. 2013. Introduction to putting prediction in ungauged basins into practice. In: Putting Prediction in Ungauged Basins into Practice. eds. J.W. Pomeroy, P.H. Whitfield, and C. Spence. Canmore, AB. [Chapter 1 pages 1-12].

Pomeroy, J.W., X. Fang, K. Shook, and P.H. Whitfield. 2013. Predicting in ungauged basins using physical principles obtained using the deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning approach. In: Putting Prediction in Ungauged Basins into Practice. eds. J.W. Pomeroy, P.H. Whitfield, and C. Spence. Canmore, AB. [Chapter 4 pages 41-62].

Whitfield, P.H., R.D. Moore, K. Shook, C. Spence, S. Boon, R. Woods, C. de Jong, T. Link, D. Garen, J. Kiang, D.A. Hughes, I.G. Littlewood, J. McPhee, and A. Gupta. 2013. Summary and Synthesis of Workshop Breakout Group Discussions. In: Putting Prediction in Ungauged Basins into Practice. eds. J.W. Pomeroy, P.H. Whitfield, and C. Spence. Canmore, AB. [Chapter 20 pages 271-305].

Spence, C., P.H. Whitfield, J.W. Pomeroy, A. Pietroniro, D.H. Burn, D.L. Peters, and A. St. Hilaire. 2013. Commentary - A Review of the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) Decade in Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal. in press.

Russell, D.E., P.H. Whitfield, J. Cai, A. Gunn, R.G. White and K. Poole. 2013. CARMA’s MERRA-based Caribou Range Climate database. Rangifer 33: 145-152.

Whitfield, P.H. 2013. Is Center of Volume a robust indicator of changes in snowmelt timing? Hydrological Processes 27: 2691-2698.

Spence, C., P.H. Whitfield, J. Pomeroy, T.M.B.J. Ouarda, D.H. Burn, A. St-Hilaire, F. Weber, and D. Hutchinson. 2013. A Canadian viewpoint on Data, Information and Uncertainty in the Context of Prediction in Ungauged Basis (PUB). Hydrology Research 44: 419-429.

Whitfield, P.H. 2012. Floods in Future Climates: A Review. 2012. Journal of Flood Risk Management. 5: 336-365. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-318X.2012.01150.

MacCulloch, G. and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Towards a Stream Classification System for the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 311-332. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-905.

Ghahramani, M., H. Zheng, P.H. Whitfield, and C.B. Dean. 2012. Statistical Modelling of Temporary Streams in Canadian Prairie Provinces. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 373-389. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-912.

Boon, S., H.J. van Meerveld, E.H. Huxter, D.L. Peters, C. Spence, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Introduction to Special Issue: Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) Workshop on Temporary Streams. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 275-278. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-906.

Peters, D.L., Boon, S., E.H. Huxter, C. Spence, H.J. van Meerveld, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Zero Flow: A PUB (Prediction in Ungauged Basins) Workshop on Temporary Streams – Summary of Workshop Discussions and Future Directions. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 425-431. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-904

Whitfield, P.H., D.H. Burn, J. Hannaford, H. Higgins, G.A. Hodgkins, T. Marsh, and U. Looser. 2012. Hydrologic Reference Networks I. The Status of National Reference Hydrologic Networks for Detecting Trends and Future Directions. Hydrological Sciences Journal 57: 1562-1579.

Burn, D.H., J. Hannaford, G.A. Hodgkins, P.H. Whitfield, R. Thorne, and T.J. Marsh. 2012. Hydrologic Reference Networks II. Using Reference Hydrologic Networks to assess climate driven changes in streamflow. Hydrological Sciences Journal 57: 1580-1593.

Mo, R., P.I. Joe, C. Doyle, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Verification of an ENSO-based long-range prediction of anomalous weather conditions during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. Pure and Applied Geophysics. DOI: 10.1007/s00024-012-0523-3

Whitfield ,P.H. 2012. Floods in Future Climates: A Review. Journal of Flood Risk Management. 5: 336-365. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-318X.2012.01150.x

Thomson, R.E., R.J. Beamish, T.D. Beacham, Marc Trudel, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Anomalous ocean conditions may explain the recent extreme variability in Fraser River sockeye salmon production. Marine and Coastal Fisheries 4(1): 415-437.

Buttle, J.M., S. Boon, D.L. Peters, C. Spence, H.J. Tromp-van Meerveld, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. An overview of temporary stream hydrology in Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 279-310. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2011-903.

MacCulloch, G. and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Towards a Stream Classification System for the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 311-332. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-905.

Ghahramani, M., H. Zheng, P.H. Whitfield, and C.B. Dean. 2012. Statistical Modelling of Temporary Streams in Canadian Prairie Provinces. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 373-389. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-912.

Boon, S., H.J. van Meerveld, E.H. Huxter, D.L. Peters, C. Spence, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Introduction to Special Issue: Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) Workshop on Temporary Streams. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 275-278. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-906.

Peters, D.L., Boon, S., E.H. Huxter, C. Spence, H.J. van Meerveld, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. Zero Flow: A PUB (Prediction in Ungauged Basins) Workshop on Temporary Streams – Summary of Workshop Discussions and Future Directions. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(4): 425-431. doi: 10.4296/cwrj2012-904

Howie, S.A., P.H. Whitfield, R.J. Hebda, and H.J. van Meerveld. 2012. Raised bogs laggs in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Hydrology, hydrochemistry, and vegetation at the mire margin. International Peat Conference, 2012. 6pp.

Whitfield, P.H., 2012. Why the provenance of data matters: Assessing “Fitness for Purpose” for Environmental Data. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(1):23-36.

Moore, R.D., A.S. Hamilton, and P.H. Whitfield. 2012. North American Stream Hydrographers [NASH] Special Issue. Canadian Water Resources Journal 37(1):1-2.

Whitfield, P.H., and C. Spence, 2011. Estimates of Canadian Pacific Coast Runoff from Observed Streamflow Data. Journal of Hydrology accepted – in press.

Burn D.H., R. Mansour, K. Zhang, and P.H. Whitfield. 2011. Trends and Variability in Extreme Rainfall Events in British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 36(1): 67-82.

Allen, D.M., P.H. Whitfield, and A. Werner. 2010. Groundwater Level Responses in Mountainous Terrain: Regime Classification, and Linkages to Climate and Streamflow. Hydrological Processes 24: 3392-3412

Fleming, S.W. and P.H. Whitfield. 2010. Exploratory spatiotemporal mapping of ENSO and PDO surface meteorological signals in British Columbia, Yukon, and southeast Alaska. Atmosphere-Ocean. 48: 122-131.

Clark, M.J.R., D.D. MacDonald, P.H. Whitfield and M.P.Wong. 2010. A Framework for Designing Water Quality Monitoring Studies Based on Experience in Canada: II. Characterization of problems and data-quality objectives. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 29(5): 385-398

Whitfield, P.H., R.D. Moore, S.W. Fleming, and A. Zawadski. 2010. Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Hydroclimate in Western Canada - Review and Prospects. Canadian Water Resources Journal 35(1):1-28.

Whitfield, P.H., G. van der Kamp, and A. St-Hilaire. 2009. Introduction to Peatlands Special Issue: Improving Hydrological Prediction in Canadian Peatlands. Canadian Water Resources Journal 34(4) 303-310

Howie, S.A., P.H. Whitfield, R. J. Hebda, T. G. Munson, R. A. Dakin, and J. K. Jeglum. 2009. Water Table and Vegetation Response to Ditch Blocking: Restoration of a Raised Bog in Southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 34(4) 381-392

Howie, S.A., P.H. Whitfield, R. J. Hebda, R. A. Dakin, and J. K. Jeglum. 2009. Can Analysis of Historic Lagg Forms Be of Use in the Restoration of Highly Altered Raised Bogs? Examples from Burns Bog, British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 34(4) 427-440

Whitfield, P.H., André St-Hilaire, and Garth van der Kamp. 2009. Improving Hydrological Predictions in Peatlands. Canadian Water Resources Journal 34(4) 467-478

Pei, H., A. Cannon, P. Whitfield, and L. Hao. 2009. Pentad average temperature changes of Inner Mongolia during recent 40 years. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science 20:443-450

Déry, S. J., K. Stahl, R. D. Moore, P. H. Whitfield, B. Menounos, and J. E. Burford (2009), Correction to Detection of runoff timing changes in pluvial, nival, and glacial rivers of western Canada, Water Resources Research 45, W06701, doi:10.1029/2009WR008244.

Toews, M. W., D. M. Allen, and P. H. Whitfield. 2009. Recharge Sensitivity to Local and Regional Precipitation in the Southern Okanagan Basin, British Columbia. Water Resources Research 45: W06404, doi:10.1029/2007WR006763

Déry, S.J., K. Stahl, R. D. Moore, P. H. Whitfield, B. Menounos, and Jason E. Burford. Detection of runoff timing changes in pluvial, nival and glacial rivers of western Canada. Water Resources Research 45.W04426, doi:10.1029/2008WR006975, 2009.

Spence, C., S. Hamilton, P.H. Whitfield, M. Demuth, D. Harvey, D. Hutchinson, B. Davison, T.B.M.J. Ouarda, J.G. Deveau, H. Goertz, J.W. Pomeroy, and P. Marsh.2009. A Framework for Integrated Research and Monitoring (FIRM). Canadian Water Resources Journal. 34(1)1-6.

MacDonald, D.D., M.J.R. Clark, P.H. Whitfield and M.P. Wong. 2009. A Framework for Designing Water Quality Monitoring Studies Based on Experience in Canada: Part 1-Theory and Framework. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 28:204-213.

Moore, R.D., D.S. Spittlehouse, P.H. Whitfield, and K. Stahl. 2008. Chapter 3 - Weather and Climate [Draft]. In Compendium of Forest Hydrology and Geomorphology in British Columbia [In Prep.]. R.G. Pike et al. (editors). B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range Research Branch, Victoria, B.C. and FORREX Forest Research Extension Partnership, Kamloops, B.C. Land Management Handbook (TBD). www

Crout, N., T. Kokkonen, A.J. Jakeman, J.P. Norton, R. Anderson, H. Assaf, B.W.F. Croke, N. Gaber, J. Gibbons, D. Holzworth, J. Mysiak, J. Reichl, R. Seppelt, T. Wagener, P.H. Whitfield. 2009. Chapter 2: Good Modelling Practice. In: Jakeman, A.J., Voinov, A.A., Rizzoli, A.E. and Chen, S.H. (eds) Environmental Modelling, Software and Decision Support 3:15-31.

Spence, C., P.H. Whitfield, and T.B.M.J. Ouarda. 2008. Introduction to the special issue on low flow prediction in ungauged basins (Pub) in Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 33(2): 103-105

Whitfield, P.H. 2008. Improving the Prediction of Low Flows in Ungauged Basins in Canada in the Future. Canadian Water Resources Journal 33(2):207-213.

Howie, S.A., T.G. Munson, R.J. Hebda, J.K. Jeglum, P.H. Whitfield, and R.A.Dakin. 2008.Restoration of Burns Bog, Delta, British Columbia, Canada. Proceedings of the 2008 In: C. Farrell and J. Feehan [ed.] Proceedings of the 13th International Peat Congress. After Wise Use - The Future of Peatlands. Volume 1.Tullamore Ireland. 8-13 June 2008 51-55.

Howie, S.A., P.H. Whitfield, R.J. Hebda, J.K. Jeglum, and R.A. Dakin. 2008. Lagg forms and raised bog restoration, Burns Bog, British Columbia. In: W. Rannie [ed.] Proceedings of the 2008 CWRA National Conference -Managing the Health of Canada's Lakes and Rivers. Gimli, Manitoba.17-19 June 2008. 28pp.

Howie, S.A., T.G. Munson, R.J. Hebda, J.K. Jeglum, P.H. Whitfield, and R.A.Dakin. 2008. Restoration of Burns Bog, Delta, British Columbia, Canada. In: W. Rannie [ed.] Proceedings of the 2008 CWRA National Conference -Managing the Health of Canada's Lakes and Rivers. Gimli, Manitoba. 17-19 June 2008. 30pp.

Walker, I.J. and R. Sydneysmith. 2008. British Columbia; in From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate. Edited by D.S. Lemmen, F.J. Warren, J. Lacroix, and E.Bush. Government of Canada, Ottawa, Ottawa. Pp 329-386. [Contributing author]

Scibek, J., D.M. Allen, and P.H. Whitfield 2008 Quantifying the Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater in an Unconfined Aquifer that is Strongly Influenced by Surface Water. In: W. Dragoni (ed), Groundwater and Climatic Change, Geological Society London. 288:79-98.

Hamilton, A.S., and P.H. Whitfield. 2008. Invited Commentary: Coupling science and monitoring to meet growing information needs. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 33(1):1-3.

Fleming, S.W., P.H. Whitfield, R.D. Moore, and E. J. Quilty. 2007. Regime-dependent streamflow sensitivities to Pacific climate modes across the Georgia-Puget transboundary ecoregion. Hydrologic Processes. 21:3264-3287.

Song, L., A.J. Cannon, and P.H. Whitfield. 2007. Changes in seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation in China during 1971-2000. Advances in Atmospheric Research. 24(3):459-473

Toews, M.W., P.H. Whitfield and D.M. Allen. 2007. Seasonal Statistics: the seas package for R. Computers and Geosciences 33:944-951.

Groisman, P.Y., B. G. Sherstyukov and V. N. Razuvaev, R. W. Knight, J. G. Enloe, N. S. Stroumentova, P.H. Whitfield, E. Førland, I. Hannsen-Bauer, H. Tuomenvirta, H. Aleksandersson, A. V. Mescherskaya and T. R. Karl. 2007. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century. Global and Planetary Change 56:371-386

Scibek, J., Allen, D.M., Cannon, A. and P.H. Whitfield. 2007. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction Under Scenarios of Climate Change Using a High-Resolution Transient Groundwater Model. Journal of Hydrology 333:165-181.

Whitfield, P.H. 2007. Book Review: W.Brutsaert Hydrology - An Introduction. Canadian Water Resources Journal 32(2):161-162

Hutchinson, D., P.H. Whitfield, and P. Allamano. 2006. Transferability of conceptual model parameters in mountainous rainfall-driven catchments. CWRA Conference October 2006.

Whitfield, P.H., R.J. Hebda, J.K. Jeglum, and S. Howie. 2006. Restoring the Natural Hydrology of Burns Bog, Delta, British Columbia - The Key to the Bog's Ecological Recovery. Conference October 2006.

Whitfield, P.H., J. Cathcart, S. Hamilton, J. Heinonen, D. Hutchinson, J.G. Lang, C. Spence, and R. White. 2006. Guest Editorial: Hydrology for the orographically challenged - A commentary from the workshop on predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB) in mountainous regions. Canadian Water Resources Journal 31(2):iii-v

Fleming, S.W., and P.H. Whitfield. 2006. Surface meteorological signals in BC and Yukon associated with Pacific ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns. CWRA Conference October 2006.

Allamano, P., D. Hutchinson, and Whitfield, P.H. 2006. Preliminary Indications of the transferability of IHACRES model parameters in mountainous rainfall driven rivers. In: Proceedings of iEMS 2006. 4pp.

Wang, J.Y., P.H. Whitfield, and A.J. Cannon, 2006. Influence of Pacific Climate Patterns on Low-Flows in British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal 31:25-40

Whitfield, P.H., and M. Hendrata. 2006. Assessing detectability of changes in low flows in future climates from stage discharge measurements. Canadian Water Resource Journal 31:1-12

Toews, M.W., P.H. Whitfield, and D.M. Allen 2006. Sensitiviety of spatially modelled recharge to climate change in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. In Proceedings of Canadian Geotechnical Society - International Association of Hydrogeologists Joint Conference, Sea-to-Sky, October 1-4, 2006.

Hall, A.W., P.H. Whitfield, and A.J. Cannon. 2006. Recent Variations in Temperature, Precipitation, and Streamflow in the Rio Grande and Pecos River Basins of New Mexico and Colorado. In: Conservation and Management of Aquatic Resources in Arid Lands. Reviews in Fisheries Science 14:51-78

Whitfield, P.H., and D.E. Russell. 2005. Recent Changes in Seasonal Variations of Climate within the Range of Northern Caribou Populations. Rangifer 16:11-18..

Toews, M.W., P.H. Whitfield, and D.M. Allen. 2005. Modelling the effect of regional and local precipitation events on groundwater recharge. In: GSA 2005 Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City.

McBean, G. A., G. Alekseev, D. Chen, E. Førland, J. Fyfe, P.Y. Groisman, R. King, H. Melling, R. Vose and P.H. Whitfield. 2004. The Arctic Climate: - Past and Present. In: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Conference. Reykjavik. 9-12 November 2004.

Scibek, J., D.M. Allen, P.H. Whitfield, and M. Wei. 2004. Linking Climate, Hydrology and Groundwater in High-Resolution Transient Groundwater Flow Models: a Case Study For a Climate Change Impacts Assessment in Grand Forks, BC. American Geophysical Union, Spring Meeting 2004, abstract #H23E-04

Groisman, P.Y. R.W. Knight, D. R. Easterling, D. Levinson, R.R. Heim, Jr., T.R. Karl, P.H. Whitfield, G.C. Hegerl, V.N. Razuvaev, B. G. Sherstyukov. 2005. Changes In Precipitation Distribution Spectra And Contemporary Warming of The Extratropics: Implications For Intense Rainfall, Droughts, And Potential Forest Fire Danger. 16th Symposium on Global Change and Climate Variations, 9-13 January, 2005, San Diego, California

McBean, G.A., G. Alekseev; E. Førland; J. Fyfe; P.Y. Groisman; R. King; H. Melling; M.Serreze; P.H. Whitfield; I. Hansen-Bauer; D. Chen; K. Holmen; T. Thorsteinnsson; R. Vose. 2004. CHAPTER 2: ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM AND ITS GLOBAL ROLE In: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. November 2004.

Groisman, P.Y., R.W. Knight,D. H. Levinson, R. R. Heim, Jr., D. R. Easterling, and T. R. Karl, P.H. Whitfield, G. C. Hegerl, V. N. Razuvaev and B. G. Sherstyukov. 2004. Changes In Precipitation Distribution Spectra And Contemporary Warming of The Extratropics: Implications For Intense Rainfall, Droughts, And Potential Forest Fire Danger. Workshop on Trends in Global Water Cycle Variables to Support IPCC, Paris 3-5 November 2004

Whitfield, P.H., 2004. Recent and future climate driven variations in low flows in South Central British Columbia. In: Webb. B. et al. [edt] Hydrology: Science and Practice for the 21st Century. July 12-16, 2004. British Hydrology Society. 73-80.

Groisman, P.Y.,R.W. Knight, D.R. Easterling, D.H. Levinson, R.R. Heim, T. R. Karl, P.H. Whitfield, G.C. Hegerl, V.N. Razuvaev, B.G. Sherstyukov, E. Førland, H. Tuomenvirta, H. Aleksandersson, J.G. Enloe and N.S. Stroumentova. 2004. Changes In Precipitation Distribution Spectra And Contemporary Warming of The Extratropics: Implications For Intense Rainfall, Droughts, And Potential Forest Fire Danger. IGWCO/ GEWEX/UNESCO Workshop on Global Trends in Water Cycle Variables and Their Relevance for IPCC Science Assessments. November 3-5, 2004, Paris, France

Groisman, P.Y. R.W. Knight, R.R. Heim Jr.,V.N. Razuvaev and B.G. Sherstyukov,N.A. Speranskaya and K.V. Tsytsenko,P.H. Whitfield, H. Tuomenvirta, E.Førland, and H. Alexandersson. 2004. Changes in Climate, Potential Forest Fire Danger, And Land Use In High Latitudes of The Northern Hemisphere. AGU Annual Meeting, Montreal May 17-21 2004.

Whitfield, P.H., 2004. Recent and future climate driven variations in low flows in South Central British Columbia. In: Proceeding of the 57th Canadian Water Resources Congress. Water and Climate Change: Knowledge for better adaptation. June 16-18, 2004. 6p.

Whitfield, P.H., P. J. Pilon, D. H. Burn, V. Arora, H. F. Lins, T. Ouarda, D. Sellars, and C. Spence. 2003. Chapter 11 - Water Availability and Climate Variability and Change - Rivers and Streams. In: Threats to Water Availability in Canada. Pp 85-90

Whitfield, P.H., A. Hall, and A.J. Cannon. 2003. Changes in the Seasonal Cycle in the Circumpolar Arctic - 1976-1995: Temperature and Precipitation. Arctic 57(1):80-93.

Whitfield, P.H. 2003. Modelling Future Streamflow in Mountainous Terrain - Georgia Basin, British Columbia. In: Singh, V.P., and N.R. Yadava [edt.] Advances in Hydrology. Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment (WE-2003). Bhopal. India. Pgs 133-158.

Whitfield, P.H., J.Y. Wang, and A.J. Cannon. 2003. Modelling Future Streamflow Extremes - Floods and Low Flows in Georgia Basin, British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 28[4]:633-656.

Whitfield, P.H., D. Fraser, and S.J. Cohen. 2003.Climate Change Impacts on Water in Georgia Basin / Puget Sound - Special Issue Canadian Water Resources Journal 28[4]:523-530

Groisman, P. Ya., E.G. Bogdanova, B. M. Ilyin, P.H. Whitfield, E. Førland, V. N. Razuvaev, B. Sun, and R. Vose. 2003. Contemporary climate changes in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere: bias-corrected precipitation and variables of economic, social and ecological interest based upon daily temperatures and precipitation. ACSYS Conference.

Groisman, P.Ya., B. Sun, R. S. Vose, J. H. Lawrimore, P.H. Whitfield, E. Førland, I. Hanssen-Bauer, M. C. Serreze, V. N. Razuvaev, and G. V. Alekseev, 2003: Contemporary climate changes in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere: Daily time resolution. CD ROM with Proceedings of the Annual AMS Meeting, Long Beach, California, 9-13 February, 2003, 10 pp.

Whitfield, P.H., Environmental Monitoring Time Scales: from Transient Events to Long-Term Trends. 2003. In: Harmancioglu, N [edt] Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop On Integrated Technologies For Environmental Monitoring And Information Production. EST.ARW 977883 Marmaris, Turkey September 10-14, 2001. pp 75-90.

Groisman, P. Y., R. W. Knight, R. R. Heim, V. N. Razuvaev, B. G. Sherstyukov, N. A. Speranskaya, P.H. Whitfield, H. Tuomenvirta, and H. Alexandersson. 2003. Changes In Climate, Potential Forest Fire Danger, And Land Use In High Latitudes of The Northern Hemisphere. 12th Boreal Forest Research Association International Conference, 3-7 May 2004, Fairbanks, Alaska

Whitfield, P.H., J.Y. Wang, A.J. Cannon, and C.J. Reynolds. 2003. Modelling Hydrologic Conditions in Present and Future Climates - Changes to Georgia Basin Low Flows. CWRA Conference Proceedings

Whitfield, P.H., A. J Cannon, J.Y Wang, C.J Reynolds. 2003 Modelling Streamflows In Present And Future Climates -- Examples From Rainfall/Snowmelt Streams In Coastal British Columbia. Hydrological Science and Technology 19:41-56.

Groisman, P.Ya., B. Sun, R. S. Vose, J. H. Lawrimore, P.H. Whitfield, E. Førland, I. Hanssen-Bauer, M. C. Serreze, V. N. Razuvaev, and G. V. Alekseev, 2003: Contemporary climate changes in high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere: Daily time resolution. WMO/TD - 1172, [WMO Proc. of the International Symposium on Climate Change, Beijing, China ,31 March-3 April, 2003], World Meteorol. Organ. Publ. # 1172, 51-55.

Whitfield, P.H., A. Hall, and A.J. Cannon. 2003. Recent climatic and hydrologic variations in the Rio Grande and Pecos Valleys. Report for the Office of the Natural Resources Trustee, State of New Mexico.

Kirkwood, K.H. and P.H. Whitfield. 2003. Partnering with Youth Groups on Meteorological and Environmental Education Issues. AMS Conference Proceedings.

Whitfield, P.H., A. J Cannon, J.Y Wang, C.J Reynolds. 2003 Modelling Hydrologic Conditions In Present And Future Climates - Model Performance For Recent Conditions In Coastal British Columbia. AMS Conference Proceedings.

Whitfield, P.H., C.J. Reynolds, and A.J. Cannon. 2002. Modelling Streamflows in Present and Future Climates -- Examples from Georgia Basin, British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 27(4):427-456.

Whitfield, P.H., K. Bodtker, and A.J. Cannon. 2002. Recent Variations In Seasonality of Temperature and Precipitation in Canada, 1976-1995. International Journal of Climatology 22:1617-1644.

Cannon, A.J., P.H. Whitfield, and E.R. Lord. 2002. Synoptic map-pattern classification using recursive partitioning and principle component analysis. Monthly Weather Review 130:1187-1206

Cannon, A.J., P.H. Whitfield and E.R. Lord. 2002. Automated, supervised synoptic map-pattern classification using recursive partitioning trees. American Meteorological Society 2002. JP1.7 7 pp.

Cannon, A.J., and P.H. Whitfield. 2002. Downscaling recent streamflow conditions in British Columbia, Canada using ensemble neural network models. Journal of Hydrology 259:136-151.

Whitfield, P.H., and M.J.R. Clark. 2001. Force Analysis as a Strategy to Target Key Environmental Information. Environmental Management 28:75-85

Quilty, E.J., and P.H. Whitfield. 2001. Assessing continuous water quality data from Wolf Creek, Yukon Territory. Changing Water Environments: Research and Practice. CWRA May 2001 pg WQ-11-19.

Clark, M.J.R., and P.H. Whitfield. 2001. The Water Management Shuffle - Three steps forward, two steps back. Changing Water Environments: Research and Practice. CWRA May 2001 pg PL-1-9

Cannon, A., and P.H. Whitfield. 2001. Effects of watershed and process scales on empirical downscaling models for streamflow in British Columbia and Yukon. Changing Water Environments: Research and Practice. CWRA May 2001 pgs CS-8-16.

Wade, N.L., J. Martin, and P.H. Whitfield. 2001. Hydrologic and Climatic Zonation of Georgia Basin, British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal 26:43-70. Whitfield, P. H., 2001. Linked Hydrologic and Climate Variations in British Columbia and Yukon. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 67:217-238.

Cannon, A., and P.H. Whitfield. 2001. Modeling transient pH depressions in coastal streams of British Columbia using neural networks. Journal of American Water Resources Association. 37:73-89

Whitfield, P.H., and A. Cannon. 2000. Recent Variations in Climate and Hydrology of British Columbia and Yukon. International Hydrological Programme. Contributions to IHP-V by Canadian Experts. Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 33. UNESCO Paris. Pp 1-21.

Whitfield, P.H., and A.J. Cannon. 2000. Recent climate moderated shifts in Yukon Hydrology. In: Proceedings of American Water Resources Association Annual Conference, Anchorage Alaska. 257-262.

Whitfield, P.H., and A. Cannon. 2000. Recent Variations in Climate and Hydrology in Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal 25:19-65

Whitfield, P.H., and A.J. Cannon. 2000. Polar Plotting of Seasonal Hydrologic and Climatic Data. Northwest Science. 74:76-80.

Leith, R.M., and P.H. Whitfield, 2000. Some Effects on Streamflow records of Urbanization in a Small Watershed in the Lower Fraser Valley, B.C. Northwest Science 74:69-75.

Cannon, A.J., and P.H. Whitfield. 1999. Modelling transient pH depressions in coastal watersheds of BC using neural networks . In: Confronting Uncertainty: Managing Change in Water Resources and the Environment. Pages 50-57.

Whitfield, P.H., M.J.R. Clark and A. Cannon. 1999. Signals and Noise in Environmental Data - characterization of non-random uncertainty in environmental monitoring. In: V.P. Singh, I.W. Soo, and J.H. Sonu [ed] Environmental Modeling: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water, Environment, Ecology, Socio-Economics, and Health Engineering (WEESHE) pp 86-96.

Leith, R.M., and P.H. Whitfield. 1998. Evidence of Climate Change Effects On the Hydrology of Streams In South-Central B.C. Canadian Water Resources Journal 23:219-230

Sherstone, D., W.G. Whitley, W. Slater, and P.H. Whitfield. 1998. A Synoptic Study of Water Quality of The Bonnet Plume River - Implications for a Management Plan. In: Y. Alila [ed] Mountains to Sea: Human Interaction with the Hydrologic Cycle. Proceedings of 51st Annual Canadian Water Resources Conference. pp 404-410.

Whitfield, P.H., and E. Taylor. 1998. Apparent Recent Changes in Hydrology and Climate of Coastal British Columbia. In: Y. Alila [ed] Mountains to Sea: Human Interaction with the Hydrologic Cycle. Proceedings of 51st Annual Canadian Water Resources Conference. pp 22-29.

Whitfield, P.H., 1998. Reporting Scale and the Information content of hydrometric records. Northwest Science 72:42-51.

Taylor, E and P.H. Whitfield. 1998. Projecting River Flow in Coastal British Columbia Using a Climate Change Analogue. Norwich Conference.

Whitfield, P.H., and A. Covic. 1998. Memory and the Statistical Independence of Events in Rainfall and Runoff. Canadian Water Resources Journal 23:21-29.

Clark, M.J.R. and P.H. Whitfield. 1997. Surface Water Monitoring with a Canadian Flavour. Paper presented at Meeting of the Assessment of Water Quality Monitoring Networks-Design and Redesign Project, Budapest, Hungary. August 17-21, 1997. NATO International Scientific Exchange Programmes Linkage Grant #950779.

Whitfield, P.H. and M.J.R. Clark. 1997. Force Analysis as a Strategy to Target Key Environmental Information. Paper presented at Meeting of the Assessment of Water Quality Monitoring Networks-Design and Redesign Project, Budapest, Hungary. August 17-21, 1997. NATO International Scientific Exchange Programmes Linkage Grant #950779.

Cloutier, J., P.H. Whitfield, M. Sullivan, B. Taylor, and E. Taylor. 1997. Potential Impacts of Climatic Change On The Streamflow of Kanaka Creek. Internal Report.

Dohan, K., and P.H. Whitfield. 1997. Identification and Characterization of Water Quality Transients Using Wavelet Analysis. I. Wavelet Analysis Methodology. Water Science and Technology 36:325-335

Whitfield, P.H., and K. Dohan. 1997. Identification and Characterization of Water Quality Transients Using Wavelet Analysis. II. Applications to Electronic Water Quality Data. Water Science and Technology 36: 337-348

Whitfield, P.H., 1997. Designing And Redesigning Environmental Monitoring Programs From An Ecosystem Perspective. In: Harmanciolgu, N.B., et al. Integrated Approach to Environmental Data Management Systems. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop. Izmir Turkey, September 1996. pp 107-116.

Bhangu, I., and P.H. Whitfield, 1997. Seasonal and long-term variations in water quality of the Skeena River at Usk, British Columbia. Water Research 31:2187-2194.

Whitfield, P.H., W.G. Whitley, N.L. Wade, and R.Regnier. 1997. Controls on chemistry of Yukon streams during winter baseflow. In: Milburn D. [ed.] Proceedings of the Hydro-Ecology Workshop on the Arctic Environmental Strategy - Action on Water. Canadian Geophysical Union - Hydrology Section Annual Meeting. NHRI Symposium No. 16, pp 55-80.

Rajwani, K., and P.H. Whitfield, 1997. Variations in water quality and quantity in the Yukon River at March Lake and at Carmacks. In: Milburn D. [ed.] Proceedings of the Hydro-Ecology Workshop on the Arctic Environmental Strategy - Action on Water. Canadian Geophysical Union - Hydrology Section Annual Meeting. NHRI Symposium No. 16, pp 153-174.

Whitfield, P.H., W.G. Whitley, N.L. Wade, R. Regnier, and S. Rowntree. 1997. Ion yields during winter low flow in Yukon drainages. In: Milburn D. [ed.] Proceedings of the Hydro-Ecology Workshop on the Arctic Environmental Strategy - Action on Water. Canadian Geophysical Union - Hydrology Section Annual Meeting. NHRI Symposium No. 16, pp 235-264.

Milburn, D., B. Latham, and P.H. Whitfield. 1997. The dimensions of hydro-ecology: Report on the panel discussion on state of knowledge of northern aquatic ecosystem science and future directions. In: Milburn D. [ed.] Proceedings of the Hydro-Ecology Workshop on the Arctic Environmental Strategy - Action on Water. Canadian Geophysical Union - Hydrology Section Annual Meeting. NHRI Symposium No. 16, pp 345-350.

Whitfield, P.H., and M.J.R. Clark. 1997. Driving Forces. Water Quality International March/April 1997:20-21

Leith, R.M., and P.H. Whitfield, 1996. Intervention Modelling of Effects of Urbanization on a Small Watershed in the Lower Fraser Valley, B.C. Canadian Water Resources Journal 21:387-392.

Whitfield, P.H., and N.L. Wade. 1996. Transient Water Quality Events in British Columbia Coastal Streams. Water Science and Technology 33:151-161.

MacLeod, C. and P.H. Whitfield, 1996. Seasonal and Long-term Variations in the Columbia River at Revelstoke. Northwest Science 70:55-65

Whitfield, P.H., W.G. Whitley, and N.L. Wade. 1995. Stream Water Chemistry During Winter in the Yukon Territory. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Winter Environments of Regulated Rivers. Pgs 303-329

Whitfield, P.H. 1995. Identification and Characterization of Transient Water Quality Events using Fourier Analysis. Environment International 21:571-575

Whitfield, P.H. 1995. Book Review: Probabilistic Management of Water Resource and Hydropower Systems - M.S. Basson, R.B. Allen. G.C.S. Pegram, and J.A. van Rooyen. Water Resources Bulletin 31:332-333.

Wade, N.L., and P.H. Whitfield, 1994. Observing transient water quality events using electronic sensors. National Symposium on Water Quality. American Water Resources Association pp 105-112.

Clark, M.J.R., and P.H. Whitfield. 1994 Conflicting perspectives about detection limits and about censoring of environmental data. Water Resources Bulletin 30:1063-1079.

Whitfield, P.H., 1994. Identification and Analysis of Transient Water Quality Events. Hydrosoft 94. 7pp. In:

W.R. Blain and K.L. Katsifarakis [ed] Hydraulic Engineering Software V Vol 1: Water Resources and Distribution 293-299.

Bhangu, I., and P.H. Whitfield, 1994. Water Quality in the Greater Vancouver Water Supply Watersheds. Special Report to the Greater Vancouver Regional District. 25pp.

Dean, C.B., Esterby, S., D. Helsel, E.P. Smith, and P.H. Whitfield, 1994. The American Statistical Association Roundtable on Statistical issues in Water Quality Monitoring. Liason 8:12.

Jerome, J.H., R.P. Bukata, P.H. Whitfield, and N. Rousseau. 1994. Colours of Natural Waters. 1. Factors controlling the dominant wavelength. Northwest Science 68:43-52.

Jerome, J.H., R.P. Bukata, P.H. Whitfield, and N. Rousseau. 1994. Colours of Natural Waters. 2. Observations of spectral variations in British Columbia Rivers. Northwest Science 68:53-64.

Rowntree, S., R.M. Leith, N.L. Wade, and P.H. Whitfield. 1994. Application of RAISON to spatial interpretation of hydrologic data. In: Proceedings of GIS'94 pp 729-734.

Whitfield, P.H. 1993. Identification and Characterization of Transient Water Quality Events using Fourier Analysis. In: M. McAleer and A. Jakeman [edt] Proceedings of the International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, University of Western Australia. pg 513-518.

Whitfield, P.H., W.G. Whitley, and N.L. Wade. 1993. Chemistry of Winter Low Flows in the Yukon Territory. In: Prouse, (ed) Environmental Aspects of River Ice. pp 217-233.

Esterby, S., D. Helsel, E.P. Smith, and P.H. Whitfield. 1993. Statistical issues in Water Quality Monitoring. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association. 5pp.

Clark, M.J.R., and P.H. Whitfield. 1993. A practical model integrating quality assurance into environmental monitoring. Water Resources Bulletin 29:119-130.

Whitfield, P.H., and N.L. Wade. 1993. Quality assurance techniques for electronic data acquisition. Water Resources Bulletin 29:301-308.

Whitfield, P.H., 1993. Road salt and aquatic resources. In: Proceedings of the BC Tree Injury Committee Road Salt Workshop. 10pp.

Whitfield, P.H., N. Rousseau, and E. Michnowsky. 1993. Rainfall induced changes in chemistry of a British Columbia Coastal Stream. Northwest Science 67:1-6.

Whitfield, P.H. 1992. From transients to trends: Time Scales and Environmental Monitoring. In: G. Kite and K.D. Harvey (ed.) Using Hydrometric Data to Detect and Monitor Climate Change. pp 1-8.

Whitfield, P.H., D. Valiela, and L. Harding. 1992. Monitoring for sustainable development. In: R. Herrmann (edt), Managing Water Resources During Climate Change. American Water Resources Association. pp 339-348

Whitfield, P.H., and N.L. Wade. 1992. Monitoring transient water quality events electronically. Water Resources Bulletin 28:703-711.

Whitfield, P.H., and M.J.R. Clark. 1992. Patterns of water quality in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia. In: Science and the Management of Protected Areas. pp 391-409.

Whitfield, P.H. 1991. Book Review: Acid Rain and Acid Waters. - G. Howells. Water Resources Bulletin 27:702.

Jerome, J.H., R.P. Bukata, P.H. Whitfield and N. Rousseau. 1990. Model for spectral colour variations of British Columbia River waters. NWRI Contribution 90-168.

Valiela, D. and P.H. Whitfield. 1989. Designing site-specific water quality objectives and monitoring. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada 23:510-518.

Valiela, D. and P.H. Whitfield. 1989. Monitoring strategies to determine compliance with water quality objectives. Water Resources Bulletin 25:63-69.

Whitfield, P.H. 1988. Book Review: The Relationship between Sources and Receptors. - J.C. White (Editor). Water Resources Bulletin 24:1126-1127.

Whitfield, P.H. 1988. Goals and data collection designs for water quality monitoring. Water Resources Bulletin 24:775-780.

Kwiatkowski, R.E., B.Olding, H.Vaughan, and P.H. Whitfield. 1987. Northern Water Quality monitoring workshop observations, conclusions, recommendations. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada 22:629 640.

Whitfield, P.H., and N.E. Dalley. 1987. Rainfall Driven pH Depressions In A British Columbia Coastal Stream. In: Symposium On Monitoring, Modeling, And Mediating Water Quality pp 285 294 American Water Resources Association.

Whitfield, P.H. 1986. Spectral analysis of long term water quality records. In: A.H. El Shaarawi and R. Kwiatkowski (edt) Statistical Analysis of Water Quality Monitoring Data. Advances in Water Research volume 27. pp 388 403.

Whitfield, P.H., and B. McNaughton. 1986. Dissolved Oxygen Depressions Under Ice Cover In Two Yukon Rivers. Water Resources Research 22:1675 1679.

Whitfield, P.H., and W.G. Whitley. 1986. Water Quality Discharge Relationships In The Yukon River Basin, Canada. In: Cold Regions Hydrology Symposium. pp 149-156. American Water Resources Association.

Whitfield, P.H., and P.F. Woods. 1984. Intervention Analysis of Water Quality Records. Water Resources Bulletin 20:657 667.

Whitfield, P.H. 1984. Author's Reply to Comment by E.D. Ongley on Regionalization of Water Quality in the Upper Fraser River Basin, British Columbia. Water Research 18:1059-1060

Clair, T.A., and P.H. Whitfield. 1983. Trends In pH, Calcium, And Sulfate of Rivers In Atlantic Canada. Limnology and Oceanography 28:160 165.

Whitfield, P.H. 1983. Evaluation of Water Quality Sampling Locations On The Yukon River. Water Resources Bulletin 19:115 121.

Whitfield, P.H. 1983. Regionalization of Water Quality In The Upper Fraser River Basin, British Columbia. Water Research 17:1053 1066.

Michnowsky, E., L.M. Churchland, P.A. Thomson, and P.H. Whitfield. 1982. Changes In Extractable Metal Concentrations During Storage of Surface Water Samples Containing Sediments. Water Resources Bulletin 18:129 132.

Whitfield, P.H. 1982. Selecting A Method For Estimating Substance Loadings. Water Resources Bulletin 18:203 210

Whitfield, P.H., B. McNaughton, and W.G. Whitley. 1982. Indications of Ground Water Influences On Nutrient Transport Through Schwatka Lake, Yukon Territory. Water Resources Bulletin 18:197 202

Whitfield, P.H., and H. Schreier. 1981. Hysteresis In Relationships Between Discharge And Water Chemistry In The Fraser River Basin, British Columbia. Limnology and Oceanography 26:1179 1182

Whitfield, P.H., and J.W. McKinley. 1981. Some Factors Affecting The Determination of Particulate Carbon And Nitrogen In River Water. Water Resources Bulletin 17:381 386

Whitfield, P.H., and A.G. Lewis. 1976. Control of The Biological Availability of Trace Metals To A Calanoid Copepod In A Coastal Fjord. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 4:255 266

Lewis, A.G., P.H. Whitfield, and A. Ramnarine. 1973. The Reduction of Copper Toxicity In A Marine Copepod By Sediment Extract. Limnology And Oceanography 18:324 326

Lewis, A.G., P.H. Whitfield, and A. Ramnarine. 1972. Some Particulate And Soluble Agents Affecting The Relationship Between Metal Toxicity And Organism Survival In The Calanoid Copepod Euchaeta japonica. Marine Biology 17:215 221

 
 

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